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Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 65799

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications should be non-toxic and biocompatible. Biocompatibility has a very broad meaning, including non-toxicity of the materials, their ability to support cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as their non-immunogenic properties. Therefore, the evaluation of major cell–biomaterial interactions is a key factor determining the biocompatibility and clinical usefulness of new biomaterials. It is important to know that in vitro tests can effectively replace animal models in the preliminary evaluation of: 1) cytotoxicity, 2) cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on a biomaterial, 3) cell differentiation, and 4) immune response to a biomaterial. Despite the possibility of the use of in vitro cellular models for the evaluation of materials biocompatibility, researchers still preferentially choose in vivo animal tests for this purpose. Nevertheless, the use of animal models at a preliminary stage or for comparative purposes is against the principles of the ‘3Rs’, aiming to Replace, Reduce, and Refine the use of animals wherever possible.

The main goal of this Special Issue is to highlight the recent progress in molecular biology and biotechnological techniques that allow a better exploitation of the potential of in vitro cellular models for biocompatibility testing of novel biomaterials, suggesting molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and biomaterial-induced activation of immune cells. All papers (reviews and original research articles) dealing with in vitro and ex vivo determination of cell–biomaterial interactions are welcome. Manuscripts presenting interactions of biomaterials with prokaryotic cells (e.g., antibiofilm or antibacterial activity of a material) are also encouraged; however, at least basic cytotoxicity tests with eukaryotic cells should be included.

Prof. Dr. Agata Przekora
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ex vivo tissue explant models
  • in vitro cellular models
  • cell adhesion and spreading on the biomaterial
  • cell proliferation and differentiation on the biomaterial
  • immune response to biomaterial
  • biomaterial interactions with mesenchymal stem cells
  • biomaterial-induced macrophage polarization and cytokine release
  • bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation on the biomaterials

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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16 pages, 5120 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vitamin C/Hydrocortisone Immobilization within Curdlan-Based Wound Dressings on In Vitro Cellular Response in Context of the Management of Chronic and Burn Wounds
by Michal Wojcik, Paulina Kazimierczak, Vladyslav Vivcharenko, Malgorzata Koziol and Agata Przekora
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111474 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Bioactive dressings are usually produced using natural or synthetic polymers. Recently, special attention has been paid to β-glucans that act as immunomodulators and have pro-healing properties. The aim of this research was to use β-1,3-glucan (curdlan) as a base for the production of [...] Read more.
Bioactive dressings are usually produced using natural or synthetic polymers. Recently, special attention has been paid to β-glucans that act as immunomodulators and have pro-healing properties. The aim of this research was to use β-1,3-glucan (curdlan) as a base for the production of bioactive dressing materials (curdlan/agarose and curdlan/chitosan) that were additionally enriched with vitamin C and/or hydrocortisone to improve healing of chronic and burn wounds. The secondary goal of the study was to compressively evaluate biological properties of the biomaterials. In this work, it was shown that vitamin C/hydrocortisone-enriched biomaterials exhibited faster vitamin C release profile than hydrocortisone. Consecutive release of the drugs is a desired phenomenon since it protects wounds against accumulation of high and toxic concentrations of the bioactive molecules. Moreover, biomaterials showed gradual release of low doses of the hydrocortisone, which is beneficial during management of burn wounds with hypergranulation tissue. Among all tested variants of biomaterials, dressing materials enriched with hydrocortisone and a mixture of vitamin C/hydrocortisone showed the best therapeutic potential since they had the ability to significantly reduce MMP-2 synthesis by macrophages and increase TGF-β1 release by skin cells. Moreover, materials containing hydrocortisone and its blend with vitamin C stimulated type I collagen deposition by fibroblasts and positively affected their migration and proliferation. Results of the experiments clearly showed that the developed biomaterials enriched with bioactive agents may be promising dressings for the management of non-healing chronic and burn wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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15 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Macrophage Polarization Related to Crystal Phases of Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials
by Linghao Xiao, Yukari Shiwaku, Ryo Hamai, Kaori Tsuchiya, Keiichi Sasaki and Osamu Suzuki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011252 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2981
