Special Issue "Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Gabriele Bitelli

DICAM – Dept. of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2 - 40136 Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Integration of Geomatics techniques for Cultural Heritage; 3D modeling; HGIS & HBIM; Remote Sensing
Guest Editor
Prof. Fulvio Rinaudo

ISPRS WG II/8 Chair, Dept. of Architecture & Design, Politecnico di Torino, Viale P.A. Mattioli 39-10125 Torino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390110907659
Interests: Metric survey techniques for Cultural Heritage assets; GIS & BIM; HGIS & HBIM
Guest Editor
Prof. Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera

ISPRS WG II/8 Co-Chair, Cartographic and Land Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Avila, University of Salamanca, Hornos Caleros, 50 05003, Avila, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 625399698
Interests: Photogrammetry and Computer Vision
Guest Editor
Prof. Pierre Grussenmeyer

Photogrammetry and Geomatics Group, ICUBE UMR 7357 Laboratory, INSA Strasbourg, 24 Boulevard de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Architectural photogrammetry & laser scanning; Mobile Mapping Systems; Integration and Accuracy of data in 3D city and building models; BIM; Heritage-BIM

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing spread of digital techniques for Cultural Heritage with regards to recording, documentation, monitoring, representation, management and valorization by complex information systems, makes an extensive scientific discussion of the methods adopted for data acquisition and processing increasingly important.

Research innovations, new tools and best practices, both in terms of data capture and in their elaboration and modelling, can be shared and discussed to identify the most efficient and effective solutions in a rapidly-evolving sector. We believe that a wide spectrum of applications can benefit from this dialogue, allowing new studies and analyses and supporting better heritage knowledge and better conservation or restoration policies.

Aim of this Special Issue

This Special Issue aims to present and promote innovative concepts, technologies, methods, and tools in the acquisition and processing of metric and semantic data for Cultural Heritage applications, facilitating the dialogue in the Geomatics scientific community, and in relation to other related research fields, such as computer graphics, conservation, restoration and management of Cultural Heritage.

This Special Issue brings together scientists, developers and advanced users in 3D data acquisition, processing and visualization, aiming to encourage cooperation and practice sharing in the various fields where 3D technologies are nowadays used.

Topics

In line with the context and aims outlined above, we invite original research contributions on the following topics:

  • Innovative techniques for range-based and image-based data acquisition and processing
  • New developments in sensors and special devices for Cultural Heritage surveying and monitoring
  • Advances in 3D modelling pipeline
  • Device calibration for 3D data acquisition
  • Automation of processes in sensor and multi-resolution data fusion
  • Semantic classification of cloud points
  • Innovative platforms for HBIM
  • Database organization for HBIM
  • Change detection procedures for Cultural Heritage
  • Heritage monitoring by advanced remote sensed methods
  • Quality evaluation and standards in Cultural Heritage recording and documentation
  • Virtual and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage

Prof. Gabriele Bitelli
Prof. Fulvio Rinaudo
Prof. Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera
Prof. Pierre Grussenmeyer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Hybrid 3D Models: When Geomatics Innovations Meet Extensive Built Heritage Complexes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8030124
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
This article proposes the use of a multiscale and multisensor approach to collect and model three-dimensional (3D) data concerning wide and complex areas to obtain a variety of metric information in the same 3D archive, which is based on a single coordinate system. [...] Read more.
This article proposes the use of a multiscale and multisensor approach to collect and model three-dimensional (3D) data concerning wide and complex areas to obtain a variety of metric information in the same 3D archive, which is based on a single coordinate system. The employment of these 3D georeferenced products is multifaceted and the fusion or integration among different sensors’ data, scales, and resolutions is promising, and it could be useful in the generation of a model that could be defined as a hybrid. The correct geometry, accuracy, radiometry, and weight of the data models are hereby evaluated when comparing integrated processes and results from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), Mobile Mapping System (MMS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and terrestrial photogrammetry, while using Total Station (TS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for topographic surveys. The entire analysis underlines the potentiality of the integration and fusion of different solutions and it is a crucial part of the ‘Torino 1911’ project whose main purpose is mapping and virtually reconstructing the 1911 Great Exhibition settled in the Valentino Park in Turin (Italy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Sensor UAV Application for Thermal Analysis on a Dry-Stone Terraced Vineyard in Rural Tuscany Landscape
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020087
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Italian dry-stone wall terracing represents one of the most iconic features of agricultural landscapes across Europe, with sites listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites and FAO Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). The analysis of microclimate modifications induced by alterations of hillslope and [...] Read more.
Italian dry-stone wall terracing represents one of the most iconic features of agricultural landscapes across Europe, with sites listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites and FAO Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). The analysis of microclimate modifications induced by alterations of hillslope and by dry-stone walls is of particular interest for the valuation of benefits and drawbacks of terraces cultivation, a global land management technique. The aim of this paper is to perform a thermal characterization of a dry-stone wall terraced vineyard in the Chianti area (Tuscany, Italy), to detect possible microclimate dynamics induced by dry-stone terracing. The aerial surveys were carried out by using two sensors, in the Visible (VIS) and Thermal InfraRed (TIR) spectral range, mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), with two different flights. Our results reveal that, in the morning, vineyard rows close to dry-stone walls have statistically lower temperatures with respect to the external ones. In the afternoon, due to solar insulation, temperatures raised to the same value for each row. The results of this early study, jointly with the latest developments in UAV and sensor technologies, justify and encourage further analyses on local climatic modifications in terraced landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Out of Plumb Assessment for Cylindrical-Like Minaret Structures Using Geometric Primitives Fitting
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020064
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Cultural heritage documentation and monitoring represents one of the major tasks for experts in the field of surveying, photogrammetry and geospatial engineering. Cultural heritage objects in countries like Iraq and Syria have suffered from intentional destruction or demolition during the last few years. [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage documentation and monitoring represents one of the major tasks for experts in the field of surveying, photogrammetry and geospatial engineering. Cultural heritage objects in countries like Iraq and Syria have suffered from intentional destruction or demolition during the last few years. Furthermore, many heritage sites in the mentioned places have an added religious value, and were either destroyed or are still in danger. Mosques, churches and shrines typically include one or multiple tower structures, and these towers or minarets are in many cases cylindrical-like objects. Because of their tall and relatively thin body, and adding in their age of construction, observing their inclination or out of plumb is of high importance. Accordingly, it is highly necessary for the continuous monitoring and assessment of their preservation and restoration. In this paper, we suggest an out of plumb assessment procedure using a geometric primitives least squares fitting technique, namely, cylinders, cones, and 3D circles. The approach is based on reconstructing a dense point cloud of the minaret tower which is scaled to reality by control points. Accordingly, the out of plumb is computed by fitting one of the mentioned 3D primitives to the minaret point cloud where its major axis orientation is computed. Two experimental tests of heritage objects in Iraq are presented: the lost heritage of the minaret al Hadbaa in the city of Mosul (1173 AD) and an existing inclined minaret of the religious shrine of Imam Musa AlKadhim in Baghdad (1058 AD). The results show the efficiency of the suggested methodology where the out of plumb is computed as 0.45m±1cm for the shrine minaret and 1.90m±10cm for the model of the minaret al Hadbaa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Diachronic Reconstruction and Visualization of Lost Cultural Heritage Sites
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020061
