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Open AccessArticle

Megavoltage Radiosensitization of Gold Nanoparticles on a Glioblastoma Cancer Cell Line Using a Clinical Platform

1
Early Phase Clinical Trials Unit, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK
2
CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute (NCIS), Singapore 119228, Singapore
4
Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117456, Singapore
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Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117456, Singapore
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: MB BCh BAO LRCP (Ireland), MRCS (UK), MSc in Nanomedicine (Oxford), Clinical Research Fellow, Early Phase Clinical Trials Unit, University of Oxford Department of Oncology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020429
Received: 26 October 2019 / Revised: 4 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Radiosensitization)
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have demonstrated significant dose enhancement with kilovoltage (kV) X-rays; however, recent studies have shown inconsistent findings with megavoltage (MV) X-rays. We propose to evaluate the radiosensitization effect on U87 glioblastoma (GBM) cells in the presence of 42 nm GNPs and irradiated with a clinical 6 MV photon beam. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured using MTS and clonogenic cellular radiation sensitivity assays, respectively. The sensitization enhancement ratio was calculated for 2 Gy (SER2Gy) with GNP (100 μg/mL). Dark field and MTS assays revealed high co-localization and good biocompatibility of the GNPs with GBM cells. A significant sensitization enhancement of 1.45 (p = 0.001) was observed with GNP 100 μg/mL. Similarly, at 6 Gy, there was significant difference in the survival fraction between the GBM alone group (mean (M) = 0.26, standard deviation (SD) = 0.008) and the GBM plus GNP group (M = 0.07, SD = 0.05, p = 0.03). GNPs enabled radiosensitization in U87 GBM cells at 2 Gy when irradiated using a clinical platform. In addition to the potential clinical utility of GNPs, these studies demonstrate the effectiveness of a robust and easy to standardize an in-vitro model that can be employed for future studies involving metal nanoparticle plus irradiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; glioblastoma multiform; radiosensitizers; external beam radiotherapy nanoparticles; glioblastoma multiform; radiosensitizers; external beam radiotherapy
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Kazmi, F.; Vallis, K.A.; Vellayappan, B.A.; Bandla, A.; Yukun, D.; Carlisle, R. Megavoltage Radiosensitization of Gold Nanoparticles on a Glioblastoma Cancer Cell Line Using a Clinical Platform. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 429.

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