Abstract
Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials influence macrophage polarization during bone healing. However, the effect of the crystal phase of CaP materials on the immune response of bone remains unclear. In this study, the effect of the crystal phases of CaP materials on the regulation [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) materials influence macrophage polarization during bone healing. However, the effect of the crystal phase of CaP materials on the immune response of bone remains unclear. In this study, the effect of the crystal phases of CaP materials on the regulation of macrophage polarization was investigated. Human THP-1 cells and mouse RAW 264 cells were cultured with octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed form Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite to assess the expression of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage-related genes. OCP inhibited the excessive inflammatory response and switched macrophages to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which promoted the expression of the interleukin 10 (IL10) gene. In contrast, HL stimulated an excessive inflammatory response by promoting the expression of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage-related genes. To observe changes in the microenvironment induced by OCP and HL, inorganic phosphate (Pi) and calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations and pH value in the medium were measured. The expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage-related genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interlukin 1beta (IL1β)) was closely related to the increase in ion concentration caused by the increase in the CaP dose. Together, these results suggest that the microenvironment caused by the crystal phase of CaP materials may be involved in the immune-regulation capacity of CaP materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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17 pages, 4831 KiB  
Article
Zone-Dependent Architecture and Biochemical Composition of Decellularized Porcine Nasal Cartilage Modulate the Activity of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Cartilage Regeneration
by Constanze Kuhlmann, Thilo L. Schenck, Attila Aszodi, Riccardo E. Giunta and Paul Severin Wiggenhauser
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189917 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Previous anatomical studies have shown different functional zones in human nasal septal cartilage (NC). These zones differ in respect to histological architecture and biochemical composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these zones on the fate of stem [...] Read more.
Previous anatomical studies have shown different functional zones in human nasal septal cartilage (NC). These zones differ in respect to histological architecture and biochemical composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these zones on the fate of stem cells from a regenerative perspective. Therefore, decellularized porcine septal cartilage was prepared and subjected to histological assessment to demonstrate its equivalence to human cartilage. Decellularized porcine NC (DPNC) exposed distinct surfaces depending on two different histological zones: the outer surface (OS), which is equivalent to the superficial zone, and the inner surface (IS), which is equivalent to the central zone. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of five female patients and were seeded on the IS and OS of DPNC, respectively. Cell seeding efficiency (CSE), vitality, proliferation, migration, the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were evaluated by histological staining (DAPI, Phalloidin, Live-Dead), biochemical assays (alamarBlue®, PicoGreen®, DMMB) and the quantification of gene expression (qPCR). Results show that cell vitality and CSE were not influenced by DPNC zones. ASCs, however, showed a significantly higher proliferation and elevated expression of early chondrogenic differentiation, as well as fibrocartilage markers, on the OS. On the contrary, there was a significantly higher upregulation of hypertrophy marker MMP13 (p < 0.0001) and GAG production (p = 0.0105) on the IS, whereas cell invasion into the three-dimensional DPNC was higher in comparison to the OS. We conclude that the zonal-dependent distinct architecture and composition of NC modulates activities of ASCs seeded on DPNC. These findings might be used for engineering of cartilage substitutes needed in facial reconstructive surgery that yield an equivalent histological and functional structure, such as native NC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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18 pages, 45588 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis of Human Decellularized Allogeneic Bone with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Wharton’s Jelly
by Cheng-Fong Chen, Yi-Chun Chen, Yu-Show Fu, Shang-Wen Tsai, Po-Kuei Wu, Chao-Ming Chen, Ming-Chau Chang and Wei-Ming Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168987 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Allogeneic bone grafts are a promising material for bone implantation due to reduced operative trauma, reduced blood loss, and no donor-site morbidity. Although human decellularized allogeneic bone (hDCB) can be used to fill bone defects, the research of revitalizing hDCB blocks with human [...] Read more.
