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Special Issue "Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ihtesham Ur Rehman
Website
Guest Editor
Engineering Department, Faculty of Scince and Technology, Lancaster University, Gillow Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK
Interests: dental materials; biomaterials; FTIR and Raman spectroscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mary Anne Melo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Dentistry, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, 650 W. Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Interests: oral biofilm; dental materials; dental caries; biomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The history of use of dental materials and biomaterial dates back to the BC era, but the real advances in this field have occurred since the 19th century, due to the invention and understanding of new materials. These advances have been due to the continuous quest for new materials and new technologies used for the design and fabrication of new and novel materials, and, in particular, the understanding of new materials with innovative clinical applications. These have only been possible due to interdisciplinary research of a translational nature, where physicians, surgeons, dentists, and materials scientists work together for a common and targeted goal. It is important for clinicians to understand the needs of the patient, who translates those needs for the materials scientist to develop an implant to improve the quality of life for the patient.

Once the chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the materials are well understood, then these materials can be tailored to provide specific clinical applications. Development in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has only been possible due to work from this partnership. This Special Issue will provide an excellent forum to bring together different communities and publish research of a high caliber, which will be beneficial to healthcare.

I would like to take this opportunity to invite you to submit your manuscript to the Special Issue on “Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials” in IJMS, which will surely act as an excellent vehicle for the dissemination of your research. We will accept reviews and original scientific papers in this Special Issue, and very much look forward to your valuable contribution.

Prof. Dr. Ihtesham ur Rehman
Assoc Prof. Mary Anne Melo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • polymers
  • bioceramics
  • nanomaterials
  • nano-technology
  • fibers glass ionomers
  • bioactive glasses
  • biocomposites
  • dental composites
  • characterization
  • properties of dental and biomaterials dental applications
  • dental technology
  • GTR membranes
  • restorative materials
  • dental implants
  • dental tissue engineering
  • scaffold for dental tissue engineering
  • oral biology
  • oral cancers
  • drug delivery
  • spectroscopy

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Dental Sealant Containing Dimethylaminohexadecyl Methacrylate Suppresses the Cariogenic Pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143491 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cariogenic oral biofilms are strongly linked to dental caries around dental sealants. Quaternary ammonium monomers copolymerized with dental resin systems have been increasingly explored for modulation of biofilm growth. Here, we investigated the effect of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on the cariogenic pathogenicity of [...] Read more.
Cariogenic oral biofilms are strongly linked to dental caries around dental sealants. Quaternary ammonium monomers copolymerized with dental resin systems have been increasingly explored for modulation of biofilm growth. Here, we investigated the effect of dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on the cariogenic pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms. DMAHDM at 5 mass% was incorporated into a parental formulation containing 20 mass% nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). S. mutans biofilms were grown on the formulations, and biofilm inhibition and virulence properties were assessed. The tolerances to acid stress and hydrogen peroxide stress were also evaluated. Our findings suggest that incorporating 5% DMAHDM into 20% NACP-containing sealants (1) imparts a detrimental biological effect on S. mutans by reducing colony-forming unit counts, metabolic activity and exopolysaccharide synthesis; and (2) reduces overall acid production and tolerance to oxygen stress, two major virulence factors of this microorganism. These results provide a perspective on the value of integrating bioactive restorative materials with traditional caries management approaches in clinical practice. Contact-killing strategies via dental materials aiming to prevent or at least reduce high numbers of cariogenic bacteria may be a promising approach to decrease caries in patients at high risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Biological Response of STRO-1/c-Kit Enriched Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells to Titanium Surfaces Treated with Two Different Cleaning Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081868 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peri-implantitis—an infection caused by bacterial deposition of biofilm—is a common complication in dentistry which may lead to implant loss. Several decontamination procedures have been investigated to identify the optimal approach being capable to remove the bacterial biofilm without modifying the implant surface properties. [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis—an infection caused by bacterial deposition of biofilm—is a common complication in dentistry which may lead to implant loss. Several decontamination procedures have been investigated to identify the optimal approach being capable to remove the bacterial biofilm without modifying the implant surface properties. Our study evaluated whether two different systems—Ni-Ti Brushes (Brush) and Air-Polishing with 40 µm bicarbonate powder (Bic40)—might alter the physical/chemical features of two