Special Issue "Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Stomatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Peter Howaldt
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Klinik Str. 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Interests: head and neck cancer; oral and maxillofacial surgery; dental implant
Dr. Sameh Attia
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Klinik Str. 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Interests: head and neck cancer; oral and maxillofacial surgery; dental implant

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pandemic of COVID-19 is considered to be a global public health emergency. Due to its route of transmission via contact with droplets and aerosols, dentists are at high risk of acquiring an infection while treating patients. The impact of coronavirus on the dental community is eminent, and the big challenge is how we can offer dental treatment despite the outbreak. Dental education programs in both under- and postgraduate forms will also suffer from the ramifications of the pandemic. The aim of this Special Issue is to act as a scientific meeting point for all kinds of research that deal with the management of the COVID-19 crisis within the dental community.

Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Peter Howaldt
Dr. Sameh Attia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Dentistry
  • Dental practice
  • Dental education
  • Infection control
  • Public health
  • Salivary diagnostic

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community: Part I before Vaccine (BV)
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020288 - 14 Jan 2021
Abstract
One year has passed with the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact is still evident everywhere on the globe and in all fields and domains [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Psychological Functioning of Patients Undergoing Oral Surgery Procedures during the Regime Related with SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3344; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103344 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has become a huge global challenge medically, economically and psychologically. The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the population can experience general psychological distress. The sanitary regime in dental offices and lack of vaccine for coronavirus may have an impact on the [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has become a huge global challenge medically, economically and psychologically. The COVID-19 pandemic shows that the population can experience general psychological distress. The sanitary regime in dental offices and lack of vaccine for coronavirus may have an impact on the level of dental anxiety among patients undergoing oral surgery procedures. A clinical study was conducted between November 2019 and September 2020. A total of 175 patients (n = 175) were enrolled in the research. The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of patients towards the new situation related to the reduced availability of dental offices providing oral surgery procedures. The level of anxiety associated with surgical intervention was measured using a self-made COVID-19 questionnaire and the MDAS scale. The ED-5Q questionnaire and EQ-VAS scale were also used in this research. The study showed that 21.9% of respondents presented with increased anxiety about a dental visit compared with the time before the pandemic. This epidemiological situation has led to an overwhelming increase in moderate dental anxiety (M: 11.4) among patients undergoing oral surgery procedures. The quality of patients’ health (EQ-VAS) related to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic and the quarantine decreased by 10 percentage points. Oral surgeons should be prepared for more anxious patients in dental offices during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
Open AccessArticle
Temporomandibular Disorders and Bruxism Outbreak as a Possible Factor of Orofacial Pain Worsening during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Concomitant Research in Two Countries
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103250 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: In late December 2019, a new pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection began to spread around the world. The new situation gave rise to severe health threats, economic uncertainty, and social isolation, causing potential deleterious effects [...] Read more.
Background: In late December 2019, a new pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection began to spread around the world. The new situation gave rise to severe health threats, economic uncertainty, and social isolation, causing potential deleterious effects on people’s physical and mental health. These effects are capable of influencing oral and maxillofacial conditions, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism, which could further aggravate the orofacial pain. Two concomitant studies aimed to evaluate the effect of the current pandemic on the possible prevalence and worsening of TMD and bruxism symptoms among subjects selected from two culturally different countries: Israel and Poland. Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted as cross-sectional online surveys using similar anonymous questionnaires during the lockdown practiced in both countries. The authors obtained 700 complete responses from Israel and 1092 from Poland. In the first step, data concerning TMDs and bruxism were compared between the two countries. In the second step, univariate analyses (Chi2) were performed to investigate the effects of anxiety, depression, and personal concerns of the Coronavirus pandemic, on the symptoms of TMD, and bruxism symptoms and their possible aggravation. Finally, multivariate analyses (logistic regression models) were carried out to identify the study variables that had a predictive value on TMD, bruxism, and symptom aggravation in the two countries. Results: The results showed that the Coronavirus pandemic has caused significant adverse effects on the psychoemotional status of both Israeli and Polish populations, resulting in the intensification of their bruxism and TMD symptoms. Conclusions: The aggravation of the psychoemotional status caused by the Coronavirus pandemic can result in bruxism and TMD symptoms intensification and thus lead to increased orofacial pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
Open AccessArticle
SARS-CoV-2 and Oral Manifestation: An Observational, Human Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103218 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. [...] Read more.
The correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and oral manifestations is still controversial. The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestation of the hospitalized patients for COVID-19. A total of 20 patients met the inclusion criteria and gave their signed informed consent. A questionnaire of 32 questions regarding the oral and systemic health condition was administrated to these patients during the convalescence. A descriptive statistic was performed. Data were analysed through the use of χ2 test, to assess the statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of about 30% of reporting xerostomia during hospitalization was observed (p = 0.02). Meanwhile, a decrease of oral hygiene was observed during the hospitalization, even if a non-statistically significant difference was shown between the two study time points (before and after hospitalization). During the hospitalization period, 25% of patients reported impaired taste, 15% burning sensation, and 20% difficulty in swallowing. An interesting result was that among the systemic conditions, hypertension was observed in 39% of patients and mostly in female patients (62.5%). Further studies are necessary to better understand the symptoms of this new virus in order to faster detect its presence in humans. Probably, a multidisciplinary team following the COVID-19 patients could be of key importance in treating this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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Open AccessArticle
Managing the Oral Health of Cancer Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspective of a Dental Clinic in a Cancer Center
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103138 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The practice of dentistry has been dramatically altered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the close person-to-person contact involved in delivering dental care and treatment procedures that produce aerosols, dental healthcare professionals including dentists, dental assistants and dental hygienists are at [...] Read more.
The practice of dentistry has been dramatically altered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the close person-to-person contact involved in delivering dental care and treatment procedures that produce aerosols, dental healthcare professionals including dentists, dental assistants and dental hygienists are at high risk of exposure. As a dental clinic in a comprehensive cancer center, we have continued to safely provide medically necessary and urgent/emergent dental care to ensure that patients can adhere to their planned cancer treatment. This was accomplished through timely adaptation of clinical workflows and implementation of practice modification measures in compliance with state, national and federal guidelines to ensure that risk of transmission remained low and the health of both immunocompromised cancer patients and clinical staff remained protected. In this narrative review, we share our experience and measures that were implemented in our clinic to ensure that the oral health needs of cancer patients were met in a timely manner and in a safe environment. Given that the pandemic is still on-going, the impact of our modified oral healthcare delivery model in cancer patients warrants continued monitoring and assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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Open AccessArticle
Children’s Dental Anxiety during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Polish Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092751 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dental fear and anxiety is a significant issue that affects pediatric patients and creates challenges in oral health management. Considering that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, along with its associated sanitary regime, social distancing measures and nationwide quarantines, could itself induce public [...] Read more.
Dental fear and anxiety is a significant issue that affects pediatric patients and creates challenges in oral health management. Considering that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, along with its associated sanitary regime, social distancing measures and nationwide quarantines, could itself induce public fears, including in children, it is of great interest to explore whether this situation and the necessity of reorganizing dental care could potentially affect the emotional state of pediatric patients facing a need for urgent dental intervention. The present study assessed the emotional state of children ≤ seven years old (n = 25) requiring dental healthcare during a nationwide quarantine in Poland, as well as the anxiety levels of their caregivers. The Faces Anxiety Scale was adopted, and the evaluation was independently performed by the dentist, caregivers and children themselves. The level of anxiety in caregivers was also measured. As demonstrated, children requiring dental intervention during the nationwide quarantine did not reveal a significantly higher anxiety level as compared to the age- and indication-matched pre-pandemic control group (n = 20), regardless of whether their emotional state was evaluated by the dentist, caregivers, or by themselves. However, the share of children scoring the lowest anxiety level in all assessments was smaller in the pandemic group. Boys in the pandemic group had a higher anxiety level, as indicated by a caregiver assessment, and displayed a negative correlation with age in all three types of evaluation. Moreover, caregiver anxiety levels were higher in the pandemic group as compared to the pre-pandemic subset and revealed stronger correlations with the dental anxiety in children. The results suggest that the reorganization of oral healthcare under the pandemic scenario did not have a profound effect on children’s dental anxiety. Nevertheless, findings in young boys highlight that they may be more vulnerable and require special care to mitigate their anxiety and decrease the risk of dentophobia in the future—these observations must be, however, treated with caution due to the small sample size and require further confirmation. Moreover, it is important to reassure caregivers of the safety of the dental visit during the pandemic to minimize the effect of their own anxiety on dental fears in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Oral Health: Therapeutic Opportunities and Challenges
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010156 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The novel corona virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease it causes, COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) have had multi-faceted effects on a number of lives on a global scale both directly and indirectly. A growing body of evidence suggest that COVID-19 [...] Read more.
