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Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 6830

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Interests: mycotoxins; intestinal development and health; hepatic lipid metabolism; neonatal growth and nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lipid metabolism and lipoprotein applications have drawn a great deal of attention in the last several decades due to their physiological functions in the composition of cell membranes, steroids, bile acid and signaling molecules, and their important roles in cancer cells and diseases of the liver and circulatory system. In addition, the role of lipids in epigenetics during gestation and lactation and the role of lipoprotein in lipid absorption by the intestine and transport from the liver to peripheral tissues or from peripheral tissues to the liver and intestine have been stressed greatly. Furthermore, the function of lipoprotein in transferring toxic foreign hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds, and the effect of the microRNA as potential drugs on modifying lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, have aroused great interest. Thus, increasing our understanding of the physiological functions of lipids and lipoproteins and their metabolism are extremely important for us to reduce the risk of lipid related disease and improve human health.

The scope of this Special Issue is to present current studies, progress, and reviews in all areas related to lipid metabolism (synthesis and degradation) and lipoprotein applications (absorption, transport, and drug delivery) and their regulations at biomedical and molecular levels.

Prof. Dr. Xi Lin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • lipid metabolism
  • lipoprotein function
  • lipid absorption
  • hydrophobic compounds
  • microRNA regulation
  • fatty acid oxidation
  • cholesterol metabolism
  • lipid signaling

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Human In Vitro Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL) Increases Urinary Albumin Excretion in Rats
by Kamil Dąbkowski, Ewelina Kreft, Kornelia Sałaga-Zaleska, Gabriela Chyła-Danił, Agnieszka Mickiewicz, Marcin Gruchała, Agnieszka Kuchta and Maciej Jankowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(10), 5498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105498 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress increases the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which can affect endothelial cell function and potentially contribute to renal dysfunction, as reflected by changes in urinary protein excretion. This study aimed to investigate the impact of exogenous oxLDL on urinary [...] Read more.
Hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress increases the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which can affect endothelial cell function and potentially contribute to renal dysfunction, as reflected by changes in urinary protein excretion. This study aimed to investigate the impact of exogenous oxLDL on urinary excretion of albumin and nephrin. LDL was isolated from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) undergoing lipoprotein apheresis (LA) and was oxidized in vitro with Cu (II) ions. Biochemical markers of LDL oxidation, such as TBARS, conjugated dienes, and free ε-amino groups, were measured. Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of PBS, LDL, or oxLDL (4 mg of protein/kg b.w.). Urine was collected one day before and two days after the injection. We measured blood lipid profiles, urinary protein excretion (specifically albumin and nephrin), and markers of systemic oxidative stress (8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α). The results showed that injection of oxLDL increased urinary albumin excretion by approximately 28% (310 ± 27 μg/24 h vs. 396 ± 26 μg/24 h, p = 0.0003) but had no effect on nephrin excretion. Neither PBS nor LDL had any effect on urinary albumin or nephrin excretion. Additionally, oxLDL did not affect systemic oxidative stress. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia may adversely affect renal function through oxidatively modified LDL, which interferes with the renal handling of albumin and leads to the development of albuminuria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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23 pages, 5602 KiB  
Article
Differences in Cholesterol Metabolism, Hepato-Intestinal Aging, and Hepatic Endocrine Milieu in Rats as Affected by the Sex and Age
by Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Dieter Lütjohann, Svetlana Trifunović, Slađan Pavlović, Slavica Borković Mitić, Ljubiša Jovanović, Nataša Ristić, Ljiljana Marina, Vladimir Ajdžanović and Branko Filipović
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612624 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Age and sex influence serum cholesterol levels, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate further, we measured cholesterol, precursors (surrogate synthesis markers), degradation products (oxysterols and bile acid precursors) in serum, the liver, jejunum, and ileum, as well as serum plant sterols [...] Read more.
Age and sex influence serum cholesterol levels, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate further, we measured cholesterol, precursors (surrogate synthesis markers), degradation products (oxysterols and bile acid precursors) in serum, the liver, jejunum, and ileum, as well as serum plant sterols (intestinal absorption markers) in male and female Wistar rats (4 and 24 months old). The analysis of histomorphometric and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-related enzyme activities, lipid peroxide, and protein carbonyl concentrations) in the liver and jejunum offered further insights into the age- and sex-related differences. The hepatic gene expression analysis included AR, ERα, and sex-specific growth hormone-regulated (Cyp2c11 and Cyp2c12) and thyroid-responsive (Dio1, Tbg, and Spot 14) genes by qPCR. We observed age-related changes in both sexes, with greater prominence in females. Aged females had significantly higher serum cholesterol (p < 0.05), jejunum cholesterol (p < 0.05), and serum plant sterols (p < 0.05). They exhibited poorer hepato-intestinal health compared with males, which was characterized by mild liver dysfunction (hydropic degeneration, increased serum ALT, p < 0.05, and decreased activity of some antioxidant defense enzymes, p < 0.05), mononuclear inflammation in the jejunal lamina propria, and age-related decreases in jejunal catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.05). Aged females showed increased levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol (p < 0.05) and upregulated ERα gene expression (p < 0.05) in the liver. Our study suggests that the more significant age-related increase in serum cholesterol in females is associated with poorer hepato-intestinal health and increased jejunal cholesterol absorption. The local increase in 27-hydroxycholesterol during aging might reduce the hepatoprotective effects of endogenous estrogen in the female liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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Review