Allogeneic bone grafts are a promising material for bone implantation due to reduced operative trauma, reduced blood loss, and no donor-site morbidity. Although human decellularized allogeneic bone (hDCB) can be used to fill bone defects, the research of revitalizing hDCB blocks with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for osteochondral regeneration is missing. The hMSCs derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and Wharton’s jelly (BMMSCs, ADMSCs, and UMSCs, respectively) are potential candidates for bone regeneration. This study characterized the potential of hDCB as a scaffold for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis of BMMSCs, ADMSCs, and UMSCs. The pore sizes and mechanical strength of hDCB were characterized. Cell survival and adhesion of hMSCs were investigated using MTT assay and F-actin staining. Alizarin Red S and Safranin O staining were conducted to demonstrate calcium deposition and proteoglycan production of hMSCs after osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, respectively. A RT-qPCR was performed to analyze the expression levels of osteogenic and chondrogenic markers in hMSCs. Results indicated that BMMSCs and ADMSCs exhibited higher osteogenic potential than UMSCs. Furthermore, ADMSCs and UMSCs had higher chondrogenic potential than BMMSCs. This study demonstrated that chondrogenic ADMSCs- or UMSCs-seeded hDCB might be potential osteochondral constructs for osteochondral regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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16 pages, 5418 KiB  
Article
Bio-Morphological Reaction of Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts to Different Types of Dentinal Derivates: In Vitro Study
by Serena Bianchi, Leonardo Mancini, Diana Torge, Loredana Cristiano, Antonella Mattei, Giuseppe Varvara, Guido Macchiarelli, Enrico Marchetti and Sara Bernardi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168681 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Understanding the biological and morphological reactions of human cells towards different dentinal derivate grafting materials is fundamental for choosing the type of dentin for specific clinical situations. This study aimed to evaluate human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPLF) cells exposed to different dentinal derivates [...] Read more.
Understanding the biological and morphological reactions of human cells towards different dentinal derivate grafting materials is fundamental for choosing the type of dentin for specific clinical situations. This study aimed to evaluate human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPLF) cells exposed to different dentinal derivates particles. The study design included the in vitro evaluation of mineralized dentine (SG), deproteinized and demineralized dentine (DDP), and demineralized dentine (TT) as test materials and of deproteinized bovine bone (BIOS) as the positive control material. The materials were kept with the hPLF cell line, and the evaluations were made after 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days of in vitro culture. The evaluated outcomes were proliferation by using XTT assays, the morphological characteristics by light microscopy (LM) and by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and adhesion by using confocal microscopy (CLSM). Overall, the experimental materials induced a positive response of the hPLFs in terms of proliferation and adhesion. The XTT assay showed the TT, and the SG induced significant growth compared to the negative control at 7 days follow-up. The morphological data supported the XTT assay: the LM observations showed the presence of densely packed cells with a modified shape; the SEM observations allowed the assessment of how fibroblasts exposed to DDP and TT presented cytoplasmatic extensions; and SG and BIOS also presented the thickening of the cellular membrane. The CLMS observations showed the expression of the proliferative marker, as well as and the expression of cytoskeletal elements involved in the adhesion process. In particular, the vinculin and integrin signals were stronger at 72 h, while the actin signal remained constantly expressed in all the follow-up of the sample exposed to SG material. The integrin signal was stronger at 72 h, and the vinculin and actin signals were stronger at 7 days follow-up in the sample exposed to DDP material. The vinculin and integrin signals were stronger at 72 h follow-up in the sample exposed to TT material; vinculin and integrin signals appear stronger at 24 h follow-up in the sample exposed to BIOS material. These data confirmed how dentinal derivates present satisfying biocompatibility and high conductivity and inductivity properties fundamental in the regenerative processes. Furthermore, the knowledge of the effects of the dentin’s degree of mineralization on cellular behavior will help clinicians choose the type of dentine derivates material according to the required clinical situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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25 pages, 9425 KiB  
Article
PGS/HAp Microporous Composite Scaffold Obtained in the TIPS-TCL-SL Method: An Innovation for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Paweł Piszko, Marcin Włodarczyk, Sonia Zielińska, Małgorzata Gazińska, Przemysław Płociński, Karolina Rudnicka, Aleksandra Szwed, Agnieszka Krupa, Michał Grzymajło, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Dagmara Słota, Magdalena Kobielarz, Magdalena Wojtków and Konrad Szustakiewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168587 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4035
Abstract
In this research, we synthesize and characterize poly(glycerol sebacate) pre-polymer (pPGS) (1H NMR, FTiR, GPC, and TGA). Nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) is synthesized using the wet precipitation method. Next, the materials are used to prepare a PGS-based composite with a 25 wt.% addition [...] Read more.