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Cultural heritage (CH) documentation is essential for the study and promotion of CH assets/sites, and provides a way of transmitting knowledge about heritage to future generations. The integration of the fourth dimension into geospatial datasets enables generating a diachronic model of CH elements, [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage (CH) documentation is essential for the study and promotion of CH assets/sites, and provides a way of transmitting knowledge about heritage to future generations. The integration of the fourth dimension into geospatial datasets enables generating a diachronic model of CH elements, namely, a set of three-dimensional (3D) models to represent their evolution in various historical phases. The enhanced four-dimensional (4D) modeling (3D plus time) pursues a better understanding of the CH scenario, enriching historical hypotheses as well as contributing to the conservation and decision-making process. Although new geomatic techniques have reduced the amount of fieldwork, when put together, the geometric and temporal dimensions imply the interpretation of heterogeneous historical information sources and their integration. However, this situation could reach a critical point when the study elements are no longer present. The main challenge is to harmonize the different historical and archaeological data sources that are available with the current remains in order to graphically rebuild and model the lost CH assets with a high degree of reliability. Moreover, 4D web visualization is a great way to disclose the CH information and cultural identity. Additionally, it will serve as a basis to perform simulations of possible future risks or changes that can happen during planned or hypothetical restoration processes. This paper aims to examine the study case of a diachronic reconstruction by means of a mobile laser system (MLS) and reverse modeling techniques for a lost urban CH element: the citadel or Alcázar gate of Ávila. Within this aim, the final model is evaluated in terms of the consistency of the historical sources to assess its suitability considering the constructive interpretations that are required to integrate heterogenous data sources. Moreover, geometric modeling is evaluated regarding the current remains and its surroundings. Finally, a web 4D viewer is presented for its dissemination and publicity. This paper is an extended and improved version of our paper that was published in the 2018 ISPRS Technical Commission II Symposium, Riva del Garda, Italy, 3–7 June 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Digital Documentation of Cultural Heritage Site Based on the Convergence of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020053
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Three-dimensional digital technology is important in the maintenance and monitoring of cultural heritage sites. This study focuses on using a combination of terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry to establish a three-dimensional model and the associated digital documentation of the [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional digital technology is important in the maintenance and monitoring of cultural heritage sites. This study focuses on using a combination of terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry to establish a three-dimensional model and the associated digital documentation of the Magoksa Temple, Republic of Korea. Herein, terrestrial laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry was used to acquire the perpendicular geometry of the buildings and sites, where UAV photogrammetry yielded higher planar data acquisition rate in upper zones, such as the roof of a building, than terrestrial laser scanning. On comparing the two technologies’ accuracy based on their ground control points, laser scanning was observed to provide higher positional accuracy than photogrammetry. The overall discrepancy between the two technologies was found to be sufficient for the generation of convergent data. Thus, the terrestrial laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry data were aligned and merged post conversion into compatible extensions. A three-dimensional (3D) model, with planar and perpendicular geometries, based on the hybrid data-point cloud was developed. This study demonstrates the potential for using the integration of terrestrial laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry in 3D digital documentation and spatial analysis of cultural heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multi-Scale and Multi-Sensor 3D Documentation of Heritage Complexes in Urban Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120483
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The 3D documentation of heritage complexes or quarters often requires more than one scale due to its extended area. While the documentation of individual buildings requires a technique with finer resolution, that of the complex itself may not need the same degree of [...] Read more.
The 3D documentation of heritage complexes or quarters often requires more than one scale due to its extended area. While the documentation of individual buildings requires a technique with finer resolution, that of the complex itself may not need the same degree of detail. This has led to the use of a multi-scale approach in such situations, which in itself implies the integration of multi-sensor techniques. The challenges and constraints of the multi-sensor approach are further added when working in urban areas, as some sensors may be suitable only for certain conditions. This paper describes the integration of heterogeneous sensors as a logical solution in addressing this problem. The royal palace complex of Kasepuhan Cirebon, Indonesia, was taken as a case study. The site dates to the 13th Century and has survived to this day as a cultural heritage site, preserving within itself a prime example of vernacular Cirebonese architecture. This type of architecture is influenced by the tropical climate, with distinct features designed to adapt to the hot and humid year-long weather. In terms of 3D documentation, this presents specific challenges that need to be addressed both during the acquisition and processing stages. Terrestrial laser scanners, DSLR cameras, as well as UAVs were utilized to record the site. The implemented workflow, some geometrical analysis of the results, as well as some derivative products will be discussed in this paper. Results have shown that although the proposed multi-scale and multi-sensor workflow has been successfully employed, it needs to be adapted and the related challenges addressed in a particular manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle CATCHA: Real-Time Camera Tracking Method for Augmented Reality Applications in Cultural Heritage Interiors
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120479
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Camera pose tracking is a fundamental task in Augmented Reality (AR) applications. In this paper, we present CATCHA, a method to achieve camera pose tracking in cultural heritage interiors with rigorous conservatory policies. Our solution is real-time model-based camera tracking according to textured [...] Read more.
Camera pose tracking is a fundamental task in Augmented Reality (AR) applications. In this paper, we present CATCHA, a method to achieve camera pose tracking in cultural heritage interiors with rigorous conservatory policies. Our solution is real-time model-based camera tracking according to textured point cloud, regardless of its registration technique. We achieve this solution using orthographic model rendering that allows us to achieve real-time performance, regardless of point cloud density. Our developed algorithm is used to create a novel tool to help both cultural heritage restorers and individual visitors visually compare the actual state of a culture heritage location with its previously scanned state from the same point of view in real time. The provided application can directly achieve a frame rate of over 15 Hz on VGA frames on a mobile device and over 40 Hz using remote processing. The performance of our approach is evaluated using a model of the King’s Chinese Cabinet (Museum of King Jan III’s Palace at Wilanów, Warsaw, Poland) that was scanned in 2009 using the structured light technique and renovated and scanned again in 2015. Additional tests are performed on a model of the Al Fresco Cabinet in the same museum, scanned using a time-of-flight laser scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle An Architecture for Mobile Outdoors Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7120463
