Special Issue "Current Perspectives in Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José Luis López-Campos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain
Interests: COPD; alpha1-antitripsin deficiency; biomedicine; epidemiology; tobacco

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite considerable progress over the past several decades, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to be a major public health problem and a challenge for physicians in the 21st century. Despite recent trends in reducing standardized rates of COPD mortality and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in several Western countries, the overall demographic impact of aging on a rapidly expanding global population and other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution ensure that COPD will continue to pose a growing problem for years to come.

Furthermore, COPD represents a major problem for clinicians. The advancement of scientific knowledge and the availability of new therapeutic and diagnostic tools make the management of the disease more complex, with progressively more focused approaches towards the implementation of a more personalized medicine. In this way, the different documents providing recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of COPD establish approach strategies that are not always parallel, which is a real challenge for clinicians. As a consequence, the needs of healthcare units dedicated to providing health care for patients with COPD have increased in recent decades, without being accompanied by a proportional increase in resources.

As a consequence, COPD is currently in the spotlight, as its high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality create formidable challenges for health systems, with a number of clinical challenges. In this Special Issue, we want to look for initiatives, original research studies, and reviews that provide added value to the knowledge of clinicians on the management of COPD, from epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic points of view, that help clinicians to move towards a more personalized medicine in the management of COPD.

Dr. José Luis López-Campos
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • COPD
  • Diagnosis
  • Non-pharmacological management
  • Pharmacological therapies
  • Personalized medicine
  • Clinical phenotypes
  • Treatable traits

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Patients with COPD in Spain from 2016 to 2019. Cohort Study Assessing Sex Differences in the Incidence and Outcomes Using Hospital Discharge Data
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(21), 4889; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214889 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Background: To describe and analyze the incidence and hospital outcomes of patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) status and sex in Spanish hospitals from 2016 to 2019. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using national hospital [...] Read more.
Background: To describe and analyze the incidence and hospital outcomes of patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) according to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) status and sex in Spanish hospitals from 2016 to 2019. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using national hospital discharge data of all patients ≥40 years with CAP. Results: A total of 500,833 patients (59.0% men) was identified. Incidence of CAP increased over time. Age-adjusted incidence was 4.42-times higher in COPD patients. In-hospital mortality (IHM) was lower in men and women with COPD than in those without COPD (14.41% vs. 10.70% in men; 11.12% vs. 8.58%. in women; p < 0.001). The risk of dying in hospital increased with age, presence of several comorbidities (excluding T2DM that was a protective factor), and need for mechanical ventilation (non-invasive and invasive) during admission, irrespective of sex. Over time, the IHM decreased significantly in men and women with COPD. Men with COPD were significantly more likely to die in hospital than were COPD women (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.07–1.21). Conclusions: Incidence of CAP was higher among subjects with COPD, although the effect of COPD was higher in men than in women. By contrast, IHM was lower in COPD patients, but men with COPD were significantly more likely to die in hospital than were COPD women. Full article
Article
Prevalence and Determinants of Mental Health among COPD Patients in a Population-Based Sample in Spain
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(13), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132786 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
(1) Background: To assess the prevalence of mental disorders (depression and anxiety), psychological distress, and psychiatric medications consumption among persons suffering from COPD; to compare this prevalence with non-COPD controls and to identify which variables are associated with worse mental health. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To assess the prevalence of mental disorders (depression and anxiety), psychological distress, and psychiatric medications consumption among persons suffering from COPD; to compare this prevalence with non-COPD controls and to identify which variables are associated with worse mental health. (2) Methods: This is an epidemiological case-control study. The data were obtained from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017. Subjects were classified as COPD if they reported suffering from COPD and the diagnosis of this condition had been confirmed by a physician. For each case, we selected a non-COPD control matched by sex, age, and province of residence. Conditional logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. (3) Results: The prevalence of mental disorders (33.9% vs. 17.1%; p < 0.001), psychological distress (35.4% vs. 18.2%; p < 0.001), and psychiatric medications consumption (34.1% vs. 21.9%; p < 0.001) was higher among COPD cases compared with non-COPD controls. After controlling for possible confounding variables, such as comorbid conditions and lifestyles, using multivariable regression, the probability of reporting mental disorders (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.10–1.82).), psychological distress (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.12–1.91), and psychiatric medications consumption (OR 1.38 95% CI 1.11–1.71) remained associated with COPD. Among COPD cases, being a woman, poor self-perceived health, more use of health services, and active smoking increased the probability of suffering from mental disorders, psychological distress, and psychiatric medication use. Stroke and chronic pain were the comorbidities more strongly associated with these mental health variables. (4) Conclusions: COPD patients have worse mental health and higher psychological distress and consume more psychiatric medications than non-COPD matched controls. Variables associated with poorer mental health included being a woman, poor self-perceived health, use of health services, and active smoking. Full article
Article
Corticosteroid Resistance in Smokers—A Substudy Analysis of the CORTICO-COP Randomised Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(12), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122734 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
The CORTICO-COP trial showed that eosinophil-guided corticosteroid-sparing treatment for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was non-inferior to standard of care and decreased the accumulated dose of systemic corticosteroids that patients were exposed to by approximately 60%. Smoking status has been shown [...] Read more.