The novel corona virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease it causes, COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) have had multi-faceted effects on a number of lives on a global scale both directly and indirectly. A growing body of evidence suggest that COVID-19 patients experience several oral health problems such as dry mouth, mucosal blistering, mouth rash, lip necrosis, and loss of taste and smell. Periodontal disease (PD), a severe inflammatory gum disease, may worsen the symptoms associated with COVID-19. Routine dental and periodontal treatment may help decrease the symptoms of COVID-19. PD is more prevalent among patients experiencing metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk. Studies have shown that these patients are highly susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress known to contribute to the development of PD and other metabolic diseases are highly elevated among COVID-19 patients. Periodontal health may help to determine the severity of COVID-19 infection. Accumulating evidence shows that African-Americans (AAs) and vulnerable populations are disproportionately susceptible to PD, metabolic diseases and COVID-19 compared to other ethnicities in the United States. Dentistry and dental healthcare professionals are particularly susceptible to this virus due to the transferability via the oral cavity and the use of aerosol creating instruments that are ubiquitous in this field. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive and updated source of information about SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and the various effects it has had on the dental profession and patients visits to dental clinics. Finally, this review is a valuable resource for the management of oral hygiene and reduction of the severity of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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Open AccessReview
Bio-Inspired Systems in Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy to Reduce Contaminated Aerosol during COVID-19: A Comprehensive and Bibliometric Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123914 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: On 30 January 2020, a public health emergency of international concern was declared as a result of the new COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is transmitted by air and, therefore, clinical practices with the production of contaminant aerosols [...] Read more.
Background: On 30 January 2020, a public health emergency of international concern was declared as a result of the new COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is transmitted by air and, therefore, clinical practices with the production of contaminant aerosols are highly at risk. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of bio-inspired systems, as adjuvants to nonsurgical periodontal therapy, in order to formulate bio-inspired protocols aimed at restoring optimal condition, reducing bacteremia and aerosols generation. Methods: A comprehensive and bibliometric review of articles published in English. Research of clinical trials (RCTs) were included with participants with chronic or aggressive periodontal disease, that have compared benefits for nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Results: Seventy-four articles have been included. For probing depth (PPD) there was a statically significant improvement in laser, probiotic, chlorhexidine groups, such as gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). Bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction was statistically significant only for probiotic and chlorhexidine groups. There were changes in microbiological and immunological parameters. Conclusions: The use of bio-inspired systems in nonsurgical periodontal treatment may be useful in reducing risk of bacteremia and aerosol generation, improving clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters, of fundamental importance in a context of global pandemic, where the reduction of bacterial load in aerosols becomes a pivotal point of clinical practice, but other clinical trials are necessary to achieve statistical validity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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Open AccessReview
Available Technologies, Applications and Benefits of Teleorthodontics. A Literature Review and Possible Applications during the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061891 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 14
Abstract
Background: COVID-2019 spread rapidly throughout the world from China. This infection is highly contagiousness, has a high morbidity, and is capable of evolving into a potentially lethal form of interstitial pneumonia. Numerous countries shut-down various activities that were considered “not essential.” Dental treatment [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-2019 spread rapidly throughout the world from China. This infection is highly contagiousness, has a high morbidity, and is capable of evolving into a potentially lethal form of interstitial pneumonia. Numerous countries shut-down various activities that were considered “not essential.” Dental treatment was in this category and, at the time of writing, only non-deferrable emergencies are still allowed in many countries. Therefore, follow-up visits of ongoing active therapies (e.g., orthodontic treatment) must be handled taking special precautions. This literature review aims at reducing in-office appointments by providing an overview of the technologies available and their reliability in the long-distance monitoring of patients, i.e., teledentistry. Methods: A literature review was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Randomized clinical trials, cross sectional, observational, and case-control studies were evaluated with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool for quality assessment and study limitations. Results: A primary search found 80 articles, 69/80 were excluded as non-relevant on the basis of: the abstract, title, study design, bias, and/or lack of relevance. Twelve articles were included in the qualitative analysis. Conclusions: Teleorthodontics can manage most emergencies, reassuring and following patients remotely. The aim set by dental teleassistance was met as it reduced patients’ office visits whilst maintaining regular monitoring, without compromising the results. Although our preliminary findings should be further investigated to objectively evaluate the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and long-term results, we are confident that teleassistance in orthodontics will have a role to play in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on the Dental Community)
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