In this research, we synthesize and characterize poly(glycerol sebacate) pre-polymer (pPGS) (1H NMR, FTiR, GPC, and TGA). Nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) is synthesized using the wet precipitation method. Next, the materials are used to prepare a PGS-based composite with a 25 wt.% addition of HAp. Microporous composites are formed by means of thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by thermal cross-linking (TCL) and salt leaching (SL). The manufactured microporous materials (PGS and PGS/HAp) are then subjected to imaging by means of SEM and µCT for the porous structure characterization. DSC, TGA, and water contact angle measurements are used for further evaluation of the materials. To assess the cytocompatibility and biological potential of PGS-based composites, preosteoblasts and differentiated hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts are employed as in vitro models. Apart from the cytocompatibility, the scaffolds supported cell adhesion and were readily populated by the hFOB1.19 preosteoblasts. HAp-facilitated scaffolds displayed osteoconductive properties, supporting the terminal differentiation of osteoblasts as indicated by the production of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and osteopontin. Notably, the PGS/HAp scaffolds induced the production of significant amounts of osteoclastogenic cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which induced scaffold remodeling and promoted the reconstruction of bone tissue. Initial biocompatibility tests showed no signs of adverse effects of PGS-based scaffolds toward adult BALB/c mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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14 pages, 2788 KiB  
Article
The Chitosan/Agarose/NanoHA Bone Scaffold-Induced M2 Macrophage Polarization and Its Effect on Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro
by Paulina Kazimierczak, Malgorzata Koziol and Agata Przekora
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031109 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
Chronic immune response to bone implant may lead to delayed healing and its failure. Thus, newly developed biomaterials should be characterized by high biocompatibility. Moreover, it is well known that macrophages play a crucial role in the controlling of biomaterial-induced inflammatory response. Immune [...] Read more.
Chronic immune response to bone implant may lead to delayed healing and its failure. Thus, newly developed biomaterials should be characterized by high biocompatibility. Moreover, it is well known that macrophages play a crucial role in the controlling of biomaterial-induced inflammatory response. Immune cells synthesize also a great amount of signaling molecules that regulate cell differentiation and tissue remodeling. Non-activated macrophages (M0) may be activated (polarized) into two main types of macrophage phenotype: proinflammatory type 1 macrophages (M1) and anti-inflammatory type 2 macrophages (M2). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the newly developed chitosan/agarose/nanohydroxyapatite bone scaffold (Polish Patent) on the macrophage polarization and osteogenic differentiation. Obtained results showed that macrophages cultured on the surface of the biomaterial released an elevated level of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-4, -10, -13, transforming growth factor-beta), which is typical of the M2 phenotype. Moreover, an evaluation of cell morphology confirmed M2 polarization of the macrophages on the surface of the bone scaffold. Importantly, in this study, it was demonstrated that the co-culture of macrophages-seeded biomaterial with bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) or human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) enhanced their osteogenic ability, confirming the immunomodulatory effect of the macrophages on the osteogenic differentiation process. Thus, it was proved that the developed biomaterial carries a low risk of inflammatory response and induces macrophage polarization into the M2 phenotype with osteopromotive properties, which makes it a promising bone scaffold for regenerative medicine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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13 pages, 8178 KiB  
Article
Substrate Stiffness Mediates Formation of Novel Cytoskeletal Structures in Fibroblasts during Cell–Microspheres Interaction
by Olga Adamczyk, Zbigniew Baster, Maksymilian Szczypior and Zenon Rajfur
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020960 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3039
Abstract
It is well known that living cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment. Many basic cell functions, like migration, proliferation, gene expression, and differentiation, are influenced by external forces exerted on the cell. That is why it is extremely important to study how mechanical [...] Read more.