The CORTICO-COP trial showed that eosinophil-guided corticosteroid-sparing treatment for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was non-inferior to standard of care and decreased the accumulated dose of systemic corticosteroids that patients were exposed to by approximately 60%. Smoking status has been shown to affect corticosteroid responsiveness. This post hoc analysis investigated whether eosinophil-guided treatment is non-inferior to conventional treatment in current smokers. The main analysis of current smokers showed no significant difference in the primary endpoint, days alive, and out of hospital within 14 days between the control group (mean, 9.8 days; 95% confidence interval (CI), 8.7–10.8) and the eosinophil-guided group (mean, 8.7 days; 95% CI, 7.5–9.9; p = 0.34). Secondary analyses of the number of exacerbations or deaths, the number of intensive care unit admissions or deaths, lung function improvement, and change in health-related quality of life also showed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of a sensitivity analysis of ex-smokers are consistent with the main analysis. Our results suggest that eosinophil-guided treatment is non-inferior to standard of care in current smokers and ex-smokers. Because data on the impact of smoking status on eosinophil-guided treatments are sparse, more randomised trials are needed to confirm our results. Full article
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Article
Four Decades of COPD Mortality Trends: Analysis of Trends and Multiple Causes of Death
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051117 - 07 Mar 2021
Viewed by 711
Abstract
There is little information on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality trends, age of death, or male:female ratio. This study therefore sought to analyze time trends in mortality with COPD recorded as the underlying cause of death from 1980 through 2017, and with [...] Read more.
There is little information on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality trends, age of death, or male:female ratio. This study therefore sought to analyze time trends in mortality with COPD recorded as the underlying cause of death from 1980 through 2017, and with COPD recorded other than as the underlying cause of death. We conducted an analysis of COPD deaths in Galicia (Spain) from 1980 through 2017, including those in which COPD was recorded other than as the underlying cause of death from 2015 through 2017. We calculated the crude and standardized rates, and analyzed mortality trends using joinpoint regression models. There were 43,234 COPD deaths, with a male:female ratio of 2.4. Median age of death was 82 years. A change point in the mortality trend was detected in 1996 with a significant decrease across the sexes, reflected by an annual percentage change of −3.8%. Taking deaths into account in which COPD participated or contributed without being the underlying cause led to an overall 42% increase in the mortality burden. The most frequent causes of death when COPD was not considered to be the underlying cause were bronchopulmonary neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. COPD mortality has decreased steadily across the sexes in Galicia since 1996, and age of death has also gradually increased. Multiple-cause death analysis may help prevent the underestimation of COPD mortality. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Non-Presential Individualized Exercise Training PrOgram(NIETO) in Lower Limb Physical Performance in Advanced COPD
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051010 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Muscle training, a component of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), improves the physical performance of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the existing evidence, the traditional center-based PR model is applied to a small percentage of patients and presents numerous problems of accessibility, [...] Read more.
