Topical Collection "Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community"

A topical collection in Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This collection belongs to the section "Stomatology".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Peter Howaldt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Klinik Str. 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Interests: head and neck cancer; oral and maxillofacial surgery; dental implant
Dr. Sameh Attia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Klinik Str. 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Interests: head and neck cancer; oral and maxillofacial surgery; dental implant

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pandemic of COVID-19 is considered to be a global public health emergency. Due to its route of transmission via contact with droplets and aerosols, dentists are at high risk of acquiring an infection while treating patients. The impact of coronavirus on the dental community is eminent, and the big challenge is how we can offer dental treatment despite the outbreak. Dental education programs in both under- and postgraduate forms will also suffer from the ramifications of the pandemic. The aim of this Special Issue is to act as a scientific meeting point for all kinds of research that deal with the management of the COVID-19 crisis within the dental community.

Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Peter Howaldt
Dr. Sameh Attia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Dentistry
  • Dental practice
  • Dental education
  • Infection control
  • Public health
  • Salivary diagnostic

Published Papers (17 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Special Teaching Formats during the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Survey with Implications for a Crisis-Proof Education
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(21), 5099; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10215099 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Modern teaching formats have not been considered necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic with uncertain acceptance by students. The study’s aim was to describe and evaluate all measures undertaken for theoretical and practical knowledge/skill transfer, which included objective structured practical examinations (OSPEs) covering a [...] Read more.
Modern teaching formats have not been considered necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic with uncertain acceptance by students. The study’s aim was to describe and evaluate all measures undertaken for theoretical and practical knowledge/skill transfer, which included objective structured practical examinations (OSPEs) covering a communication skills training. The students’ performance in the OSPE as well as the theoretical knowledge level were assessed, of which the latter was compared with previous terms. In conservative dentistry and periodontology (4th and 5th year courses), theoretical teaching formats were provided online and completed by a multiple-choice test. Practical education continued without patients in small groups using the phantom-head, 3D printed teeth, and objective structured practical examinations (OSPEs) including communication skills training. Formats were evaluated by a questionnaire. The organization was rated as very good/good (88.6%), besides poor Internet connection (22.8%) and Zoom® (14.2%) causing problems. Lectures with audio were best approved (1.48), followed by practical videos (1.54), live stream lectures (1.81), treatment checklists (1.81), and virtual problem-based learning (2.1). Lectures such as .pdf files without audio, articles, or scripts were rated worse (2.15–2.30). Phantom-heads were considered the best substitute for patient treatment (59.5%), while additional methodical efforts for more realistic settings led to increased appraisal. However, students performed significantly worse in the multiple-choice test compared to the previous terms (p < 0.0001) and the OSPEs revealed deficits in the students’ communication skills. In the future, permanent available lectures with audio and efforts toward realistic treatment settings in the case of suspended patient treatment will be pursued. Full article
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Article
Oral Health and Teledentistry Interest during the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(16), 3532; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163532 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has significantly changed access to dental treatments. Methods: The data related to oral health and teledentistry topics were collected from the open database Google Trends. The analyzed material was collected from 19 June 2016 to 6 June 2021 [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has significantly changed access to dental treatments. Methods: The data related to oral health and teledentistry topics were collected from the open database Google Trends. The analyzed material was collected from 19 June 2016 to 6 June 2021 among anonymous search engine users. The following expressions were analyzed: “dental care”, “emergency dental care”, “oral health”, ”periodontitis”, “teledentistry”, “is it safe to go to the dentist”, and “COVID-19” and ”PPE dentist”. Results: During the first lockdown in 2020, a significant increase in “emergency dental care” phrase queries was detected, with a simultaneous decrease in regular “dental care” questions, as well as a peak in the queries for “periodontitis” preceded by lower interest in “oral health.” The number of searches stated for “teledentistry” increased during the time of the pandemic 5 times and for and “PPE dentist” 30 times. The risk of visiting the dental studio was seen in almost 40 times increase in the query “is it safe to go to the dentist.” Conclusions: The COVID-19 imprinted a stigma on oral health care. In this difficult epidemiological situation, teledentistry might become a helpful solution. Full article
