Special Issue "Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Psychiatry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Pierre A. Geoffroy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry and Addictive Medicine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), University Hospital Bichat-Claude Bernard, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
Université de Paris, NeuroDiderot, Inserm, F-75019 Paris, France
Interests: sleep; circadian rhythms; chronobiology; psychiatry; bipolar disorder; seasonal affective disorder; depression; suicide; addiction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep and circadian rhythm alterations benefit from increasing attention in psychiatric disorders, identified as core symptoms and interesting therapeutic targets, as, for instance, in bipolar disorders, depression, suicide, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addictions. This rapidly growing field of interest has allowed one to better unravel the physiopathology of these disorders and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Indeed, international efforts are being made to identify sleep and circadian rhythm biomarkers during all phases of these disorders (prodromal, acute, and remitted phases). The identification of such biomarkers is paving the way to true precision medicine, with numerous chronotherapies and sleep interventions, such as such as bright-light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin, stimulant drugs, sleep privation, neuromodulation technics, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy.

On these grounds, this Special Issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine has the main objective to gather papers that can advance the field by better characterizing patients with psychiatric disorders thanks to sleep and circadian rhythm biomarkers, by better identifying sleep disorder comorbidities and associated clinical features, and by assessing chronotherapies and sleep interventions in these specific populations.

Original investigations, review articles, and short communications are especially welcome.

Dr. Pierre A. Geoffroy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sleep
  • circadian rhythms
  • chronobiology
  • psychiatry
  • bipolar disorder
  • seasonal affective disorder
  • depression
  • suicide
  • schizophrenia
  • addiction