different titanium surfaces—machined (MCH) and Ca++ nanostructured (NCA)—and whether these decontamination systems may affect the biological properties of human STRO-1+/c-Kit+ dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) as well as the bacterial ability to produce biofilm. Cell morphology, proliferation and stemness markers were analysed in hDPSCs grown on both surfaces, before and after the decontamination treatments. Our findings highlighted that Bic40 treatment either maintained the surface characteristics of both implants and allowed hDPSCs to proliferate and preserve their stemness properties. Moreover, Bic40 treatment proved effective in removing bacterial biofilm from both titanium surfaces and consistently limited the biofilm re-growth. In conclusion, our data suggest that Bic40 treatment may operatively clean smooth and rough surfaces without altering their properties and, consequently, offer favourable conditions for reparative cells to hold their biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Fractionation Methods on Physical and Biological Properties of Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin: An Exploratory Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071657 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) has been used as an autografting material to enhance bone regeneration through intrinsic growth factors. However, fractionation protocols used to prepare i-PRF can be varied and the effects of different fractionation protocols are not known. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) has been used as an autografting material to enhance bone regeneration through intrinsic growth factors. However, fractionation protocols used to prepare i-PRF can be varied and the effects of different fractionation protocols are not known. In this study, we investigated the influence of different fractions of i-PRF on the physical and biological properties derived from variations in i-PRF fractionation preparation. The i-PRF samples, obtained from the blood samples of 10 donors, were used to harvest i-PRF and were fractioned into two types. The yellow i-PRF fractionation was harvested from the upper yellow zone, while the red i-PRF fractionation was collected from both the yellow and red zone of the buffy coat. The viscoelastic property measurements, including the clot formation time, α-angle, and maximum clot firmness, were performed by rotational thromboelastometry. The fibrin network was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the concentration of growth factors released, including VEGF, TGF-β1, and PDGF, were quantified using ELISA. A paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval was used. All three viscoelastic properties were statistically significantly higher in the yellow i-PRF compared to the red i-PRF. The scanning electron microscope reviewed more cellular components in the red i-PRF compared to the yellow i-PRF. In addition, the fibrin network of the yellow i-PRF showed a higher density than that in the red i-PRF. There was no statistically significant difference between the concentration of VEGF and TGF-β1. However, at Day 7 and Day 14 PDGF concentrations were statistically significantly higher in the red i-PRF compared to the yellow group. In conclusion, these results showed that the red i-PRF provided better biological properties through the release of growth factors. On the other hand, the yellow i-PRF had greater viscoelastic physical properties. Further investigations into the appropriate i-PRF fractionation for certain surgical procedures are therefore necessary to clarify the suitability for each fraction for different types of regenerative therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Covalently-Linked Hyaluronan versus Acid Etched Titanium Dental Implants: A Crossover RCT in Humans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030763 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biochemical modification of titanium surfaces (BMTiS) entails immobilization of biomolecules to implant surfaces in order to induce specific host responses. This crossover randomized clinical trial assesses clinical success and marginal bone resorption of dental implants bearing a surface molecular layer of covalently-linked hyaluronan [...] Read more.
Biochemical modification of titanium surfaces (BMTiS) entails immobilization of biomolecules to implant surfaces in order to induce specific host responses. This crossover randomized clinical trial assesses clinical success and marginal bone resorption of dental implants bearing a surface molecular layer of covalently-linked hyaluronan in comparison with control implants up to 36 months after loading. Patients requiring bilateral implant rehabilitation received hyaluronan covered implants in one side of the mouth and traditional implants in the other side. Two months after the first surgery, a second surgery was undergone to uncover the screw and to place a healing abutment. After two weeks, the operator proceeded with prosthetic procedures. Implants were evaluated by periapical radiographs and the crestal bone level was recorded at mesial and distal sites—at baseline and up to 36 months. One hundred and six implants were positioned, 52 HY-coated, and 48 controls were followed up. No differences were observed in terms of insertion and stability, wound healing, implant success, and crestal bone resorption at any time considered. All interventions had an optimal healing, and no adverse events were recorded. This trial shows, for the first time, a successful use in humans of biochemical-modified implants in routine clinical practice and in healthy patients and tissues with satisfactory outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential for Drug Repositioning of Midazolam for Dentin Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030670 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Drug repositioning promises the advantages of reducing costs and expediting approval schedules. An induction of the anesthetic and sedative drug; midazolam (MDZ), regulates inhibitory neurotransmitters in the vertebrate nervous system. In this study we show the potential for drug repositioning of MDZ for [...] Read more.
