Journal Menu► ▼ Journal Menu
Journal Browser► ▼ Journal Browser
Special Issue "Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.
Radiotherapies are highly effective and economical. For instance, in cancer treatment radiotherapy contributes about 40% of cures, yet accounts for less than 10% of cancer-treatment costs. The delivery of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles has advanced tremendously due to technical, engineering, and physical accomplishments. However, many treatments now have limited scope for further improvements without advancing our basic understanding and exploitation or manipulation of the physical, chemical, and biologcal attributes associated with the morbidity in question.
In this regard, nanoparticles offer avenues for enhancing current therapies and the exploration of experimental therapies by preferentially sensitizing target-tissues. A wave of ideas and technologies is building, with a number entering clinical trials. This spans diverse concepts aimed at enhancing physcial, chemical, and biologcal mechanisms, as well as developing nanoparticles for targetted delivery, and controlled delivery and release of radiosensitizing agents (small molecules, biologicals, and nanoparticles themselves).
With emerging knowledge, the molecular-scale roles in radiosensitization are increasingly critical to undertsanding mechanisms and developing radiosensitizers to enhance the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and particle interactions with biology. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences provides exciting insight into the state-of–the-art of radiosensitization with nanoparticle technologies.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ivan Kempson
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- External beam radiotherapy
- Photodynamic therapy
- Targeted alpha/beta therapy
- Particle therapy
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Radioactive nanomaterials for cancer treatment: A review
Author: Jongho Jeon
Abstract: In recent years, a few kinds of nanomaterials which labeled with radioisotopes have been applied to the field of nuclear medicine such as molecular imaging, diagnostics, and toxicokinetics. In particular, various alpha (e.g. At-211 and Ac-255) or beta emitters (e.g. Re-188, Lu-177, I-131, Y-90, Cu-67) containing organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for targeted treatment of cancer cells in living subjects. In this review, fabrication methods of these materials and biomedical applications including cancer therapeutics are systematically discussed. In addition, future perspectives on the radioactive nanomaterials based research are highlighted.
Title: Extracellular vesicles in modifying the effects of ionizing radiation
Authors: Tünde Szatmári, Rita Hargitai, Géza Sáfrány, Katalin Lumniczky
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-coated nanovesicles actively secreted by almost all cell types. EVs can travel long distances within the body, being finally taken up by the target cells, transferring information from one cell to another, thus influencing their behavior. The cargo of EVs comprises of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins derived from the cell of origin, thereby it is cell-type specific; moreover it differs between diseased and normal cells.
Several studies have shown that EVs have a role in tumor formation and prognosis. It was also demonstrated that ionizing radiation can alter the cargo of EVs. EVs, in turn can modulate radiation responses and they play a role in radiation-induced bystander effects. Due to their biocompatibility and selective targeting, EVs are suitable nanocarrier candidates of drugs in various diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, the cargo of EVs can be engineered, and in this way they can be designed to carry certain genes or even drugs, similar to synthetic nanoparticles.
In this review, we describe the biological characteristics of EVs, focusing on the recent efforts to use EVs as nanocarriers in oncology, the effects of EVs in radiation therapy, highlighting the possibilities to use EVs as nanocarriers to modulate radiation effects in clinical applications.
Title: Biodistribution of gold-nanoparticles functionalized with cmHsp70.1 antibody to target tumor cells described by a mouse compartmental model
Authors: AP Klapproth1,2, S Stangl1, WB Li2, M Shevtsov1, B Michalke3, V Ntziachristos4, G Multhoff1
Abstract:Different cell culture experiments and Monte Carlo simulations already showed that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can result in a dose enhancement of radiotherapy. Current in vitro results suggest an increased uptake of AuNPs into Hsp70-positive tumor cells after conjugation of AuNPs with cmHsp70.1 antibody. However, hardly anything is known about the destiny of nanoparticles that are not taken up by tumor cells. To this end, in vivo experiments were performed on two groups of Balb/C mice. Each of the groups was afflicted with one distinct tumor type (CT26 and 4T1 cells respectively). After two separate intravenous injections with either functionalized or non-functionalized AuNPs, tissue samples of different compartments (i.e. tumor or one organ) were analyzed to estimate their gold content. These results reinforced the assumption that AuNPs are more likely to accumulate inside a tumor, when functionalized with cmHsp70.1. Moreover, the analysis of different organs gives us valuable information about the biodistribution of AuNPs after their injection for future feasibility and toxicity studies of the treatment technique. Though promising, the conclusions until this point were based on the assumption that the gold content in a compartment positively correlates with the overall size of their contained AuNP clusters visible with brightfield microscopy, FACS analysis and TEM. To investigate the actual gold content, ICP-MS (Inductively couples plasma mass spectrometry) was performed on samples of each compartment. The obtained results were used to find connections between the amount and size of visible AuNP clusters and their actual quantity for future reference. Additionally, a mathematical compartment based model has been developed to describe the biodistribution of functionalized AuNPs over time. This gives us valuable information about the processes following the injection of antibody coupled AuNPs and can help improving diagnosis and therapy.