Muscle training, a component of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), improves the physical performance of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the existing evidence, the traditional center-based PR model is applied to a small percentage of patients and presents numerous problems of accessibility, adherence, and costs. This study presents a home model of simple muscle training, non-presential, monitored by telephone and individualized, according to the severity of the COPD. In addition, to evaluate the results, simple tests associated with the physical performance of the lower limbs, previously validated in COPD, have been used, such as the four-meter walk, speed test (4MGS) and the five-repetition test sitting and standing (5STS). The objective was to evaluate whether the Individualized Non-Presential Exercise Training PrOgram (NIETO) induces improvements in the 4MGS, 5STS and quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) tests in outpatients with advanced COPD (FEV1 ≤ 50%). After one year, the QMS was significantly higher in the intervention group (IG) than in the control group (CG) (2.44 ± 4.07 vs. 0.05 ± 4.26 kg; p = 0.009). The 4MGS and 5STS tests were significantly shorter in IG than in CG (−0.39 ± 0.86 vs. 0.37 ± 0.96 s; p = 0.001) and (−1.55 ± 2.83 vs. 0.60 ± 2.06 s; p = 0.001), respectively. A home model of simple muscle training monitored by telephone such as NIETO, can improve 4MGS, 5STS, and quadriceps strength tests in outpatients with advanced COPD. Full article
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Article
Sex Differences in the Effects of COPD on Incidence and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized with ST and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Matched-Pair Analysis in Spain (2016–2018)
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040652 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
We aimed to compare the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with myocardial infarction (MI), whether ST elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), according to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to identify variables associated with [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with myocardial infarction (MI), whether ST elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), according to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to identify variables associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM). We selected all patients with MI (aged ≥40 years) included in the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (2016–2018). We matched each patient suffering COPD with a non-COPD patient with identical age, sex, type of MI, and year of hospitalization. We identified 109,759 men and 44,589 women with MI. The MI incidence was higher in COPD patients (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.35). Men with COPD had higher incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI than women with COPD. After matching, COPD men had a higher IHM than non-COPD men, but no differences were found among women. The probability of dying was higher among COPD men with STEMI in comparison with NSTEMI (odds ratio (OR) 2.33; 95% CI 1.96–2.77), with this risk being higher among COPD women (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.75–3.95). Suffering COPD increased the IHM after an MI in men (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.03–1.27), but no differences were found in women. COPD women had a higher IHM than men (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.01–1.39). We conclude that MI incidence was higher in COPD patients. IHM was higher in COPD men than in those without COPD, but no differences were found among women. Among COPD patients, STEMI was more lethal than NSTEMI. Suffering COPD increased the IHM after MI among men. Women with COPD had a significantly higher probability of dying in the hospital than COPD men. Full article
Article
Nocturnal Hypoxemia and CT Determined Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Smokers
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030489 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Background: Pulmonary artery enlargement (PAE) detected using chest computed tomography (CT) is associated with poor outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether nocturnal hypoxemia occurring in smokers, with or without COPD, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or their overlap, may [...] Read more.
Background: Pulmonary artery enlargement (PAE) detected using chest computed tomography (CT) is associated with poor outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether nocturnal hypoxemia occurring in smokers, with or without COPD, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) or their overlap, may be associated with PAE assessed by chest CT. Methods: We analysed data from two prospective cohort studies that enrolled 284 smokers in lung cancer screening programs and completing baseline home sleep studies and chest CT scans. Main pulmonary artery diameter (PAD) and the ratio of the PAD to that of the aorta (PA:Ao ratio) were measured. PAE was defined as a PAD ≥ 29 mm in men and ≥27 mm in women or as a PA:Ao ratio > 0.9. We evaluated the association of PAE with baseline characteristics using multivariate logistic models. Results: PAE prevalence was 27% as defined by PAD measurements and 11.6% by the PA:Ao ratio. A body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.06–3.78), lower % predicted of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (OR 1.03; 95%CI 1.02–1.05) and higher % of sleep time with O2 saturation < 90% (T90) (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.03), were associated with PAE as determined by PAD. However, only T90 remained significantly associated with PAE as defined by the PA:Ao ratio (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01–1.03). In the subset group without OSA, only T90 remains associated with PAE, whether defined by PAD measurement (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.01–1.03) or PA:Ao ratio (OR 1.04; 95%CI 1.01–1.07). Conclusions: In smokers with or without COPD, nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with PAE independently of OSA coexistence. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Hospitalization
