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Open AccessArticle

Human In Situ Study of the effect of Bis(2-Methacryloyloxyethyl) Dimethylammonium Bromide Immobilized in Dental Composite on Controlling Mature Cariogenic Biofilm

1
Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2
Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE 60430-355, Brazil
3
Faculty of Dentistry UniChristus, Fortaleza, CE 60160-230, Brazil
4
Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital, University College Cork, Wilton T12 K8AF, Ireland
5
Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
6
Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113443
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Dental Materials and Biomaterials 2018)
Cariogenic oral biofilms cause recurrent dental caries around composite restorations, resulting in unprosperous oral health and expensive restorative treatment. Quaternary ammonium monomers that can be copolymerized with dental resin systems have been explored for the modulation of dental plaque biofilm growth over dental composite surfaces. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effect of bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (QADM) on human overlying mature oral biofilms grown intra-orally in human participants for 7–14 days. Seventeen volunteers wore palatal devices containing composite specimens containing 10% by mass of QADM or a control composite without QADM. After 7 and 14 days, the adherent biofilms were collected to determine bacterial counts via colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Biofilm viability, chronological changes, and percentage coverage were also determined through live/dead staining. QADM composites caused a significant inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation for up to seven days. No difference in the CFU values were found for the 14-day period. Our findings suggest that: (1) QADM composites were successful in inhibiting 1–3-day biofilms in the oral environment in vivo; (2) QADM significantly reduced the portion of the S. mutans group; and (3) stronger antibiofilm activity is required for the control of mature long-term cariogenic biofilms. Contact-killing strategies using dental materials aimed at preventing or at least reducing high numbers of cariogenic bacteria seem to be a promising approach in patients at high risk of the recurrence of dental caries around composites. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; biofilm; caries; dental composite; quaternary ammonium monomers; human in situ study antibacterial; biofilm; caries; dental composite; quaternary ammonium monomers; human in situ study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melo, M.A.S.; Weir, M.D.; Passos, V.F.; Rolim, J.P.M.; Lynch, C.D.; Rodrigues, L.K.A.; Xu, H.H.K. Human In Situ Study of the effect of Bis(2-Methacryloyloxyethyl) Dimethylammonium Bromide Immobilized in Dental Composite on Controlling Mature Cariogenic Biofilm. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113443

AMA Style

Melo MAS, Weir MD, Passos VF, Rolim JPM, Lynch CD, Rodrigues LKA, Xu HHK. Human In Situ Study of the effect of Bis(2-Methacryloyloxyethyl) Dimethylammonium Bromide Immobilized in Dental Composite on Controlling Mature Cariogenic Biofilm. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melo, Mary A.S.; Weir, Michael D.; Passos, Vanara F.; Rolim, Juliana P.M.; Lynch, Christopher D.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.; Xu, Hockin H.K. 2018. "Human In Situ Study of the effect of Bis(2-Methacryloyloxyethyl) Dimethylammonium Bromide Immobilized in Dental Composite on Controlling Mature Cariogenic Biofilm" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 11: 3443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113443

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