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Special Issue "Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Louise Brådvik
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on “Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders” in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are major public health issues. Around 800,000 people world-wide kill themselves every year, and for every accomplished suicide, there are about twenty suicide attempts. Mental disorders are associated with an increased risk of suicide, and several meta-analyses of psychological autopsies have shown that at least 90% of the suicide victims have suffered from such disorders before suicide. The most common are depression and alcoholism, but most mental disorders show an increased risk of suicide and furthermore comorbidity is common. Suicide research has led to major advances in identifying risk and protective factors of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior and has also resulted in a possibility to take preventative measures. Usually, mental disorders are identified as risk factors. However, there remains a gap in the identification of specific risks for individual mental disorders. