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Open AccessArticle

Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1
INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l'œnologie, 2 Place Pierre Viala, Montpellier Cedex 34060, France
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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Ourense Campus, University of Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
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Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, São Paulo State University—UNESP, Rod. Araraquara-Jaú Km 1, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP–CEP 14801-902 São Paulo, Brazil
5
Nutrition and Food Science Department, XaRTA, INSA. Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Haenen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9588-9599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059588
Received: 19 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4. View Full-Text
Keywords: LC-ESI-MS/MS; LC-UV; C30 column; β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; antioxidant capacity LC-ESI-MS/MS; LC-UV; C30 column; β-carotene; α-carotene; lycopene; antioxidant capacity
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Vallverdú-Queralt, A.; Regueiro, J.; De Alvarenga, J.F.R.; Torrado, X.; Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9588-9599.

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