Drug repositioning promises the advantages of reducing costs and expediting approval schedules. An induction of the anesthetic and sedative drug; midazolam (MDZ), regulates inhibitory neurotransmitters in the vertebrate nervous system. In this study we show the potential for drug repositioning of MDZ for dentin regeneration. A porcine dental pulp-derived cell line (PPU-7) that we established was cultured in MDZ-only, the combination of MDZ with bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the combination of MDZ with transforming growth factor-beta 1. The differentiation of PPU-7 into odontoblasts was investigated at the cell biological and genetic level. Mineralized nodules formed in PPU-7 were characterized at the protein and crystal engineering levels. The MDZ-only treatment enhanced the alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA levels of odontoblast differentiation marker genes, and precipitated nodule formation containing a dentin-specific protein (dentin phosphoprotein). The nodules consisted of randomly oriented hydroxyapatite nanorods and nanoparticles. The morphology, orientation, and chemical composition of the hydroxyapatite crystals were similar to those of hydroxyapatite that had transformed from amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles, as well as the hydroxyapatite in human molar dentin. Our investigation showed that a combination of MDZ and PPU-7 cells possesses high potential of drug repositioning for dentin regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation Is Mediated by the Integrin/FAK Axis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030574 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Graphene is capable of promoting osteogenesis without chemical induction. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. The objectives here were: (i) to assess whether graphene scaffolds are capable of supporting osteogenesis in vivo and; (ii) to ascertain the participation of the integrin/FAK mechanotransduction [...] Read more.
Graphene is capable of promoting osteogenesis without chemical induction. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. The objectives here were: (i) to assess whether graphene scaffolds are capable of supporting osteogenesis in vivo and; (ii) to ascertain the participation of the integrin/FAK mechanotransduction axis during the osteogenic differentiation induced by graphene. MSC-impregnated graphene scaffolds (n = 6) were implanted into immunocompromised mice (28 days). Alternatively, MSCs were seeded onto PDMS substrates (modulus of elasticity = 130, 830 and 1300 kPa) coated with a single monomolecular layer of graphene and cultured in basal medium (10 days). The ensuing expressions of FAK-p397, integrin, ROCK1, F-actin, Smad p1/5, RUNX2, OCN and OPN were evaluated by Western blot (n = 3). As controls, MSCs were plated onto uncoated PDMS in the presence of mechanotransduction inhibitors (echistatin, Y27632 and DMH1). MSC-impregnated graphene scaffolds exhibited positive immunoexpression of bone-related markers (RUNX2 and OPN) without the assistance of osteogenic inducers. In vitro, regardless of the stiffness of the underlying PDMS substrate, MSCs seeded onto graphene-coated PDMS substrates demonstrated higher expressions of all tested osteogenic and integrin/FAK proteins tested compared to MSCs seeded onto PDMS alone. Hence, graphene promotes osteogenesis via the activation of the mechanosensitive integrin/FAK axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Localized Delivery of Pilocarpine to Hypofunctional Salivary Glands through Electrospun Nanofiber Mats: An Ex Vivo and In Vivo Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030541 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dry mouth or xerostomia is a frequent medical condition among the polymedicated elderly population. Systemic pilocarpine is included in the first line of pharmacological therapies for xerostomia. However, the efficacy of existing pilocarpine formulations is limited due to its adverse side effects and [...] Read more.