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20 pages, 3200 KiB  
Review
Structure, Functions, and Implications of Selected Lipocalins in Human Disease
by Preethi Chandrasekaran, Sabine Weiskirchen and Ralf Weiskirchen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(8), 4290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25084290 - 12 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The lipocalin proteins are a large family of small extracellular proteins that demonstrate significant heterogeneity in sequence similarity and have highly conserved crystal structures. They have a variety of functions, including acting as carrier proteins, transporting retinol, participating in olfaction, and synthesizing prostaglandins. [...] Read more.
The lipocalin proteins are a large family of small extracellular proteins that demonstrate significant heterogeneity in sequence similarity and have highly conserved crystal structures. They have a variety of functions, including acting as carrier proteins, transporting retinol, participating in olfaction, and synthesizing prostaglandins. Importantly, they also play a critical role in human diseases, including cancer. Additionally, they are involved in regulating cellular homeostasis and immune response and dispensing various compounds. This comprehensive review provides information on the lipocalin family, including their structure, functions, and implications in various diseases. It focuses on selective important human lipocalin proteins, such as lipocalin 2 (LCN2), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS), and α1-microglobulin (A1M). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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14 pages, 1058 KiB  
Review
Bile Acid Diarrhea: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment in the Era of Precision Medicine
by Daiyu Yang, Chengzhen Lyu, Kun He, Ke Pang, Ziqi Guo and Dong Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031544 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is a multifaceted intestinal disorder involving intricate molecular mechanisms, including farnesoid X receptor (FXR), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), and Takeda G protein–coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). Current diagnostic methods encompass bile acid sequestrants (BAS), 48-h fecal bile acid [...] Read more.
Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is a multifaceted intestinal disorder involving intricate molecular mechanisms, including farnesoid X receptor (FXR), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), and Takeda G protein–coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). Current diagnostic methods encompass bile acid sequestrants (BAS), 48-h fecal bile acid tests, serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) testing, and 75Selenium HomotauroCholic acid test (75SeHCAT). Treatment primarily involves BAS and FXR agonists. However, due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostic methods, as well as suboptimal treatment efficacy and the presence of side effects, there is an urgent need to establish new diagnostic and treatment methods. While prior literature has summarized various diagnostic and treatment methods and the pathogenesis of BAD, no previous work has linked the two. This review offers a molecular perspective on the clinical diagnosis and treatment of BAD, with a focus on FXR, FGFR4, and TGR5, emphasizing the potential for identifying additional molecular mechanisms as treatment targets and bridging the gap between diagnostic and treatment methods and molecular mechanisms for a novel approach to the clinical management of BAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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16 pages, 1080 KiB  
Review
Microbiota and Glucidic Metabolism: A Link with Multiple Aspects and Perspectives
by Tiziana Ciarambino, Pietro Crispino, Gaetano Leto, Giovanni Minervini, Ombretta Para and Mauro Giordano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210409 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in the last few decades, with a significant socioeconomic burden. In this narrative review, we include clinical studies aiming to provide the necessary knowledge on the role of the gut microbiota in the [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in the last few decades, with a significant socioeconomic burden. In this narrative review, we include clinical studies aiming to provide the necessary knowledge on the role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic pathology and glucose-metabolism-related disorders. In particular, the role of a certain microbial composition of the fermentative type seems to emerge without a specific link to the development in certain subjects of obesity and the chronic inflammation of the adipose tissues, which underlies the pathological development of all the diseases related to glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota plays an important role in glucose tolerance. Conclusion. New knowledge and new information is presented on the development of individualized therapies for patients affected by all the conditions related to reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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Other

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2 pages, 161 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Yang et al. Bile Acid Diarrhea: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment in the Era of Precision Medicine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25, 1544
by Anne-Marie Ellegaard, Martin L. Kårhus and Filip K. Knop
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(15), 8047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25158047 - 24 Jul 2024
Viewed by 91
Abstract
We have with great interest read the recent review on the molecular mechanisms underlying bile acid diarrhea (BAD) by Yang et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Lipid Metabolism and Lipoprotein Application)
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