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in the Morningness/Eveningness-Suicidal Ideation Relationship Depend on School Shift in Mexican Adolescents
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(20), 4681; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204681 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
The aim was to analyze the morningness/eveningness (M/E) effect on suicidal ideation through sleep and depressive symptoms mediators with school shift (i.e., morning and afternoon) as moderator. In this study, 586 Mexican adolescents, with a mean age of 16.31 ± 0.92, from a [...] Read more.
The aim was to analyze the morningness/eveningness (M/E) effect on suicidal ideation through sleep and depressive symptoms mediators with school shift (i.e., morning and afternoon) as moderator. In this study, 586 Mexican adolescents, with a mean age of 16.31 ± 0.92, from a public high school in a double-shift school system (298 from the morning shift and 288 from the afternoon shift) participated. Measurements of sleep, morningness/eveningness (circadian preference), depressive symptomology, and suicidal ideation were completed. Adolescents in the afternoon shift reported a later rise time, bedtime, greater time in bed sleep length, and less social jet lag than in the morning shift. Considering the moderated-mediated analysis, circadian preference and suicidal ideation were mediated by both depressive symptoms and school day’s sleep length in the morning shift. In the afternoon shift, no mediation effect was significant. When weekend sleep length was considered in the model, only depressive symptoms had a mediating effect between circadian preference and suicidal ideation in the morning shift; no significant mediating effect was found on the afternoon shift. The results suggest that an afternoon school schedule may act as a protective factor for the adolescent’s mental health and may represent a viable option for future interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Article
Validity and Usage of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) in a French Population of Patients with Depression, Bipolar Disorders and Controls
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091897 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 876
Abstract
The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), by Rosenthal et al. (1984), is by far the most used questionnaire to evaluate seasonal effects on mood and behavior. It includes a general seasonality score (GSS), composed of 6 items, from which cutoffs have been established [...] Read more.
The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), by Rosenthal et al. (1984), is by far the most used questionnaire to evaluate seasonal effects on mood and behavior. It includes a general seasonality score (GSS), composed of 6 items, from which cutoffs have been established to screen for seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, it has never been validated in French and associations with circadian rhythm and symptoms of depression and bipolarity remain unclear. In this study, including 165 subjects (95 controls and 70 patients with depression or bipolar disorder), we confirmed the validity of the French version of the SPAQ, with a two-factor structure (a psychological factor: energy, mood, social activity and sleep length; and a food factor: weight and appetite) and a good fit was observed by all indicators. Mood and social activity dimensions were significantly affected by seasons in the depressed/bipolar group and a stronger global seasonality score (GSS) was associated with more severe phenotypes of depression and mania. Subjects meeting SAD and subsyndromal-SAD criteria also showed a delayed circadian rhythm compared to controls. Simple tools, such as the SPAQ, can aid the identification of significant seasonal changes and have direct implications on therapeutics including the use of bright light therapy in order to enhance personalized treatments, but also to prevent adverse seasonal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Article
Prevalence of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorder in Outpatients with Schizophrenia and Its Association with Psychopathological Characteristics and Psychosocial Functioning
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071513 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 654
Abstract
The prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWD) among patients with schizophrenia is not clear. The effect of comorbid CRSWD on such patients has also not been fully evaluated yet. Outpatients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase who visited Tokyo Women’s Medical University [...] Read more.
The prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWD) among patients with schizophrenia is not clear. The effect of comorbid CRSWD on such patients has also not been fully evaluated yet. Outpatients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase who visited Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital between April 2018 and March 2019 participated in this study. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Clinical Global Impressions–Severity Illness Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) were administered, and the patient responses with and without CRSWD were compared. Of the 105 patients with schizophrenia, 19 (18.1%) had CRSWD. There were trends toward higher BPRS and lower GAF scores in the CRSWD group than in the non-CRSWD group, although these did not reach statistical significance following a false discovery rate correction. Among the BPRS subitems, the anxiety scores were significantly higher in the CRSWD group than in the non-CRSWD group (p < 0.01). CRSWD was highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. Comorbidities of CRSWD may affect psychopathological characteristics and psychosocial functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
Article
The Revised Mood Rhythm Instrument: A Large Multicultural Psychometric Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030388 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Background: Recent studies with the mood rhythm instrument (MRhI) have shown that the presence of recurrent daily peaks in specific mood symptoms are significantly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. Using a large sample collected in Brazil, Spain, and Canada, we aimed [...] Read more.
Background: Recent studies with the mood rhythm instrument (MRhI) have shown that the presence of recurrent daily peaks in specific mood symptoms are significantly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. Using a large sample collected in Brazil, Spain, and Canada, we aimed to analyze which MRhI items maintained good psychometric properties across cultures. As a secondary aim, we used network analysis to visualize the strength of the association between the MRhI items. Methods: Adults (n = 1275) between 18–60 years old from Spain (n = 458), Brazil (n = 415), and Canada (n = 401) completed the MRhI and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). Psychometric analyses followed three steps: Factor analysis, item response theory, and network analysis. Results: The factor analysis indicated the retention of three factors that grouped the MRhI items into cognitive, somatic, and affective domains. The item response theory analysis suggested the exclusion of items that displayed a significant divergence in difficulty measures between countries. Finally, the network analysis revealed a structure where sleepiness plays a central role in connecting the three domains. These psychometric analyses enabled a psychometric-based refinement of the MRhI, where the 11 items with good properties across cultures were kept in a shorter, revised MRhI version (MRhI-r). Limitations: Participants were mainly university students and, as we did not conduct a formal clinical assessment, any potential correlations (beyond the validated SRQ) cannot be ascertained. Conclusions: The MRhI-r is a novel tool to investigate self-perceived rhythmicity of mood-related symptoms and behaviors, with good psychometric properties across multiple cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Article
Disturbances of Continuous Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Account for Behavioral Difficulties in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061978 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Sleep disorders are among the most common comorbidities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and subjectively defined sleep disturbances have been related to ASD symptom severity. However, no study has investigated the differential impact of objectively measured sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders are among the most common comorbidities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and subjectively defined sleep disturbances have been related to ASD symptom severity. However, no study has investigated the differential impact of objectively measured sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances on behavioral difficulties in this population. Fifty-two children with ASD aged 3–10 years underwent assessments of sleep and circadian rest–activity rhythms objectively with actigraphy and subjectively with the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Behavioral difficulties were assessed using the ABC-C. Group comparison analyses were used to compare sleep and circadian rhythm parameters of children with higher and lower behavioral difficulties and dominance analysis to rank predictors and address multicollinearity. Children with high irritability had a shorter continuous sleep period compared to those with lower irritability (−60 min, p = 0.04), as well as those with high stereotypic behaviors compared to children with less stereotypies (−75 min, p = 0.006). Objective circadian and sleep disturbances accounted together for, respectively, 17%, 18% and 36% of the variance in social withdrawal, irritability and stereotypic behaviors. The identification of both sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances as explanatory factors for behavioral difficulties warrants their inclusion in the existing behavioral management strategies for children with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Article
Sleep in the Supine Position During Pregnancy is Associated with Fetal Cerebral Redistribution
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061773 - 07 Jun 2020
Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The supine sleep position in late pregnancy is a major risk factor for stillbirth, with a population attributable risk of 5.8% and one in four pregnant women reportedly sleeping in a supine position. Although the mechanisms linking the supine sleep position and late [...] Read more.
The supine sleep position in late pregnancy is a major risk factor for stillbirth, with a population attributable risk of 5.8% and one in four pregnant women reportedly sleeping in a supine position. Although the mechanisms linking the supine sleep position and late stillbirth remain unclear, there is evidence that it exacerbates pre-existing maternal sleep disordered breathing, which is another known risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Given that maternal sleep position is a potentially modifiable risk factor, the aim of this study was to characterize and correlate uteroplacental and fetal hemodynamics, including cardiac function, in a cohort of women with apparently uncomplicated pregnancies with their nocturnal sleep position. This was a prospective observational cohort study at an Australian tertiary obstetric hospital. Women were asked to complete a series of questions related to their sleep position in late pregnancy after 35 weeks of completed gestation. They also underwent an ultrasound assessment where Doppler indices of various fetoplacental vessels and fetal cardiac function were measured. Regional cerebral perfusion was also assessed. Pregnancy outcome data was extracted from the electronic hospital database for analysis. A total of 274 women were included in the final analysis. Of these, 78.1% (214/274) reported no supine sleep, and 21.9% (60/274) reported going to sleep in a supine position. The middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery, and vertebral artery pulsatility indices were all significantly lower in the supine sleep cohort, as was the cerebroplacental ratio. There were no significant differences in the mode or indication for delivery or in serious neonatal outcomes, including 5-min Apgar score < 7, acidosis, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between cohorts. Women in the supine cohort were more likely to have an infant with a BW > 90th centile (p = 0.04). This data demonstrates fetal brain sparing in association with the maternal supine sleep position in a low-risk population. This data contributes to the growing body of literature attempting to elucidate the etiological pathways responsible for the association of late stillbirth with the maternal supine sleep position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Review