Dry mouth or xerostomia is a frequent medical condition among the polymedicated elderly population. Systemic pilocarpine is included in the first line of pharmacological therapies for xerostomia. However, the efficacy of existing pilocarpine formulations is limited due to its adverse side effects and multiple daily dosages. To overcome these drawbacks, a localized formulation of pilocarpine targeting the salivary glands (SG) was developed in the current study. The proposed formulation consisted of pilocarpine-loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanofiber mats via an electrospinning technique. The nanofiber mats were fully characterized for their size, mesh porosity, drug encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Mat biocompatibility and efficacy was evaluated in the SG organ ex vivo, and the expression of proliferation and pro-apoptotic markers at the cellular level was determined. In vivo short-term studies were performed to evaluate the saliva secretion after acute SG treatment with pilocarpine-loaded nanofiber mats, and after systemic pilocarpine for comparison purposes. The outcomes demonstrated that the pilocarpine-loaded mats were uniformly distributed (diameter: 384 ± 124 nm) in a highly porous mesh, and possessed a high encapsulation efficiency (~81%). Drug release studies showed an initial pilocarpine release of 26% (4.5 h), followed by a gradual increase (~46%) over 15 d. Pilocarpine-loaded nanofiber mats supported SG growth with negligible cytotoxicity and normal cellular proliferation and homeostasis. Salivary secretion was significantly increased 4.5 h after intradermal SG treatment with drug-loaded nanofibers in vivo. Overall, this study highlights the strengths of PLGA/PEG nanofiber mats for the localized daily delivery of pilocarpine and reveals its potential for future clinical translation in patients with xerostomia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
The Retentive Strength of Laser-Sintered Cobalt-Chromium-Based Crowns after Pretreatment with a Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124082 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The retention of laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr)-based crowns were examined after dentin pretreatment with desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (DP-ACC). Forty lower first molars were prepared using a standardized protocol. The Co-Cr crowns were produced using selective laser melting. The teeth [...] Read more.
The retention of laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr)-based crowns were examined after dentin pretreatment with desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (DP-ACC). Forty lower first molars were prepared using a standardized protocol. The Co-Cr crowns were produced using selective laser melting. The teeth were either pretreated with the desensitizing paste or not pretreated. After one week, each group was cemented with glass ionomer cement (GIC) or zinc phosphate cement (ZPC). Surface areas of the teeth were measured before cementation. After aging, a universal testing machine was used to test the retentive strength of the cemented crown-tooth assemblies. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined at 2.7× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with the desensitizing paste before cementation with GIC or ZPC did not affect the retention of the Co-Cr crowns. The retention of the GIC group (6.04 ± 1.10 MPa) was significantly higher than that of the ZPC group (2.75 ± 1.25 MPa). The predominant failure mode for the ZPC and the nontreated GIC group was adhesive cement-dentin failure; for the treated GIC group, it was adhesive cement-crown failure. The desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Co-Cr crowns cemented with GIC or ZPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Implant Material and Surface on Differentiation and Proliferation of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124033 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
For the guided regeneration of periimplant hard and soft tissues, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC) seem to be a promising source for mesenchymal stromal cells. For this, the proliferation and differentiation of hADSC were evaluated on titanium and zirconia dental implants with different [...] Read more.
For the guided regeneration of periimplant hard and soft tissues, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSC) seem to be a promising source for mesenchymal stromal cells. For this, the proliferation and differentiation of hADSC were evaluated on titanium and zirconia dental implants with different surface treatments. Results were compared to edaphic cells as human osteoblasts (hOB) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Primary cells were cultured on (1) titanium implants with a polished surface (Ti-PT), (2) sandblasted and acid-etched titanium (Ti-SLA), (3) sandblasted and alkaline etched zirconia (ZrO2-ZLA) and (4) machined zirconia (ZrO2-M). The cell proliferation and differentiation on osteogenic lineage were assessed after 1, 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and a modified Levene test with a statistical significance at p = 0.05. PostHoc tests were performed by Bonferroni-Holm. Zirconia dental implants with rough surface (ZrO2-ZLA) showed the highest proliferation rates (p = 0.048). The osteogenic differentiation occurred early for zirconia and later for titanium implants, and it was enhanced for rough surfaces in comparison to polished/machined surfaces. Zirconia was more effective to promote the proliferation and differentiation of hADSCs in comparison to titanium. Rough surfaces were able to improve the biological response for both zirconia and titanium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Curing Efficiency and Mechanical Properties of Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Nanocomposites Containing Silver Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123937 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Bioactive dimethacrylate composites filled with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) might be used in medical applications, such as dental restorations and bone cements. The composition of bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) mixed in a 60/40 wt% ratio was filled from [...] Read more.