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Perspective
Proposal for Tier-Based Resumption of Dental Practice Determined by COVID-19 Rate, Testing and COVID-19 Vaccination: A Narrative Perspective
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(10), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102116 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Since the emergence of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), profound alterations in general and specialist dental practice have been imposed to provide safe dental care. The guidelines introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate healthcare disruption are inconsistent regarding the dental [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), profound alterations in general and specialist dental practice have been imposed to provide safe dental care. The guidelines introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate healthcare disruption are inconsistent regarding the dental practice re-installation, particularly during a transitional time. Despite the successful mass vaccination campaigns rolled out in 2021, the presence of more than 80 genotypes of COVID-19, rapid neutralisation of antibodies within a short period of seropositivity, and the likelihood of recurrent infection raise some doubts on whether vaccination alone will provide long-term immunity against COVID-19 and its variants. Here, from this perspective, we aim to provide an initial proposal for dental services reinstallation, easily applicable in various care settings. We discuss the potential options for the transition of dental services, as well as challenges and opportunities to adapt to new circumstances after mass COVID-19 vaccination. The proposal of the universal three-tier system of dental services resumption, determined by regional COVID-19 rates, testing accessibility, and vaccination rollout has been presented. Following herd COVID-19 immunity enhancement, it would be prudent to confer various preventative measures until virus spread naturally diminishes or becomes less virulent. Based on modelling data, dental practices may not return to normal, routine operation even after global vaccination as there would still be a significant risk of outbreaks of infection. Variable, multi-level measures will still be required, depending on the local COVID-19 cases rate, to secure safe dental care provision, despite predicted success of vaccination agendas. This approach can be implemented by achievable, practical means as a part of risk assessment, altered work pattern, and re-arrange of dental surgery facilities. The adequate standard operating procedure, with the support of rapid point-of-care testing at workplace, would vastly intensify the uninterrupted recovery of the dental care sector. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects among Healthcare Workers in the Czech Republic
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071428 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 10664
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 vaccine side effects have a fundamental role in public confidence in the vaccine and its uptake process. Thus far, the evidence on vaccine safety has exclusively been obtained from the manufacturer-sponsored studies; therefore, this study was designed to provide independent evidence [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 vaccine side effects have a fundamental role in public confidence in the vaccine and its uptake process. Thus far, the evidence on vaccine safety has exclusively been obtained from the manufacturer-sponsored studies; therefore, this study was designed to provide independent evidence on Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine side effects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out between January and February 2021 to collect data on the side effects following the COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers in the Czech Republic. The study used a validated questionnaire with twenty-eight multiple-choice items covering the participants’ demographic data, medical anamneses, COVID-19-related anamneses, general, oral, and skin-related side effects. Results: Injection site pain (89.8%), fatigue (62.2%), headache (45.6%), muscle pain (37.1%), and chills (33.9%) were the most commonly reported side effects. All the general side effects were more prevalent among the ≤43-year-old group, and their duration was mainly one day (45.1%) or three days (35.8%) following the vaccine. Antihistamines were the most common drugs associated with side effects, thus requiring further investigation. The people with two doses were generally associated with a higher frequency of side effects. Conclusions: The distribution of side effects among Czech healthcare workers was highly consistent with the manufacturer’s data, especially in terms of their association with the younger age group and the second dose. The overall prevalence of some local and systemic side effects was higher than the manufacturer’s report. Further independent studies on vaccine safety are strongly required to strengthen public confidence in the vaccine. Full article
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Review
Characteristics and Detection Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Alternative Sites and Specimens Pertaining to Dental Practice: An Evidence Summary
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061158 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Knowledge about the detection potential and detection rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various body fluids and sites is important for dentists since they, directly or indirectly, deal with many of these fluids/sites in their daily practices. In this [...] Read more.
Knowledge about the detection potential and detection rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various body fluids and sites is important for dentists since they, directly or indirectly, deal with many of these fluids/sites in their daily practices. In this study, we attempt to review the latest evidence and meta-analysis studies regarding the detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in different body specimens and sites as well as the characteristics of these sample. The presence/detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral biomolecules (nucleic acid, antigens, antibody) in different clinical specimens depends greatly on the specimen type and timing of collection. These specimens/sites include nasopharynx, oropharynx, nose, saliva, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, stool, urine, ocular fluid, serum, plasma and whole blood. The relative detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 viral biomolecules in each of these specimens/sites is reviewed in detail within the text. The infectious potential of these specimens depends mainly on the time of specimen collection and the presence of live replicating viral particles. Full article
Article
The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Dentists in Germany
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051008 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Since the announcement of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic, several studies reported increased psychological distress among healthcare workers. In this investigation, we examined the association between psychological outcomes and various factors among German dentists. Dentists from all German federal states [...] Read more.
Since the announcement of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic, several studies reported increased psychological distress among healthcare workers. In this investigation, we examined the association between psychological outcomes and various factors among German dentists. Dentists from all German federal states were invited to participate in this study through a self-administered online questionnaire between July and November 2020. This questionnaire collected information on demographics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) instrument. The associations displayed between demographic and psychological outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal were evaluated. Seven-hundred-and-thirty-two dentists participated in the survey and reported overall scores of (4.88 ± 4.85), (2.88 ± 3.57), (7.08 ± 5.04), (9.12 ± 8.44), (10.68 ± 8.88) and (10.35 ± 8.68) for depression, anxiety, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal, respectively. For females, being between 50–59 years of age, being immune deficient or chronically ill, working at a dental practice, and considering the COVID-19 pandemic a financial hazard were reported as significant associated factors (p < 0.05) with higher DASS-21 and IES-R scores. These findings underline the aspects which need to be taken into attention to protect the mental wellbeing of dentists in Germany during the crisis. Full article
Review
COVID-19 and Dentistry in 72 Questions: An Overview of the Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040779 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has significantly affected the dental care sector. Dental professionals are at high risk of being infected, and therefore transmitting SARS-CoV-2, due to the nature of their profession, [...] Read more.
The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has significantly affected the dental care sector. Dental professionals are at high risk of being infected, and therefore transmitting SARS-CoV-2, due to the nature of their profession, with close proximity to the patient’s oropharyngeal and nasal regions and the use of aerosol-generating procedures. The aim of this article is to provide an update on different issues regarding SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 that may be relevant for dentists. Members of the French National College of Oral Biology Lecturers (“Collège National des EnseignantS en Biologie Orale”; CNESBO-COVID19 Task Force) answered seventy-two questions related to various topics, including epidemiology, virology, immunology, diagnosis and testing, SARS-CoV-2 transmission and oral cavity, COVID-19 clinical presentation, current treatment options, vaccine strategies, as well as infection prevention and control in dental practice. The questions were selected based on their relevance for dental practitioners. Authors independently extracted and gathered scientific data related to COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and the specific topics using scientific databases. With this review, the dental practitioners will have a general overview of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on their practice. Full article
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Review
Oral Complications of ICU Patients with COVID-19: Case-Series and Review of Two Hundred Ten Cases
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040581 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
Background: The critically ill patients suffering from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) are susceptible to a wide array of complications that can be life-threatening or impose them to long-term complications. The COVID-19 oral mucocutaneous complications require multidisciplinary [...] Read more.
Background: The critically ill patients suffering from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) are susceptible to a wide array of complications that can be life-threatening or impose them to long-term complications. The COVID-19 oral mucocutaneous complications require multidisciplinary management and research for their pathophysiological course and epidemiological significance; therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of the critically ill COVID-19 patients with oral complications. Methods: We described the clinical and microbiological characteristics of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in our ICU department (Banska Bystrica, Slovakia). In addition, we reviewed the current body of evidence in Ovid MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for the oral mucocutaneous complications of ICU patients with COVID-19. Results: Three out of nine critically ill patients (33.3%) in our ICU department presented with oral complications including haemorrhagic ulcers and necrotic ulcers affecting the lips and tongue. The microbiological assessment revealed the presence of opportunistic pathogens, confirming the possibility of co-infection. On reviewing the current literature, two hundred ten critically ill patients were reported to have oral complications due to their stay in the ICU setting. Perioral pressure ulcers were the most common complication, followed by oral candidiasis, herpetic and haemorrhagic ulcers, and acute onset macroglossia. The prolonged prone positioning and mechanical ventilation devices were the primary risk factors for those oral complications, in addition to the immunosuppressive drugs. Conclusions: The multidisciplinary approach is strongly advocated for monitoring and management of COVID-19 patients, thus implying that dermatology and oral healthcare specialists and nurses should be integrated within the ICU teams. Full article
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Editorial
Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community: Part I before Vaccine (BV)
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020288 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
One year has passed with the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact is still evident everywhere on the globe and in all fields and domains [...] Full article
Review
SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Oral Health: Therapeutic Opportunities and Challenges
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010156 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
The novel corona virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease it causes, COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) have had multi-faceted effects on a number of lives on a global scale both directly and indirectly. A growing body of evidence suggest that COVID-19 [...] Read more.