It is well known that living cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment. Many basic cell functions, like migration, proliferation, gene expression, and differentiation, are influenced by external forces exerted on the cell. That is why it is extremely important to study how mechanical properties of the culture substrate influence the cellular molecular regulatory pathways. Optical microscopy is one of the most common experimental method used to visualize and study cellular processes. Confocal microscopy allows to observe changes in the 3D organization of the cytoskeleton in response to a precise mechanical stimulus applied with, for example, a bead trapped with optical tweezers. Optical tweezers-based method (OT) is a microrheological technique which employs a focused laser beam and polystyrene or latex beads to study mechanical properties of biological systems. Latex beads, functionalized with a specific protein, can interact with proteins located on the surface of the cellular membrane. Such interaction can significantly affect the cell’s behavior. In this work, we demonstrate that beads alone, placed on the cell surface, significantly change the architecture of actin, microtubule, and intermediate filaments. We also show that the observed molecular response to such stimulus depends on the duration of the cell–bead interaction. Application of cytoskeletal drugs: cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, and docetaxel, abrogates remodeling effects of the cytoskeleton. More important, when cells are plated on elastic substrates, which mimic the mechanical properties of physiological cellular environment, we observe formation of novel, “cup-like” structures formed by the microtubule cytoskeleton upon interaction with latex beads. These results provide new insights into the function of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Based on these results, we conclude that rigidity of the substrate significantly affects the cellular processes related to every component of the cytoskeleton, especially their architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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25 pages, 8188 KiB  
Article
Ionic Silicon Protects Oxidative Damage and Promotes Skeletal Muscle Cell Regeneration
by Kamal Awad, Neelam Ahuja, Matthew Fiedler, Sara Peper, Zhiying Wang, Pranesh Aswath, Marco Brotto and Venu Varanasi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020497 - 6 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
Volumetric muscle loss injuries overwhelm the endogenous regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, and the associated oxidative damage can delay regeneration and prolong recovery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silicon-ions on C2C12 skeletal muscle cells under normal and excessive oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Volumetric muscle loss injuries overwhelm the endogenous regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, and the associated oxidative damage can delay regeneration and prolong recovery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silicon-ions on C2C12 skeletal muscle cells under normal and excessive oxidative stress conditions to gain insights into its role on myogenesis during the early stages of muscle regeneration. In vitro studies indicated that 0.1 mM Si-ions into cell culture media significantly increased cell viability, proliferation, migration, and myotube formation compared to control. Additionally, MyoG, MyoD, Neurturin, and GABA expression were significantly increased with addition of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM of Si-ion for 1 and 5 days of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, 0.1–2.0 mM Si-ions attenuated the toxic effects of H2O2 within 24 h resulting in increased cell viability and differentiation. Addition of 1.0 mM of Si-ions significantly aid cell recovery and protected from the toxic effect of 0.4 mM H2O2 on cell migration. These results suggest that ionic silicon may have a potential effect in unfavorable situations where reactive oxygen species is predominant affecting cell viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Furthermore, this study provides a guide for designing Si-containing biomaterials with desirable Si-ion release for skeletal muscle regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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16 pages, 6679 KiB  
Article
Application of Raman Spectroscopic Imaging to Assess the Structural Changes at Cell-Scaffold Interface
by Grzegorz Kalisz, Agata Przekora, Paulina Kazimierczak, Barbara Gieroba, Michal Jedrek, Wojciech Grudzinski, Wieslaw I. Gruszecki, Grazyna Ginalska and Anna Sroka-Bartnicka
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020485 - 6 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3459
Abstract
Raman spectroscopic imaging and mapping were applied to characterise three-compound ceramic composite biomaterial consisting of chitosan, β-1,3-d-glucan (curdlan) and hydroxyapatite (HA) developed as a bone tissue engineering product (TEP). In this rapidly advancing domain of medical science, the urge for quick, [...] Read more.
Raman spectroscopic imaging and mapping were applied to characterise three-compound ceramic composite biomaterial consisting of chitosan, β-1,3-d-glucan (curdlan) and hydroxyapatite (HA) developed as a bone tissue engineering product (TEP). In this rapidly advancing domain of medical science, the urge for quick, reliable and specific method for products evaluation and tissue–implant interaction, in this case bone formation process, is constantly present. Two types of stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs), were cultured on composite surface. Raman spectroscopic imaging provided advantageous information on molecular differences and spatial distribution of compounds within and between the cell-seeded and untreated samples at a microscopic level. With the use of this, it was possible to confirm composite biocompatibility and bioactivity in vitro. Deposition of HA and changes in its crystallinity along with protein adsorption proved new bone tissue formation in both mesenchymal stem cell samples, where the cells proliferated, differentiated and produced biomineralised extracellular matrix (ECM). The usefulness of spectroscopic Raman imaging was confirmed in tissue engineering in terms of both the organic and inorganic components considering composite–cells interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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22 pages, 11654 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of PLLA, PTFE and PVDF with Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) to Enhance Cell Adhesion
by Adam Lech, Beata A. Butruk-Raszeja, Tomasz Ciach, Krystyna Lawniczak-Jablonska, Piotr Kuzmiuk, Andrzej Bartnik, Przemyslaw Wachulak and Henryk Fiedorowicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249679 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3787
Abstract
Recently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has been increasingly used to modify polymers. Properties such as the extremely short absorption lengths in polymers and the very strong interaction of EUV photons with materials may play a key role in achieving new biomaterials. The purpose [...] Read more.
