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Special Issue "Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vincenzo De Feo

Department of Pharmacy, Universita di Salerno, Salerno, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39089964113
Fax: +39 089 968738
Interests: fatty acids; phytochemistry; flavonoids; plant metabolites; sterols; phytotherapy; antibacterial; medicinal plants; essential oil; natural products; natural herbicides
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laura De Martino

Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: essential oils; aromatic plants; antimicrobials; antibacterials; medicinal plants and herbs; antioxidant activity; natural compounds; flavonoids; antioxidants; plant extracts
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carmen Formisano

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Domenico Montesano, Napoli 49 80131, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: essential oils; flavonoids; medicinal plants and herbs; antioxidant activity; natural product chemistry; natural product isolation; natural compounds; phytochemicals; antioxidants; chromatography; cytotoxicity; medicinal plants; phenolic compounds; natural products; oils; fatty acids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This call for papers is focused on “Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils”.

Essential oils are concentrated natural products with strong smells, produced by aromatic plants as variable mixtures of primarily terpenoids, especially monoterpenes (C10) and sesquiterpenes (C15), with low molecular wight. They are liquid, volatile, limpid and coloured and are soluble in lipids and organic solvents; and can be present in all plant organs, including buds, flowers, leaves, seeds, twigs, stems, flowers, fruits, roots, wood or bark. Since ancient times, plant essential oils have been used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants but their mecahnism of action are not so clear.

The plants can synthesize omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) and omega-6 fats (linoleic acid), which are referred to as “essential” fatty acids, so called because they cannot be synthesized in vivo and must be obtained from the diet. Essential fats are available in abundant quantities in a diet based on whole starches, vegetables, and fruits. The restorative effects of flavonoid-rich foods on age-related cognitive and motor dysfunctions have been repeatedly shown with blueberries, strawberries, Concord grapes, and polyphenols from red wine.

This Special Issue aims to bring together these plant derivatives and is soliciting manuscripts pertaining to original research, mini and full reviews, short communications, as well as perspectives, which address any aspect of essential and fats oils from plant. Submissions are invited that include, but are not limited to:

  • Biosynthesis of fat oils in the plant,
  • Biosynthesis of essential oils in the plant,
  • Role of fat oils in the plants,
  • Role of essential oils in the plant,
  • Fat oils mechanism of action,
  • Essential oils mechanism of action

Dr. Vincenzo De Feo
Dr. Laura De Martino
Dr. Carmen Formisano
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • secondary metabolites
  • natural compounds
  • fat oils
  • essential oils
  • aromatic plants
  • food
  • nutraceuticals
  • supplement diet
  • in vitro assay
  • in vivo tests