The novel corona virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease it causes, COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) have had multi-faceted effects on a number of lives on a global scale both directly and indirectly. A growing body of evidence suggest that COVID-19 patients experience several oral health problems such as dry mouth, mucosal blistering, mouth rash, lip necrosis, and loss of taste and smell. Periodontal disease (PD), a severe inflammatory gum disease, may worsen the symptoms associated with COVID-19. Routine dental and periodontal treatment may help decrease the symptoms of COVID-19. PD is more prevalent among patients experiencing metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk. Studies have shown that these patients are highly susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress known to contribute to the development of PD and other metabolic diseases are highly elevated among COVID-19 patients. Periodontal health may help to determine the severity of COVID-19 infection. Accumulating evidence shows that African-Americans (AAs) and vulnerable populations are disproportionately susceptible to PD, metabolic diseases and COVID-19 compared to other ethnicities in the United States. Dentistry and dental healthcare professionals are particularly susceptible to this virus due to the transferability via the oral cavity and the use of aerosol creating instruments that are ubiquitous in this field. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive and updated source of information about SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and the various effects it has had on the dental profession and patients visits to dental clinics. Finally, this review is a valuable resource for the management of oral hygiene and reduction of the severity of infection. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Review
Bio-Inspired Systems in Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy to Reduce Contaminated Aerosol during COVID-19: A Comprehensive and Bibliometric Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123914 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Background: On 30 January 2020, a public health emergency of international concern was declared as a result of the new COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is transmitted by air and, therefore, clinical practices with the production of contaminant aerosols [...] Read more.
Background: On 30 January 2020, a public health emergency of international concern was declared as a result of the new COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is transmitted by air and, therefore, clinical practices with the production of contaminant aerosols are highly at risk. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of bio-inspired systems, as adjuvants to nonsurgical periodontal therapy, in order to formulate bio-inspired protocols aimed at restoring optimal condition, reducing bacteremia and aerosols generation. Methods: A comprehensive and bibliometric review of articles published in English. Research of clinical trials (RCTs) were included with participants with chronic or aggressive periodontal disease, that have compared benefits for nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Results: Seventy-four articles have been included. For probing depth (PPD) there was a statically significant improvement in laser, probiotic, chlorhexidine groups, such as gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). Bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction was statistically significant only for probiotic and chlorhexidine groups. There were changes in microbiological and immunological parameters. Conclusions: The use of bio-inspired systems in nonsurgical periodontal treatment may be useful in reducing risk of bacteremia and aerosol generation, improving clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters, of fundamental importance in a context of global pandemic, where the reduction of bacterial load in aerosols becomes a pivotal point of clinical practice, but other clinical trials are necessary to achieve statistical validity. Full article
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Article
Psychological Functioning of Patients Undergoing Oral Surgery Procedures during the Regime Related with SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103344 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has become a huge global challenge medically, economically and psychologically. The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the population can experience general psychological distress. The sanitary regime in dental offices and lack of vaccine for coronavirus may have an impact on the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has become a huge global challenge medically, economically and psychologically. The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the population can experience general psychological distress. The sanitary regime in dental offices and lack of vaccine for coronavirus may have an impact on the level of dental anxiety among patients undergoing oral surgery procedures. A clinical study was conducted between November 2019 and September 2020. A total of 175 patients (n = 175) were enrolled in the research. The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of patients towards the new situation related to the reduced availability of dental offices providing oral surgery procedures. The level of anxiety associated with surgical intervention was measured using a self-made COVID-19 questionnaire and the MDAS scale. The ED-5Q questionnaire and EQ-VAS scale were also used in this research. The study showed that 21.9% of respondents presented with increased anxiety about a dental visit compared with the time before the pandemic. This epidemiological situation has led to an overwhelming increase in moderate dental anxiety (M: 11.4) among patients undergoing oral surgery procedures. The quality of patients’ health (EQ-VAS) related to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic and the quarantine decreased by 10 percentage points. Oral surgeons should be prepared for more anxious patients in dental offices during the pandemic. Full article
Article
Temporomandibular Disorders and Bruxism Outbreak as a Possible Factor of Orofacial Pain Worsening during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Concomitant Research in Two Countries
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103250 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7966
Abstract
Background: In late December 2019, a new pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection began to spread around the world. The new situation gave rise to severe health threats, economic uncertainty, and social isolation, causing potential deleterious effects [...] Read more.