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020235 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
(1) Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been shown to have adverse inflammatory effects on lung anatomy and physiology. We investigated the impact of DM on COPD patient outcomes during [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been shown to have adverse inflammatory effects on lung anatomy and physiology. We investigated the impact of DM on COPD patient outcomes during inpatient hospitalization. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) over the years 2002–2014. Three groups, COPD without diabetes, COPD with diabetes but no complication, and COPD with DM and complication, were analyzed. (3) Results: A total of 7,498,577 were COPD hospitalization; of those, 1,799,637 had DM without complications, and 483,467 had DM with complications. After adjusting for clinical, demographic, and comorbidities, the odds of increased LOS in the COPD/DM with complication were 1.37 (confidence interval (CI): 1.326–1.368), and those of DM without complication were 1.061 (1.052–1.070) when compared with COPD alone. The odds of pneumonia, respiratory failure, stroke, and acute kidney injury were also higher in COPD hospitalizations with DM. Both DM with complication (odds ratio (OR): 0.751 (CI 0.727–0.777)) and DM without complication (OR: 0.635 (CI: 0.596–0.675)) have lesser odds of mortality during hospitalization than with COPD alone. (4) Conclusions: There is a considerable inpatient burden among COPD patients with DM in the United States. Full article
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Article
Portable Oxygen Therapy: Is the 6-Minute Walking Test Overestimating the Actual Oxygen Needs?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4007; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124007 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
The appropriate titration for the personalized oxygen needs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe hypoxemia is a determining factor in the success of long-term oxygen therapy. There are no standardized procedures to assist in determining the patient’s needs during [...] Read more.
The appropriate titration for the personalized oxygen needs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe hypoxemia is a determining factor in the success of long-term oxygen therapy. There are no standardized procedures to assist in determining the patient’s needs during the physical activities of daily life. Despite that effort tests are a wide broad approach, further research concerning the development of protocols to titrate O2 therapy is needed. The main objective of this study was to assess whether the level of oxygen titrated through the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) for patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia is adequate to meet the patients’ demand during their activities of daily living. Physiological and subjective variables were estimated for a study population during two walking tests: a 6MWT and a 20-minute walking circuit (20MWC), designed ad-hoc to reproduce daily physical activities more truthfully. The results indicate that in a significant proportion of patients, the 6MWT might not accurately predict their oxygen needs at a domiciliary environment. Therefore, the titration of the portable O2 therapy could not be optimal in these cases, with the detrimental impact on the patient’s health (hyperoxia episodes), the autonomy of the oxygen device, and the decrease of time out of the home. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Suboptimal Peak Inspiratory Flow in Patients with Stable COPD
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123949 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Objective: Although the importance of assessing inspiratory flow in the selection of treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is understood, evaluation of this factor is not yet widespread or standardized. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the peak inspiratory [...] Read more.
Objective: Although the importance of assessing inspiratory flow in the selection of treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is understood, evaluation of this factor is not yet widespread or standardized. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the peak inspiratory flow (PIF) of patients with COPD and to explore the variables associated with a suboptimal PIF. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was carried out at specialized nursing consultations over a period of 6 months. We collected clinical data as well as data on symptoms, treatment adherence, and patient satisfaction with their inhalers via questionnaires. PIF was determined using the In-Check Dial G16® device (Clement Clarke International, Ltd., Harlow, UK). In each case, the PIF was considered suboptimal when it was off-target for any of the prescribed inhalers. The association with suboptimal PIF was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression and the results were expressed as the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: A total of 122 COPD patients were included in this study, of whom 34 (27.9%) had suboptimal PIF. A total of 229 inhalers were tested, of which 186 (81.2%) were dry powder devices. The multivariate analysis found an association between suboptimal PIF and age (OR = 1.072; 95% CI (1.019, 1.128); p = 0.007) and forced vital capacity (OR = 0.961; 95% CI (0.933, 0.989); p = 0.006). Conclusions: About a third of patients in complex specialized COPD care have suboptimal PIFs, which is related to age and forced vital capacity. Full article
Article
Characteristics and Prognosis of COVID-19 in Patients with COPD
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103259 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4116
Abstract
Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have a higher prevalence of coronary ischemia and other factors that put them at risk for COVID-19-related complications. We aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 in a large population-based sample of patients with COPD in [...] Read more.
Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have a higher prevalence of coronary ischemia and other factors that put them at risk for COVID-19-related complications. We aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 in a large population-based sample of patients with COPD in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. We analyzed clinical data in electronic health records from 1 January to 10 May 2020 by using Natural Language Processing through the SAVANA Manager® clinical platform. Out of 31,633 COPD patients, 793 had a diagnosis of COVID-19. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 in the COPD population (2.51%; 95% CI 2.33–2.68) was significantly higher than in the general population aged >40 years (1.16%; 95% CI 1.14–1.18); p < 0.001. Compared with COPD-free individuals, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed significantly poorer disease prognosis, as evaluated by hospitalizations (31.1% vs. 39.8%: OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.14–1.18) and mortality (3.4% vs. 9.3%: OR 2.93; 95% CI 2.27–3.79). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 were significantly older (75 vs. 66 years), predominantly male (83% vs. 17%), smoked more frequently, and had more comorbidities than their non-COPD counterparts. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis among COPD patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 (59%); 19% of patients showed pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of pneumonia and heart failure. Mortality in COPD patients with COVID-19 was associated with older age and prevalence of heart failure (p < 0.05). COPD patients with COVID-19 showed higher rates of hospitalization and mortality, mainly associated with pneumonia. This clinical profile is different from exacerbations caused by other respiratory viruses in the winter season. Full article
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Article
Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70 with Disease Severity, Smoking and Lung Function of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103097 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70) might modulate immune responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore eHsp70 concentration in stable COPD, its association with disease severity and smoking status as well as its diagnostic performance [...] Read more.
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70) might modulate immune responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore eHsp70 concentration in stable COPD, its association with disease severity and smoking status as well as its diagnostic performance in COPD assessment. Plasma samples were collected from 137 COPD patients and 95 healthy individuals, and concentration of eHsp70 was assessed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Enzo Life Science, Farmingdale, NY, USA). COPD patients were subdivided regarding airflow obstruction severity and symptoms severity according to the Global Initiative for COPD (GOLD) guidelines. eHsp70 concentration increased in COPD patients when compared to controls and increased with the severity of airflow limitation as well as symptoms burden and exacerbation history. eHsp70 concentration did not differ among COPD patients based on smoking status, yet it increased in healthy smokers compared to healthy nonsmokers. In addition, eHsp70 negatively correlated with lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/ forced vital capacity (FVC), and positively with COPD multicomponent indices BODCAT (BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, CAT score), BODEx (BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, previous exacerbations), CODEx (Charlson’s comorbidity index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, previous exacerbations) and DOSE (dyspnea, airflow obstruction, smoking status, previous exacerbations) With great predictive value (OR = 7.63) obtained from univariate logistic regression, eHsp70 correctly classified 76% of cases. eHsp70 is associated with COPD prediction and disease severity and might have the potential for becoming an additional biomarker in COPD assessment. Full article
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Review

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Review
Management Challenges in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Telehealth and Virtual Reality
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061261 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
For the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), early diagnosis and unconditionally correct management at the initial stage of the disease are very important when the symptoms are not yet too worrying. In this way, the progress of the disease can be [...] Read more.