Recently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has been increasingly used to modify polymers. Properties such as the extremely short absorption lengths in polymers and the very strong interaction of EUV photons with materials may play a key role in achieving new biomaterials. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of EUV radiation on cell adhesion to the surface of modified polymers that are widely used in medicine: poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and poly-L-(lactic acid) (PLLA). After EUV surface modification, which has been performed using a home-made laboratory system, changes in surface wettability, morphology, chemical composition and cell adhesion polymers were analyzed. For each of the three polymers, the EUV radiation differently effects the process of endothelial cell adhesion, dependent of the parameters applied in the modification process. In the case of PVDF and PTFE, higher cell number and cellular coverage were obtained after EUV radiation with oxygen. In the case of PLLA, better results were obtained for EUV modification with nitrogen. For all three polymers tested, significant improvements in endothelial cell adhesion after EUV modification have been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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24 pages, 63027 KiB  
Article
Behaviour of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Amine Plasma-Coated Materials with Various Chemical Structures and Morphologies
by Ivana Nemcakova, Lucie Blahova, Petr Rysanek, Andreu Blanquer, Lucie Bacakova and Lenka Zajíčková
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249467 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
Amine-coated biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers have a great potential for tissue remodeling and regeneration because of their excellent processability and bioactivity. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of various chemical compositions of amine plasma polymer (PP) coatings and [...] Read more.
Amine-coated biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers have a great potential for tissue remodeling and regeneration because of their excellent processability and bioactivity. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of various chemical compositions of amine plasma polymer (PP) coatings and the influence of the substrate morphology, represented by polystyrene culture dishes and polycaprolactone nanofibers (PCL NFs), on the behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although all amine-PP coatings improved the initial adhesion of VSMCs, 7-day long cultivation revealed a clear preference for the coating containing about 15 at.% of nitrogen (CPA-33). The CPA-33 coating demonstrated the ideal combination of good water stability, a sufficient amine group content, and favorable surface wettability and morphology. The nanostructured morphology of amine-PP-coated PCL NFs successfully slowed the proliferation rate of VSMCs, which is essential in preventing restenosis of vascular replacements in vivo. At the same time, CPA-33-coated PCL NFs supported the continuous proliferation of VSMCs during 7-day long cultivation, with no significant increase in cytokine secretion by RAW 264.7 macrophages. The CPA-33 coating deposited on biodegradable PCL NFs therefore seems to be a promising material for manufacturing small-diameter vascular grafts, which are still lacking on the current market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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23 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Biological Characterisation of Diclofenac Oligomeric Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) Hybrids as β-TCP Ceramics Modifiers for Bone Tissue Regeneration
by Katarzyna Haraźna, Ewelina Cichoń, Szymon Skibiński, Tomasz Witko, Daria Solarz, Iwona Kwiecień, Elena Marcello, Małgorzata Zimowska, Robert Socha, Ewa Szefer, Aneta Zima, Ipsita Roy, Konstantinos N. Raftopoulos, Krzysztof Pielichowski, Małgorzata Witko and Maciej Guzik
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249452 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Nowadays, regenerative medicine faces a major challenge in providing new, functional materials that will meet the characteristics desired to replenish and grow new tissue. Therefore, this study presents new ceramic-polymer composites in which the matrix consists of tricalcium phosphates covered with blends containing [...] Read more.
Nowadays, regenerative medicine faces a major challenge in providing new, functional materials that will meet the characteristics desired to replenish and grow new tissue. Therefore, this study presents new ceramic-polymer composites in which the matrix consists of tricalcium phosphates covered with blends containing a chemically bounded diclofenac with the biocompatible polymer—poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), P(3HO). Modification of P(3HO) oligomers was confirmed by NMR, IR and XPS. Moreover, obtained oligomers and their blends were subjected to an in-depth characterisation using GPC, TGA, DSC and AFM. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the hydrophobicity and surface free energy values of blends decreased with the amount of diclofenac modified oligomers. Subsequently, the designed composites were used as a substrate for growth of the pre-osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1). An in vitro biocompatibility study showed that the composite with the lowest concentration of the proposed drug is within the range assumed to be non-toxic (viability above 70%). Cell proliferation was visualised using the SEM method, whereas the observation of cell penetration into the scaffold was carried out by confocal microscopy. Thus, it can be an ideal new functional bone tissue substitute, allowing not only the regeneration and restoration of the defect but also inhibiting the development of chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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10 pages, 1827 KiB  
Article
Osteogenic Properties of Novel Methylsulfonylmethane-Coated Hydroxyapatite Scaffold
by Jeong-Hyun Ryu, Tae-Yun Kang, Hyunjung Shin, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Min-Ho Hong and Jae-Sung Kwon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228501 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
Despite numerous advantages of using porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds in bone regeneration, the material is limited in terms of osteoinduction. In this study, the porous scaffold made from nanosized HAp was coated with different concentrations of osteoinductive aqueous methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) solution (2.5, 5, [...] Read more.