Background: In late December 2019, a new pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection began to spread around the world. The new situation gave rise to severe health threats, economic uncertainty, and social isolation, causing potential deleterious effects on people’s physical and mental health. These effects are capable of influencing oral and maxillofacial conditions, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism, which could further aggravate the orofacial pain. Two concomitant studies aimed to evaluate the effect of the current pandemic on the possible prevalence and worsening of TMD and bruxism symptoms among subjects selected from two culturally different countries: Israel and Poland. Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted as cross-sectional online surveys using similar anonymous questionnaires during the lockdown practiced in both countries. The authors obtained 700 complete responses from Israel and 1092 from Poland. In the first step, data concerning TMDs and bruxism were compared between the two countries. In the second step, univariate analyses (Chi2) were performed to investigate the effects of anxiety, depression, and personal concerns of the Coronavirus pandemic, on the symptoms of TMD, and bruxism symptoms and their possible aggravation. Finally, multivariate analyses (logistic regression models) were carried out to identify the study variables that had a predictive value on TMD, bruxism, and symptom aggravation in the two countries. Results: The results showed that the Coronavirus pandemic has caused significant adverse effects on the psychoemotional status of both Israeli and Polish populations, resulting in the intensification of their bruxism and TMD symptoms. Conclusions: The aggravation of the psychoemotional status caused by the Coronavirus pandemic can result in bruxism and TMD symptoms intensification and thus lead to increased orofacial pain. Full article
Article
SARS-CoV-2 and Oral Manifestation: An Observational, Human Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103218 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. [...] Read more.
The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. A questionnaire of 32 questions regarding the oral and systemic health condition was administrated to these patients during the convalescence. A descriptive statistic was performed. Data were analysed through the use of χ2 test, to assess the statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of about 30% of reporting xerostomia during hospitalization was observed (p = 0.02). Meanwhile, a decrease of oral hygiene was observed during the hospitalization, even if a non-statistically significant difference was shown between the two study time points (before and after hospitalization). During the hospitalization period, 25% of patients reported impaired taste, 15% burning sensation, and 20% difficulty in swallowing. An interesting result was that among the systemic conditions, hypertension was observed in 39% of patients and mostly in female patients (62.5%). Further studies are necessary to better understand the symptoms of this new virus in order to faster detect its presence in humans. Probably, a multidisciplinary team following the COVID-19 patients could be of key importance in treating this disease. Full article
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Article
Managing the Oral Health of Cancer Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspective of a Dental Clinic in a Cancer Center
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103138 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The practice of dentistry has been dramatically altered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the close person-to-person contact involved in delivering dental care and treatment procedures that produce aerosols, dental healthcare professionals including dentists, dental assistants and dental hygienists are at [...] Read more.