Bioactive dimethacrylate composites filled with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) might be used in medical applications, such as dental restorations and bone cements. The composition of bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) mixed in a 60/40 wt% ratio was filled from 25 to 5000 ppm of AgNP. An exponential increase in resin viscosity was observed with an increase in AgNP concentration. Curing was performed by way of photopolymerization, room temperature polymerization, and thermal polymerization. The results showed that the polymerization mode determines the degree of conversion (DC), which governs the ultimate mechanical properties of nanocomposites. Thermal polymerization resulted in a higher DC than photo- and room temperature polymerizations. The DC always decreased as AgNP content increased. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, hardness, and impact strength initially increased, as AgNP concentration increased, and then decreased at higher AgNP loadings. This turning point usually occurred when the DC dropped below 65% and moved toward higher AgNP concentrations, according to the following order of polymerization methods: photopolymerization < room temperature polymerization < thermal polymerization. Water sorption (WS) was also determined. Nanocomposites revealed an average decrease of 16% in WS with respect to the neat polymer. AgNP concentration did not significantly affect WS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Human In Situ Study of the effect of Bis(2-Methacryloyloxyethyl) Dimethylammonium Bromide Immobilized in Dental Composite on Controlling Mature Cariogenic Biofilm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113443 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Cariogenic oral biofilms cause recurrent dental caries around composite restorations, resulting in unprosperous oral health and expensive restorative treatment. Quaternary ammonium monomers that can be copolymerized with dental resin systems have been explored for the modulation of dental plaque biofilm growth over dental [...] Read more.
Cariogenic oral biofilms cause recurrent dental caries around composite restorations, resulting in unprosperous oral health and expensive restorative treatment. Quaternary ammonium monomers that can be copolymerized with dental resin systems have been explored for the modulation of dental plaque biofilm growth over dental composite surfaces. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effect of bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (QADM) on human overlying mature oral biofilms grown intra-orally in human participants for 7–14 days. Seventeen volunteers wore palatal devices containing composite specimens containing 10% by mass of QADM or a control composite without QADM. After 7 and 14 days, the adherent biofilms were collected to determine bacterial counts via colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Biofilm viability, chronological changes, and percentage coverage were also determined through live/dead staining. QADM composites caused a significant inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation for up to seven days. No difference in the CFU values were found for the 14-day period. Our findings suggest that: (1) QADM composites were successful in inhibiting 1–3-day biofilms in the oral environment in vivo; (2) QADM significantly reduced the portion of the S. mutans group; and (3) stronger antibiofilm activity is required for the control of mature long-term cariogenic biofilms. Contact-killing strategies using dental materials aimed at preventing or at least reducing high numbers of cariogenic bacteria seem to be a promising approach in patients at high risk of the recurrence of dental caries around composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modifying Adhesive Materials to Improve the Longevity of Resinous Restorations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030723 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Dental caries is a common disease on a global scale. Resin composites are the most popular materials to restore caries by bonding to tooth tissues via adhesives. However, multiple factors, such as microleakage and recurrent caries, impair the durability of resinous restorations. Various [...] Read more.
Dental caries is a common disease on a global scale. Resin composites are the most popular materials to restore caries by bonding to tooth tissues via adhesives. However, multiple factors, such as microleakage and recurrent caries, impair the durability of resinous restorations. Various innovative methods have been applied to develop adhesives with particular functions to tackle these problems, such as incorporating matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, antibacterial or remineralizing agents into bonding systems, as well as improving the mechanical/chemical properties of adhesives, even combining these methods. This review will sum up the latest achievements in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in the Transduction of Dental Pain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030526 - 27 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Dental pain is a common health problem that negatively impacts the activities of daily living. Dentine hypersensitivity and pulpitis-associated pain are among the most common types of dental pain. Patients with these conditions feel pain upon exposure of the affected tooth to various [...] Read more.