For the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), early diagnosis and unconditionally correct management at the initial stage of the disease are very important when the symptoms are not yet too worrying. In this way, the progress of the disease can be slowed down, as can the occurrence of late, life-threatening symptoms. Pulmonary rehabilitation is an essential component of the management of COPD. The selection of appropriate exercises, which are determined during the classification of patients into a suitable improvement program, is of key importance in the process of rehabilitation. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in major limitations to public health care. Health systems were largely unprepared for an outbreak of this magnitude. Searching for new, attractive technologies that help patients with chronic diseases seems to be justified. This may be driven by telehealth platforms, likewise with the use of virtual reality (VR). Analysis of the available literature indicates promising effectiveness, high patient acceptance, and high motivations to undertake physical activity with the use of such a solution. Thus, the management of patients with COPD during the COVID-19 pandemic should include options for remote delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation, including home-based, telerehabilitation, and computer-based virtual programs. Full article
Review
Serum Albumin Concentrations in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020269 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition characterized by chronic airway inflammation and lung parenchyma damage. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress also play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Serum albumin is a negative acute-phase protein with antioxidant effects [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition characterized by chronic airway inflammation and lung parenchyma damage. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress also play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Serum albumin is a negative acute-phase protein with antioxidant effects and an important marker of malnutrition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate differences in serum albumin concentrations between patients with stable COPD and non-COPD subjects. Methods: A systematic search was conducted, using the terms “albumin” and “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” or “COPD”, in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science, from inception to May 2020. Results: Twenty-six studies were identified on a total of 2554 COPD patients and 2055 non-COPD controls. Pooled results showed that serum albumin concentrations were significantly lower in COPD patients (standard mean difference, SMD = −0.50, 95% CI −0.67 to −0.32; p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in SMD of serum albumin concentrations between COPD patients with forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) < 50% and those with FEV1 > 50%. Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis showed that serum albumin concentrations are significantly lower in patients with stable COPD compared to non-COPD controls. This supports the presence of a deficit in systemic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant defense mechanisms in COPD. Full article
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Review
Integrating Comorbidities and Phenotype-Based Medicine in Patient-Centered Medicine in COPD
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092745 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
Despite recent notable innovations in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), no major advances in patient-centered medicine have been achieved. Current guidelines base their proposals on the average results from clinical trials, leading to what could be termed ‘means-based’ medical practice. [...] Read more.
Despite recent notable innovations in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), no major advances in patient-centered medicine have been achieved. Current guidelines base their proposals on the average results from clinical trials, leading to what could be termed ‘means-based’ medical practice. However, the therapeutic response is variable at the patient level. Additionally, the variability of the clinical presentation interacts with comorbidities to form a complex clinical scenario for clinicians to deal with. Consequently, no consensus has been reached over a practical approach for combining comorbidities and disease presentation markers in the therapeutic algorithm. In this context, from the patients’ first visit, the clinician faces four major dilemmas: (1) establishing the correct diagnosis of COPD as opposed to other airway diseases, such as bronchial asthma; (2) deciding on the initial therapeutic approach based on the clinical characteristics of each case; (3) setting up a study strategy for non-responding patients; (4) pursuing a follow-up strategy with two well-defined periods according to whether close or long-term follow-up is required. Here, we will address these major dilemmas in the search for a patient-centered approach to COPD management and suggest how to combine them all in a single easy-to-use strategy. Full article
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Other

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Brief Report
A Prediction Equation to Assess Resting Energy Expenditure in Japanese Patients with COPD
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113455 - 27 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Background: Medical nutrition therapy is important in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Determination of resting energy expenditure is essential to define therapeutic goals for medical nutrition. Previous studies proposed the use of equations to predict resting energy expenditure. No [...] Read more.
Background: Medical nutrition therapy is important in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Determination of resting energy expenditure is essential to define therapeutic goals for medical nutrition. Previous studies proposed the use of equations to predict resting energy expenditure. No prediction equation is currently available for the Japanese population. The objective of this study was to develop an equation to predict resting energy expenditure in Japanese chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. To this end, we investigated clinical variables that correlate with the resting energy expenditure. Methods: This study included 102 COPD patients admitted at the Matsusaka Municipal Hospital Respiratory Center. We measured resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and explored the relationship of resting energy expenditure with clinical variables by univariate and stepwise linear regression analysis. Results: The resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry was significantly correlated with fat-free mass, body weight, body mass index, height, gender, and pulmonary function test by univariate analysis. In the stepwise linear regression analysis, the fat-free mass, body weight, and age remained significantly correlated with indirect calorimetry’s resting energy expenditure. The fat-free mass, body weight, and age explained 50.5% of the resting energy expenditure variation. Conclusion: Fat-free mass, body weight, and age were significantly correlated with resting energy expenditure by stepwise linear regression analysis, and they were used to define a predictive equation for Japanese COPD patients. Full article
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