The practice of dentistry has been dramatically altered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the close person-to-person contact involved in delivering dental care and treatment procedures that produce aerosols, dental healthcare professionals including dentists, dental assistants and dental hygienists are at high risk of exposure. As a dental clinic in a comprehensive cancer center, we have continued to safely provide medically necessary and urgent/emergent dental care to ensure that patients can adhere to their planned cancer treatment. This was accomplished through timely adaptation of clinical workflows and implementation of practice modification measures in compliance with state, national and federal guidelines to ensure that risk of transmission remained low and the health of both immunocompromised cancer patients and clinical staff remained protected. In this narrative review, we share our experience and measures that were implemented in our clinic to ensure that the oral health needs of cancer patients were met in a timely manner and in a safe environment. Given that the pandemic is still on-going, the impact of our modified oral healthcare delivery model in cancer patients warrants continued monitoring and assessment. Full article
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Article
Children’s Dental Anxiety during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Polish Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092751 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Dental fear and anxiety is a significant issue that affects pediatric patients and creates challenges in oral health management. Considering that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, along with its associated sanitary regime, social distancing measures and nationwide quarantines, could itself induce public [...] Read more.
Dental fear and anxiety is a significant issue that affects pediatric patients and creates challenges in oral health management. Considering that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, along with its associated sanitary regime, social distancing measures and nationwide quarantines, could itself induce public fears, including in children, it is of great interest to explore whether this situation and the necessity of reorganizing dental care could potentially affect the emotional state of pediatric patients facing a need for urgent dental intervention. The present study assessed the emotional state of children ≤ seven years old (n = 25) requiring dental healthcare during a nationwide quarantine in Poland, as well as the anxiety levels of their caregivers. The Faces Anxiety Scale was adopted, and the evaluation was independently performed by the dentist, caregivers and children themselves. The level of anxiety in caregivers was also measured. As demonstrated, children requiring dental intervention during the nationwide quarantine did not reveal a significantly higher anxiety level as compared to the age- and indication-matched pre-pandemic control group (n = 20), regardless of whether their emotional state was evaluated by the dentist, caregivers, or by themselves. However, the share of children scoring the lowest anxiety level in all assessments was smaller in the pandemic group. Boys in the pandemic group had a higher anxiety level, as indicated by a caregiver assessment, and displayed a negative correlation with age in all three types of evaluation. Moreover, caregiver anxiety levels were higher in the pandemic group as compared to the pre-pandemic subset and revealed stronger correlations with the dental anxiety in children. The results suggest that the reorganization of oral healthcare under the pandemic scenario did not have a profound effect on children’s dental anxiety. Nevertheless, findings in young boys highlight that they may be more vulnerable and require special care to mitigate their anxiety and decrease the risk of dentophobia in the future—these observations must be, however, treated with caution due to the small sample size and require further confirmation. Moreover, it is important to reassure caregivers of the safety of the dental visit during the pandemic to minimize the effect of their own anxiety on dental fears in children. Full article
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Review
Available Technologies, Applications and Benefits of Teleorthodontics. A Literature Review and Possible Applications during the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061891 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 4392
Abstract
Background: COVID-2019 spread rapidly throughout the world from China. This infection is highly contagiousness, has a high morbidity, and is capable of evolving into a potentially lethal form of interstitial pneumonia. Numerous countries shut-down various activities that were considered “not essential.” Dental treatment [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-2019 spread rapidly throughout the world from China. This infection is highly contagiousness, has a high morbidity, and is capable of evolving into a potentially lethal form of interstitial pneumonia. Numerous countries shut-down various activities that were considered “not essential.” Dental treatment was in this category and, at the time of writing, only non-deferrable emergencies are still allowed in many countries. Therefore, follow-up visits of ongoing active therapies (e.g., orthodontic treatment) must be handled taking special precautions. This literature review aims at reducing in-office appointments by providing an overview of the technologies available and their reliability in the long-distance monitoring of patients, i.e., teledentistry. Methods: A literature review was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Randomized clinical trials, cross sectional, observational, and case-control studies were evaluated with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool for quality assessment and study limitations. Results: A primary search found 80 articles, 69/80 were excluded as non-relevant on the basis of: the abstract, title, study design, bias, and/or lack of relevance. Twelve articles were included in the qualitative analysis. Conclusions: Teleorthodontics can manage most emergencies, reassuring and following patients remotely. The aim set by dental teleassistance was met as it reduced patients’ office visits whilst maintaining regular monitoring, without compromising the results. Although our preliminary findings should be further investigated to objectively evaluate the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and long-term results, we are confident that teleassistance in orthodontics will have a role to play in the near future. Full article
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