Special Issue "Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Psychiatry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Pierre A. Geoffroy
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry and Addictive Medicine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), University Hospital Bichat-Claude Bernard, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France
Université de Paris, NeuroDiderot, Inserm, F-75019 Paris, France
Interests: sleep; circadian rhythms; chronobiology; psychiatry; bipolar disorder; seasonal affective disorder; depression; suicide; addiction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep and circadian rhythm alterations benefit from increasing attention in psychiatric disorders, identified as core symptoms and interesting therapeutic targets, as, for instance, in bipolar disorders, depression, suicide, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addictions. This rapidly growing field of interest has allowed one to better unravel the physiopathology of these disorders and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Indeed, international efforts are being made to identify sleep and circadian rhythm biomarkers during all phases of these disorders (prodromal, acute, and remitted phases). The identification of such biomarkers is paving the way to true precision medicine, with numerous chronotherapies and sleep interventions, such as such as bright-light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin, stimulant drugs, sleep privation, neuromodulation technics, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy.

On these grounds, this Special Issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine has the main objective to gather papers that can advance the field by better characterizing patients with psychiatric disorders thanks to sleep and circadian rhythm biomarkers, by better identifying sleep disorder comorbidities and associated clinical features, and by assessing chronotherapies and sleep interventions in these specific populations.

Original investigations, review articles, and short communications are especially welcome.

Dr. Pierre A. Geoffroy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sleep
  • circadian rhythms
  • chronobiology
  • psychiatry
  • bipolar disorder
  • seasonal affective disorder
  • depression
  • suicide
  • schizophrenia
  • addiction