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Review
Multi-Level Processes and Retina–Brain Pathways of Photic Regulation of Mood
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020448 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive [...] Read more.
Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive behaviors are not well understood. This review proposes two distinct retina–brain pathways of light effects on mood: (i) a suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-dependent pathway with light effect on mood via the synchronization of biological rhythms, and (ii) a SCN-independent pathway with light effects on mood through modulation of the homeostatic process of sleep, alertness and emotion regulation: (1) light directly inhibits brain areas promoting sleep such as the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), and activates numerous brain areas involved in alertness such as, monoaminergic areas, thalamic regions and hypothalamic regions including orexin areas; (2) moreover, light seems to modulate mood through orexin-, serotonin- and dopamine-dependent pathways; (3) in addition, light activates brain emotional processing areas including the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens, the perihabenular nucleus, the left hippocampus and pathways such as the retina–ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet–lateral habenula pathway. This work synthetizes new insights into the neural basis required for light influence mood Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Review
Nightmares in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123990 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Chronic nightmares are very common in psychiatric disorders, affecting up to 70% of patients with personality or post-traumatic stress disorders. In other psychiatric disorders, the relationships with nightmares are poorly known. This review aimed to clarify the relationship between nightmares and both mood [...] Read more.
Chronic nightmares are very common in psychiatric disorders, affecting up to 70% of patients with personality or post-traumatic stress disorders. In other psychiatric disorders, the relationships with nightmares are poorly known. This review aimed to clarify the relationship between nightmares and both mood and psychotic disorders. We performed a systematic literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases until December 2019, to identify studies of patients suffering from either a mood disorder or a psychotic disorder associated with nightmares. From the 1145 articles screened, 24 were retained, including 9 studies with patients with mood disorders, 11 studies with patients with psychotic disorders and 4 studies with either psychotic or mood disorders. Nightmares were more frequent in individuals with mood or psychotic disorders than in healthy controls (more than two-fold). Patients with frequent nightmares had higher suicidality scores and had more frequently a history of suicide attempt. The distress associated with nightmares, rather than the frequency of nightmares, was associated with the severity of the psychiatric disorder. Further studies assessing whether nightmare treatment not only improves patient–sleep perception but also improves underlying psychiatric diseases are needed. In conclusion, nightmares are overrepresented in mood and psychotic disorders, with the frequency associated with suicidal behaviors and the distress associated with the psychiatric disorder severity. These findings emphasize major clinical and therapeutic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Review
A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating the Evidence Base of Melatonin, Light Exposure, Exercise, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients with Insomnia Disorder
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061949 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3201
Abstract
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder and it leads to relevant impairment in health-related quality of life. Recent clinical guidelines pointed out that Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) should be considered as first-line intervention. Nevertheless, many other interventions are commonly used by patients or [...] Read more.
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder and it leads to relevant impairment in health-related quality of life. Recent clinical guidelines pointed out that Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) should be considered as first-line intervention. Nevertheless, many other interventions are commonly used by patients or have been proposed as effective for insomnia. These include melatonin, light exposure, exercise, and complementary and alternative medicine. Evaluation of comparable effectiveness of these interventions with first-line intervention for insomnia is however still lacking. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis on the effects of these interventions. PubMed, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were systematically searched and 40 studies were included in the systematic review, while 36 were entered into the meta-analysis. Eight network meta-analyses were conducted. Findings support effectiveness of melatonin in improving sleep-onset difficulties and of meditative movement therapies for self-report sleep efficiency and severity of the insomnia disorder. Some support was observed for exercise, hypnotherapy, and transcranial magnetic resonance, but the number of studies for these interventions is still too small. None of the considered interventions received superior evidence to CBT-I, which should be more widely disseminated in primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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