Dental pain is a common health problem that negatively impacts the activities of daily living. Dentine hypersensitivity and pulpitis-associated pain are among the most common types of dental pain. Patients with these conditions feel pain upon exposure of the affected tooth to various external stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain, especially the transduction of external stimuli to electrical signals in the nerve, remain unclear. Numerous ion channels and receptors localized in the dental primary afferent neurons (DPAs) and odontoblasts have been implicated in the transduction of dental pain, and functional expression of various polymodal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels has been detected in DPAs and odontoblasts. External stimuli-induced dentinal tubular fluid movement can activate TRP channels on DPAs and odontoblasts. The odontoblasts can in turn activate the DPAs by paracrine signaling through ATP and glutamate release. In pulpitis, inflammatory mediators may sensitize the DPAs. They could also induce post-translational modifications of TRP channels, increase trafficking of these channels to nerve terminals, and increase the sensitivity of these channels to stimuli. Additionally, in caries-induced pulpitis, bacterial products can directly activate TRP channels on DPAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the TRP channels expressed in the various tooth structures, and we discuss their involvement in the development of dental pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessReview
Potential Causes of Titanium Particle and Ion Release in Implant Dentistry: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113585 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Implant surface characteristics, as well as physical and mechanical properties, are responsible for the positive interaction between the dental implant, the bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Unfortunately, the dental implant surface does not remain unaltered and changes over time during the life [...] Read more.
Implant surface characteristics, as well as physical and mechanical properties, are responsible for the positive interaction between the dental implant, the bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Unfortunately, the dental implant surface does not remain unaltered and changes over time during the life of the implant. If changes occur at the implant surface, mucositis and peri-implantitis processes could be initiated; implant osseointegration might be disrupted and bone resorption phenomena (osteolysis) may lead to implant loss. This systematic review compiled the information related to the potential sources of titanium particle and ions in implant dentistry. Research questions were structured in the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) framework. PICO questionnaires were developed and an exhaustive search was performed for all the relevant studies published between 1980 and 2018 involving titanium particles and ions related to implant dentistry procedures. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for the selection and inclusion of the manuscripts in this review. Titanium particle and ions are released during the implant bed preparation, during the implant insertion and during the implant decontamination. In addition, the implant surfaces and restorations are exposed to the saliva, bacteria and chemicals that can potentially dissolve the titanium oxide layer and, therefore, corrosion cycles can be initiated. Mechanical factors, the micro-gap and fluorides can also influence the proportion of metal particles and ions released from implants and restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Dental Prosthesis and Restorative Materials Interface on Oral Biofilms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3157; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103157 - 14 Oct 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Oral biofilms attach onto both teeth surfaces and dental material surfaces in oral cavities. In the meantime, oral biofilms are not only the pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis, but also secondary caries and peri-implantitis, which would lead to the failure of clinical [...] Read more.
Oral biofilms attach onto both teeth surfaces and dental material surfaces in oral cavities. In the meantime, oral biofilms are not only the pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis, but also secondary caries and peri-implantitis, which would lead to the failure of clinical treatments. The material surfaces exposed to oral conditions can influence pellicle coating, initial bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation, due to their specific physical and chemical characteristics. To define the effect of physical and chemical characteristics of dental prosthesis and restorative material on oral biofilms, we discuss resin-based composites, glass ionomer cements, amalgams, dental alloys, ceramic, and dental implant material surface properties. In conclusion, each particular chemical composition (organic matrix, inorganic filler, fluoride, and various metallic ions) can enhance or inhibit biofilm formation. Irregular topography and rough surfaces provide favorable interface for bacterial colonization, protecting bacteria against shear forces during their initial reversible binding and biofilm formation. Moreover, the surface free energy, hydrophobicity, and surface-coating techniques, also have a significant influence on oral biofilms. However, controversies still exist in the current research for the different methods and models applied. In addition, more in situ studies are needed to clarify the role and mechanism of each surface parameter on oral biofilm development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
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