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Involvement of Bax and Bcl-2 in Induction of Apoptosis by Essential Oils of Three Lebanese Salvia Species in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010292
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here
[...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men, and research to find more effective and less toxic drugs has become necessary. In the frame of our ongoing program on traditionally used Salvia species from the Mediterranean Area, here we report the biological activities of Salvia aurea, S. judaica and S. viscosa essential oils against human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The cell viability was measured by 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used to quantify necrosis cell death. Genomic DNA, caspase-3 activity, expression of cleaved caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) proteins were analyzed in order to study the apoptotic process. The role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was also investigated. We found that the three essential oils, containing caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent, are capable of reducing the growth of human prostate cancer cells, activating an apoptotic process and increasing reactive oxygen species generation. These results suggest it could be profitable to further investigate the effects of these essential oils for their possible use as anticancer agents in prostate cancer, alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Inclusion Complexes of Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) Oleoresin and Cyclodextrins: Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112388
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes
[...] Read more.
Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CMO), which presents anti-inflammatory activity, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by kneading (KND) and slurry (SL) methods. Physicochemical characterization was performed to verify the occurrence of interactions between CMO and the cyclodextrins. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO alone as well as complexed with CDs. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of inclusion complex of CMO with both β-CD and HP-β-CD by KND and SL methods. Carrageenan-induced paw edema test showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO was maintained after complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD, where they were able to decrease the levels of nitrite and myeloperoxidase. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to produce inclusion complexes of CMO with CDs by KND and SL methods without any change in CMO’s anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Candida albicans Impairments Induced by Peppermint and Clove Oils at Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061307
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (13186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Members of Candida species cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied, due to their antifungal activity, low toxicity if used
[...] Read more.
Members of Candida species cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied, due to their antifungal activity, low toxicity if used appropriately, and biodegrability. The aim of the study was to characterize the early alterations in Candida albicans metabolic properties in relation to proteins and chromosomal DNA profiles, after treatment with peppermint and clove oils at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The yeasts were affected by the oils even at a concentration of 0.0075% v/v, which resulted in changes in colony morphotypes and metabolic activities. Peppermint and clove oils at concentrations ranging from 0.015× MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) to 0.5× MIC values substantially affected the enzymatic abilities of C. albicans, and these changes were primarily associated with the loss or decrease of activity of all 9 enzymes detected in the untreated yeast. Moreover, 29% isolates showed additional activity of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and 14% isolates—α-fucosidase in comparison to the yeast grown without essential oils addition. In response to essential oils at 0.25–0.5× MIC, extensive changes in C. albicans whole-cell protein profiles were noted. However, the yeast biochemical profiles were intact with the sole exception of the isolate treated with clove oil at 0.5× MIC. The alterations were not attributed to gross chromosomal rearrangements in C. albicans karyotype. The predominantly observed decrease in protein fractions and the yeast enzymatic activity after treatment with the oils should be considered as a phenotypic response of C. albicans to the essential oils at their sub-inhibitory concentrations and may lead to the reduction of this yeast pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Genetic Aspects of Three Ocotea Species from the Amazon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051081
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ocotea species present economic importance and biological activities attributed to their essential oils (EOs) and extracts. For this reason, various strategies have been developed for their conservation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils and matK DNA sequences of O. caudata, O.
[...] Read more.
Ocotea species present economic importance and biological activities attributed to their essential oils (EOs) and extracts. For this reason, various strategies have been developed for their conservation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils and matK DNA sequences of O. caudata, O. cujumary, and O. caniculata were subjected to comparison with data from O. floribunda, O. veraguensis, and O. whitei, previously reported. The multivariate analysis of chemical composition classified the EOs into two main clusters. Group I was characterized by the presence of α-pinene (9.8–22.5%) and β-pinene (9.7–21.3%) and it includes O. caudata, O. whitei, and O. floribunda. In group II, the oils of O. cujumary and O. caniculata showed high similarity due amounts of β-caryophyllene (22.2% and 18.9%, respectively). The EO of O. veraguensis, rich in p-cymene (19.8%), showed minor similarity among all samples. The oils displayed promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) < 19.5 µg·mL−1) and MCF-7 cells (median inhibitory concentration (IC50) ≅ 65.0 µg·mL−1), respectively. The analysis of matK gene displayed a good correlation with the main class of chemical compounds present in the EOs. However, the matK gene data did not show correlation with specific compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Open AccessArticle Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17121999
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of
[...] Read more.
The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122392
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The constituents of essential oils are widely found in foods and aromatic plants giving characteristic odor and flavor. However, pharmacological studies evidence its therapeutic potential for the treatment of several diseases and promising use as compounds with analgesic-like action. Considering that pain affects
[...] Read more.
The constituents of essential oils are widely found in foods and aromatic plants giving characteristic odor and flavor. However, pharmacological studies evidence its therapeutic potential for the treatment of several diseases and promising use as compounds with analgesic-like action. Considering that pain affects a significant part of the world population and the need for the development of new analgesics, this review reports on the current studies of essential oils’ chemical constituents with analgesic-like activity, including a description of their mechanisms of action and chemical aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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