ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ivan Kempson Website E-Mail
University of South Australia, Future Industries Institute, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: nanoparticles in cancer therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radiotherapies are highly effective and economical. For instance, in cancer treatment radiotherapy contributes about 40% of cures, yet accounts for less than 10% of cancer-treatment costs. The delivery of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles has advanced tremendously due to technical, engineering, and physical accomplishments. However, many treatments now have limited scope for further improvements without advancing our basic understanding and exploitation or manipulation of the physical, chemical, and biologcal attributes associated with the morbidity in question.

In this regard, nanoparticles offer avenues for enhancing current therapies and the exploration of experimental therapies by preferentially sensitizing target-tissues. A wave of ideas and technologies is building, with a number entering clinical trials. This spans diverse concepts aimed at enhancing physcial, chemical, and biologcal mechanisms, as well as developing nanoparticles for targetted delivery, and controlled delivery and release of radiosensitizing agents (small molecules, biologicals, and nanoparticles themselves).

With emerging knowledge, the molecular-scale roles in radiosensitization are increasingly critical to undertsanding mechanisms and developing radiosensitizers to enhance the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and particle interactions with biology. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences provides exciting insight into the state-of–the-art of radiosensitization with nanoparticle technologies.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ivan Kempson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Radiosensitizers
  • External beam radiotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Brachytherapy
  • Targeted alpha/beta therapy
  • Particle therapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Radiosensitizing Gold Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184618 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Ultrasmall polyaminocarboxylate-coated gold nanoparticles (NPs), [email protected] and [email protected], that have been recently developed exhibit a promising potential for image-guided radiotherapy. In order to render the radiosensitizing effect of these gold nanoparticles even more efficient, the study of their localization in cells is required [...] Read more.
Ultrasmall polyaminocarboxylate-coated gold nanoparticles (NPs), [email protected] and [email protected], that have been recently developed exhibit a promising potential for image-guided radiotherapy. In order to render the radiosensitizing effect of these gold nanoparticles even more efficient, the study of their localization in cells is required to better understand the relation between the radiosensitizing properties of the agents and their localization in cells and in tumors. To achieve this goal, post-functionalization of [email protected] nanoparticles by near-infrared (NIF) organic dyes (aminated derivative of cyanine 5, Cy5-NH2) was performed. The immobilization of organic Cy5-NH2 dyes onto the gold nanoparticles confers to these radiosensitizers fluorescence properties which can be exploited for monitoring their internalization in cancerous cells, for determining their localization in cells by fluorescence microscopy (a common and powerful imaging tool in biology), and for following up on their accumulation in tumors after intravenous injection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of Gold Nanoparticles and Ionizing Radiation on Human Prostate and Lung Cancer Cell Migration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184488 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
The effect of 15 nm-sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and/or ionizing radiation (IR) on the migration and adhesion of human prostate (DU145) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines was investigated. Cell migration was measured by observing the closing of a gap created by a [...] Read more.
The effect of 15 nm-sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and/or ionizing radiation (IR) on the migration and adhesion of human prostate (DU145) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines was investigated. Cell migration was measured by observing the closing of a gap created by a pipette tip on cell monolayers grown in 6-well plates. The ratio of the gap areas at 0 h and 24 h were used to calculate the relative migration. The relative migration of cells irradiated with 5 Gy was found to be 89% and 86% for DU145 and A549 cells respectively. When the cells were treated with 1 mM AuNPs this fell to ~75% for both cell lines. However, when the cells were treated with both AuNPs and IR an additive effect was seen, as the relative migration rate fell to ~60%. Of interest was that when the cells were exposed to either 2 or 5 Gy IR, their ability to adhere to the surface of a polystyrene culture plate was significantly enhanced, unlike that seen for AuNPs. The delays in gap filling (cell migration) in cells treated with IR and/or AuNPs can be attributed to cellular changes which also may have altered cell motility. In addition, changes in the cytoskeleton of the cancer cells may have also affected adhesiveness and thus the cancer cell’s motility response to IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Proton Therapy: Monte Carlo Modeling of Reactive Species’ Distributions Around a Gold Nanoparticle and the Effects of Nanoparticle Proximity and Clustering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174280 - 01 Sep 2019
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are promising radiosensitizers with the potential to enhance radiotherapy. Experiments have shown GNP enhancement of proton therapy and indicated that chemical damage by reactive species plays a major role. Simulations of the distribution and yield of reactive species from 10 [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are promising radiosensitizers with the potential to enhance radiotherapy. Experiments have shown GNP enhancement of proton therapy and indicated that chemical damage by reactive species plays a major role. Simulations of the distribution and yield of reactive species from 10 ps to 1 µs produced by a single GNP, two GNPs in proximity and a GNP cluster irradiated with a proton beam were performed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. It was found that the reactive species distribution at 1 µs extended a few hundred nm from a GNP and that the largest enhancement occurred over 50 nm from the nanoparticle. Additionally, the yield for two GNPs in proximity and a GNP cluster was reduced by up to 17% and 60% respectively from increased absorption. The extended range of action from the diffusion of the reactive species may enable simulations to model GNP enhanced proton therapy. The high levels of absorption for a large GNP cluster suggest that smaller clusters and diffuse GNP distributions maximize the total radiolysis yield within a cell. However, this must be balanced against the high local yields near a cluster particularly if the cluster is located adjacent to a biological target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Review of Therapeutic Applications of Radiolabeled Functional Nanomaterials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092323 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
In the last two decades, various nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention in medical science owing to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Incorporating radionuclides into conventionally used nanomaterials can confer useful additional properties compared to the original material. Therefore, various radionuclides have been [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, various nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention in medical science owing to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Incorporating radionuclides into conventionally used nanomaterials can confer useful additional properties compared to the original material. Therefore, various radionuclides have been used to synthesize functional nanomaterials for biomedical applications. In particular, several α- or β-emitter-labeled organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for efficient and targeted cancer treatment. This article reviews recent progress in cancer therapy using radiolabeled nanomaterials including inorganic, polymeric, and carbon-based materials and liposomes. We first provide an overview of radiolabeling methods for preparing anticancer agents that have been investigated recently in preclinical studies. Next, we discuss the therapeutic applications and effectiveness of α- or β-emitter-incorporated nanomaterials in animal models and the emerging possibilities of these nanomaterials in cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Radioactive nanomaterials for cancer treatment: A review