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Disturbances of Continuous Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Account for Behavioral Difficulties in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061978 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
Sleep disorders are among the most common comorbidities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and subjectively defined sleep disturbances have been related to ASD symptom severity. However, no study has investigated the differential impact of objectively measured sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders are among the most common comorbidities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and subjectively defined sleep disturbances have been related to ASD symptom severity. However, no study has investigated the differential impact of objectively measured sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances on behavioral difficulties in this population. Fifty-two children with ASD aged 3–10 years underwent assessments of sleep and circadian rest–activity rhythms objectively with actigraphy and subjectively with the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Behavioral difficulties were assessed using the ABC-C. Group comparison analyses were used to compare sleep and circadian rhythm parameters of children with higher and lower behavioral difficulties and dominance analysis to rank predictors and address multicollinearity. Children with high irritability had a shorter continuous sleep period compared to those with lower irritability (−60 min, p = 0.04), as well as those with high stereotypic behaviors compared to children with less stereotypies (−75 min, p = 0.006). Objective circadian and sleep disturbances accounted together for, respectively, 17%, 18% and 36% of the variance in social withdrawal, irritability and stereotypic behaviors. The identification of both sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances as explanatory factors for behavioral difficulties warrants their inclusion in the existing behavioral management strategies for children with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep in the Supine Position During Pregnancy is Associated with Fetal Cerebral Redistribution
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061773 - 07 Jun 2020
Abstract
The supine sleep position in late pregnancy is a major risk factor for stillbirth, with a population attributable risk of 5.8% and one in four pregnant women reportedly sleeping in a supine position. Although the mechanisms linking the supine sleep position and late [...] Read more.
The supine sleep position in late pregnancy is a major risk factor for stillbirth, with a population attributable risk of 5.8% and one in four pregnant women reportedly sleeping in a supine position. Although the mechanisms linking the supine sleep position and late stillbirth remain unclear, there is evidence that it exacerbates pre-existing maternal sleep disordered breathing, which is another known risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Given that maternal sleep position is a potentially modifiable risk factor, the aim of this study was to characterize and correlate uteroplacental and fetal hemodynamics, including cardiac function, in a cohort of women with apparently uncomplicated pregnancies with their nocturnal sleep position. This was a prospective observational cohort study at an Australian tertiary obstetric hospital. Women were asked to complete a series of questions related to their sleep position in late pregnancy after 35 weeks of completed gestation. They also underwent an ultrasound assessment where Doppler indices of various fetoplacental vessels and fetal cardiac function were measured. Regional cerebral perfusion was also assessed. Pregnancy outcome data was extracted from the electronic hospital database for analysis. A total of 274 women were included in the final analysis. Of these, 78.1% (214/274) reported no supine sleep, and 21.9% (60/274) reported going to sleep in a supine position. The middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery, and vertebral artery pulsatility indices were all significantly lower in the supine sleep cohort, as was the cerebroplacental ratio. There were no significant differences in the mode or indication for delivery or in serious neonatal outcomes, including 5-min Apgar score < 7, acidosis, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between cohorts. Women in the supine cohort were more likely to have an infant with a BW > 90th centile (p = 0.04). This data demonstrates fetal brain sparing in association with the maternal supine sleep position in a low-risk population. This data contributes to the growing body of literature attempting to elucidate the etiological pathways responsible for the association of late stillbirth with the maternal supine sleep position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Nightmares in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123990 - 09 Dec 2020
Abstract
Chronic nightmares are very common in psychiatric disorders, affecting up to 70% of patients with personality or post-traumatic stress disorders. In other psychiatric disorders, the relationships with nightmares are poorly known. This review aimed to clarify the relationship between nightmares and both mood [...] Read more.
Chronic nightmares are very common in psychiatric disorders, affecting up to 70% of patients with personality or post-traumatic stress disorders. In other psychiatric disorders, the relationships with nightmares are poorly known. This review aimed to clarify the relationship between nightmares and both mood and psychotic disorders. We performed a systematic literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases until December 2019, to identify studies of patients suffering from either a mood disorder or a psychotic disorder associated with nightmares. From the 1145 articles screened, 24 were retained, including 9 studies with patients with mood disorders, 11 studies with patients with psychotic disorders and 4 studies with either psychotic or mood disorders. Nightmares were more frequent in individuals with mood or psychotic disorders than in healthy controls (more than two-fold). Patients with frequent nightmares had higher suicidality scores and had more frequently a history of suicide attempt. The distress associated with nightmares, rather than the frequency of nightmares, was associated with the severity of the psychiatric disorder. Further studies assessing whether nightmare treatment not only improves patient–sleep perception but also improves underlying psychiatric diseases are needed. In conclusion, nightmares are overrepresented in mood and psychotic disorders, with the frequency associated with suicidal behaviors and the distress associated with the psychiatric disorder severity. These findings emphasize major clinical and therapeutic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating the Evidence Base of Melatonin, Light Exposure, Exercise, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients with Insomnia Disorder
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061949 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder and it leads to relevant impairment in health-related quality of life. Recent clinical guidelines pointed out that Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) should be considered as first-line intervention. Nevertheless, many other interventions are commonly used by patients or [...] Read more.
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder and it leads to relevant impairment in health-related quality of life. Recent clinical guidelines pointed out that Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) should be considered as first-line intervention. Nevertheless, many other interventions are commonly used by patients or have been proposed as effective for insomnia. These include melatonin, light exposure, exercise, and complementary and alternative medicine. Evaluation of comparable effectiveness of these interventions with first-line intervention for insomnia is however still lacking. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis on the effects of these interventions. PubMed, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were systematically searched and 40 studies were included in the systematic review, while 36 were entered into the meta-analysis. Eight network meta-analyses were conducted. Findings support effectiveness of melatonin in improving sleep-onset difficulties and of meditative movement therapies for self-report sleep efficiency and severity of the insomnia disorder. Some support was observed for exercise, hypnotherapy, and transcranial magnetic resonance, but the number of studies for these interventions is still too small. None of the considered interventions received superior evidence to CBT-I, which should be more widely disseminated in primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatric Disorders)
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