Despite numerous advantages of using porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds in bone regeneration, the material is limited in terms of osteoinduction. In this study, the porous scaffold made from nanosized HAp was coated with different concentrations of osteoinductive aqueous methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) solution (2.5, 5, 10, and 20%) and the corresponding MH scaffolds were referred to as MH2.5, MH5, MH10, and MH20, respectively. The results showed that all MH scaffolds resulted in burst release of MSM for up to 7 d. Cellular experiments were conducted using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells, which showed no significant difference between the MH2.5 scaffold and the control with respect to the rate of cell proliferation (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between each group at day 4 for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, though the MH2.5 group showed higher level of activity than other groups at day 10. Calcium deposition, using alizarin red staining, showed that cell mineralization was significantly higher in the MH2.5 scaffold than that in the HAp scaffold (p < 0.0001). This study indicated that the MH2.5 scaffold has potential for both osteoinduction and osteoconduction in bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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19 pages, 7622 KiB  
Article
Cell Type-Specific Adhesion and Migration on Laser-Structured Opaque Surfaces
by Jörn Schaeske, Elena Fadeeva, Sabrina Schlie-Wolter, Andrea Deiwick, Boris N. Chichkov, Alexandra Ingendoh-Tsakmakidis, Meike Stiesch and Andreas Winkel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228442 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
Cytocompatibility is essential for implant approval. However, initial in vitro screenings mainly include the quantity of adherent immortalized cells and cytotoxicity. Other vital parameters, such as cell migration and an in-depth understanding of the interaction between native tissue cells and implant surfaces, are [...] Read more.
Cytocompatibility is essential for implant approval. However, initial in vitro screenings mainly include the quantity of adherent immortalized cells and cytotoxicity. Other vital parameters, such as cell migration and an in-depth understanding of the interaction between native tissue cells and implant surfaces, are rarely considered. We investigated different laser-fabricated spike structures using primary and immortalized cell lines of fibroblasts and osteoblasts and included quantification of the cell area, aspect ratio, and focal adhesions. Furthermore, we examined the three-dimensional cell interactions with spike topographies and developed a tailored migration assay for long-term monitoring on opaque materials. While fibroblasts and osteoblasts on small spikes retained their normal morphology, cells on medium and large spikes sank into the structures, affecting the composition of the cytoskeleton and thereby changing cell shape. Up to 14 days, migration appeared stronger on small spikes, probably as a consequence of adequate focal adhesion formation and an intact cytoskeleton, whereas human primary cells revealed differences in comparison to immortalized cell lines. The use of primary cells, analysis of the cell–implant structure interaction as well as cell migration might strengthen the evaluation of cytocompatibility and thereby improve the validity regarding the putative in vivo performance of implant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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13 pages, 3679 KiB  
Article
Vimentin Association with Nuclear Grooves in Normal MEF 3T3 Cells
by Karolina Feliksiak, Tomasz Witko, Daria Solarz, Maciej Guzik and Zenon Rajfur
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207478 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4236
Abstract
Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in leukocytes, blood vessel endothelial cells, and multiple mesenchymal cells, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF 3T3), is crucial for various cellular processes, as well as for maintaining the integrity and durability (stability) of the cell cytoskeleton. [...] Read more.
Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein present in leukocytes, blood vessel endothelial cells, and multiple mesenchymal cells, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF 3T3), is crucial for various cellular processes, as well as for maintaining the integrity and durability (stability) of the cell cytoskeleton. Vimentin intermediate filaments (VIFs) adhere tightly to the nucleus and spread to the lamellipodium and tail of the cell, serving as a connector between the nucleus, and the cell’s edges, especially in terms of transferring mechanical signals throughout the cell. How these signals are transmitted exactly remains under investigation. In the presented work, we propose that vimentin is involved in that transition by influencing the shape of the nucleus through the formation of nuclear blebs and grooves, as demonstrated by microscopic observations of healthy MEF (3T3) cells. Grooved, or “coffee beans” nuclei, have, to date, been noticed in several healthy cells; however, these structures are especially frequent in cancer cells—they serve as a significant marker for recognition of multiple cancers. We observed 288 MEF3T3 cells cultured on polyhydroxyoctanoate (PHO), polylactide (PLA), and glass, and we identified grooves, coaligned with vimentin fibers in the nuclei of 47% of cells cultured on PHO, 50% of cells on glass, and 59% of cells growing on PLA. We also observed nuclear blebs and associated their occurrence with the type of substrate used for cell culture. We propose that the higher rate of blebs in the nuclei of cells, cultured on PLA, is related to the microenvironmental features of the substrate, pH in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 743 KiB  
Review
Biomaterial-Assisted Regenerative Medicine
by Teruki Nii and Yoshiki Katayama
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168657 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 7598
Abstract
This review aims to show case recent regenerative medicine based on biomaterial technologies. Regenerative medicine has arousing substantial interest throughout the world, with “The enhancement of cell activity” one of the essential concepts for the development of regenerative medicine. For example, drug research [...] Read more.
This review aims to show case recent regenerative medicine based on biomaterial technologies. Regenerative medicine has arousing substantial interest throughout the world, with “The enhancement of cell activity” one of the essential concepts for the development of regenerative medicine. For example, drug research on drug screening is an important field of regenerative medicine, with the purpose of efficient evaluation of drug effects. It is crucial to enhance cell activity in the body for drug research because the difference in cell condition between in vitro and in vivo leads to a gap in drug evaluation. Biomaterial technology is essential for the further development of regenerative medicine because biomaterials effectively support cell culture or cell transplantation with high cell viability or activity. For example, biomaterial-based cell culture and drug screening could obtain information similar to preclinical or clinical studies. In the case of in vivo studies, biomaterials can assist cell activity, such as natural healing potential, leading to efficient tissue repair of damaged tissue. Therefore, regenerative medicine combined with biomaterials has been noted. For the research of biomaterial-based regenerative medicine, the research objective of regenerative medicine should link to the properties of the biomaterial used in the study. This review introduces regenerative medicine with biomaterial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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70 pages, 31692 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Zinc Oxide Nanostructures with Antimicrobial Activities
by Yuchao Li, Chengzhu Liao and Sie Chin Tjong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228836 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 6778
Abstract
This article reviews the recent developments in the synthesis, antibacterial activity, and visible-light photocatalytic bacterial inactivation of nano-zinc oxide. Polycrystalline wurtzite ZnO nanostructures with a hexagonal lattice having different shapes can be synthesized by means of vapor-, liquid-, and solid-phase processing techniques. Among [...] Read more.
This article reviews the recent developments in the synthesis, antibacterial activity, and visible-light photocatalytic bacterial inactivation of nano-zinc oxide. Polycrystalline wurtzite ZnO nanostructures with a hexagonal lattice having different shapes can be synthesized by means of vapor-, liquid-, and solid-phase processing techniques. Among these, ZnO hierarchical nanostructures prepared from the liquid phase route are commonly used for antimicrobial activity. In particular, plant extract-mediated biosynthesis is a single step process for preparing nano-ZnO without using surfactants and toxic chemicals. The phytochemical molecules of natural plant extracts are attractive agents for reducing and stabilizing zinc ions of zinc salt precursors to form green ZnO nanostructures. The peel extracts of certain citrus fruits like grapefruits, lemons and oranges, acting as excellent chelating agents for zinc ions. Furthermore, phytochemicals of the plant extracts capped on ZnO nanomaterials are very effective for killing various bacterial strains, leading to low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. Bioactive phytocompounds from green ZnO also inhibit hemolysis of Staphylococcus aureus infected red blood cells and inflammatory activity of mammalian immune system. In general, three mechanisms have been adopted to explain bactericidal activity of ZnO nanomaterials, including direct contact killing, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and released zinc ion inactivation. These toxic effects lead to the destruction of bacterial membrane, denaturation of enzyme, inhibition of cellular respiration and deoxyribonucleic acid replication, causing leakage of the cytoplasmic content and eventual cell death. Meanwhile, antimicrobial activity of doped and modified ZnO nanomaterials under visible light can be attributed to photogeneration of ROS on their surfaces. Thus particular attention is paid to the design and synthesis of visible light-activated ZnO photocatalysts with antibacterial properties Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Cells with Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine)
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