Author: Jongho Jeon

Abstract: In recent years, a few kinds of nanomaterials which labeled with radioisotopes have been applied to the field of nuclear medicine such as molecular imaging, diagnostics, and toxicokinetics. In particular, various alpha (e.g. At-211 and Ac-255) or beta emitters (e.g. Re-188, Lu-177, I-131, Y-90, Cu-67) containing organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for targeted treatment of cancer cells in living subjects. In this review, fabrication methods of these materials and biomedical applications including cancer therapeutics are systematically discussed. In addition, future perspectives on the radioactive nanomaterials based research are highlighted.

Title: Extracellular vesicles in modifying the effects of ionizing radiation

Authors: Tünde Szatmári, Rita Hargitai, Géza Sáfrány, Katalin Lumniczky

Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-coated nanovesicles actively secreted by almost all cell types. EVs can travel long distances within the body, being finally taken up by the target cells, transferring information from one cell to another, thus influencing their behavior. The cargo of EVs comprises of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins derived from the cell of origin, thereby it is cell-type specific; moreover it differs between diseased and normal cells.

Several studies have shown that EVs have a role in tumor formation and prognosis. It was also demonstrated that ionizing radiation can alter the cargo of EVs. EVs, in turn can modulate radiation responses and they play a role in radiation-induced bystander effects. Due to their biocompatibility and selective targeting, EVs are suitable nanocarrier candidates of drugs in various diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, the cargo of EVs can be engineered, and in this way they can be designed to carry certain genes or even drugs, similar to synthetic nanoparticles.

In this review, we describe the biological characteristics of EVs, focusing on the recent efforts to use EVs as nanocarriers in oncology, the effects of EVs in radiation therapy, highlighting the possibilities to use EVs as nanocarriers to modulate radiation effects in clinical applications.

Title: Biodistribution of gold-nanoparticles functionalized with cmHsp70.1 antibody to target tumor cells described by a mouse compartmental model

Authors: AP Klapproth1,2, S Stangl1, WB Li2, M Shevtsov1, B Michalke3, V Ntziachristos4, G Multhoff1

Abstract:Different cell culture experiments and Monte Carlo simulations already showed that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can result in a dose enhancement of radiotherapy. Current in vitro results suggest an increased uptake of AuNPs into Hsp70-positive tumor cells after conjugation of AuNPs with cmHsp70.1 antibody. However, hardly anything is known about the destiny of nanoparticles that are not taken up by tumor cells. To this end, in vivo experiments were performed on two groups of Balb/C mice. Each of the groups was afflicted with one distinct tumor type (CT26 and 4T1 cells respectively). After two separate intravenous injections with either functionalized or non-functionalized AuNPs, tissue samples of different compartments (i.e. tumor or one organ) were analyzed to estimate their gold content. These results reinforced the assumption that AuNPs are more likely to accumulate inside a tumor, when functionalized with cmHsp70.1. Moreover, the analysis of different organs gives us valuable information about the biodistribution of AuNPs after their injection for future feasibility and toxicity studies of the treatment technique. Though promising, the conclusions until this point were based on the assumption that the gold content in a compartment positively correlates with the overall size of their contained AuNP clusters visible with brightfield microscopy, FACS analysis and TEM. To investigate the actual gold content, ICP-MS (Inductively couples plasma mass spectrometry) was performed on samples of each compartment. The obtained results were used to find connections between the amount and size of visible AuNP clusters and their actual quantity for future reference. Additionally, a mathematical compartment based model has been developed to describe the biodistribution of functionalized AuNPs over time. This gives us valuable information about the processes following the injection of antibody coupled AuNPs and can help improving diagnosis and therapy.

Back to TopTop