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present the software architecture of a complete mobile tourist guide for cultural heritage sites located in the old town of Chania, Crete, Greece. This includes gamified components that motivate the user to traverse the suggested interest points, as well [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the software architecture of a complete mobile tourist guide for cultural heritage sites located in the old town of Chania, Crete, Greece. This includes gamified components that motivate the user to traverse the suggested interest points, as well as technically challenging outdoors augmented reality (AR) visualization features. The main focus of the AR feature is to superimpose 3D models of historical buildings in their past state onto the real world, while users walk around the Venetian part of Chania’s city, exploring historical information in the form of text and images. We examined and tested registration and tracking mechanisms based on commercial AR frameworks in the challenging outdoor, sunny environment of a Mediterranean town, addressing relevant technical challenges. Upon visiting one of three significant monuments, a 3D model displaying the monument in its past state is visualized onto the mobile phone’s screen at the exact location of the real-world monument, while the user is exploring the area. A location-based experience was designed and integrated into the application, enveloping the 3D model with real-world information at the same time. The users are urged to explore interest areas and unlock historical information, while earning points following a gamified experience. By combining AR technologies with location-aware and gamified elements, we aim to promote the technologically enhanced public appreciation of cultural heritage sites and showcase the cultural depth of the city of Chania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Open-Source Software in Community Heritage Resources Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(11), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7110426
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a case study of community heritage resources investigation and management, which was a collaborative project conducted by researchers and participants from rural communities. Geotagged photos were obtained using smart phones, and 360-degree panoramas were acquired using a robotic [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a case study of community heritage resources investigation and management, which was a collaborative project conducted by researchers and participants from rural communities. Geotagged photos were obtained using smart phones, and 360-degree panoramas were acquired using a robotic camera system. These images were then uploaded to a web-based GIS (WebGIS) developed using Arches-Heritage Inventory Package (HIP), an open-source geospatial software system for cultural heritage inventory and management. By providing various tools for resources annotation, data exploration, mapping, geovisualization, and spatial analysis, the WebGIS not only serves as a platform for heritage resources database management, but also empowers the community residents to acquire, share, interpret, and analyze the data. The results show that this type of collaborative working model between researcher and community can promote public awareness of the importance of heritage conservation and achieve the research goal more effectively and efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Method for Virtual Restoration of Cultural Relics with Complex Geometric Structure Based on Multiscale Spatial Geometry
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(9), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7090353
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Because of the age of relics and the lack of historical data, the geometric forms of missing parts can only be judged by the subjective experience of repair personnel, which leads to varying restoration effects when the geometric structure of the complex relic [...] Read more.
Because of the age of relics and the lack of historical data, the geometric forms of missing parts can only be judged by the subjective experience of repair personnel, which leads to varying restoration effects when the geometric structure of the complex relic is reconstructed. Therefore, virtual repair effects cannot fully reflect the historical appearance of cultural relics. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a virtual restoration method based on the multiscale spatial geometric features of cultural relics in the case of complex construction where the geometric shape of the damaged area is unknown, using the Dazu Thousand-Hand Bodhisattva statue in China as an example. In this study, the global geometric features of the three-dimensional (3D) model are analyzed in space to determine the geometric shape of the damaged parts of cultural relics. The local geometric features are represented by skeleton lines based on regression analysis, and a geometric size prediction model of the defective parts is established, which is used to calculate the geometric dimensions of the missing parts. Finally, 3D surface reconstruction technology is used to quantitate virtual restoration of the defective parts. This method not only provides a new idea for the virtual restoration of artifacts with complex geometric structure, but also may play a vital role in the protection of cultural relics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle A Methodology for Planar Representation of Frescoed Oval Domes: Formulation and Testing on Pisa Cathedral
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7080318
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an original methodology for planar development of a frescoed dome with an oval plan. Input data include a rigorous geometric survey, performed with a laser scanner, and a photogrammetry campaign, which associates a high-quality photographic texture to the 3D model. [...] Read more.
This paper presents an original methodology for planar development of a frescoed dome with an oval plan. Input data include a rigorous geometric survey, performed with a laser scanner, and a photogrammetry campaign, which associates a high-quality photographic texture to the 3D model. Therefore, the main topics include the development of geometry and, contextually, of the associated textures. In order to overcome the inability to directly develop the surface, an orthographic azimuthal projection is used. Starting from a prerequisite study of building methodology, the dome is divided into sectors and bands, each linked with the maximum acceptable deformations and the actual geometric discontinuities detectable by the analysis of Gaussian curvature. Upon definition of the development model, a custom automation script has been devised for geometry projection. This effectively generates a (u,v) map, associated to the model, which is used for model texturing and provides the planar development of the fresco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage)
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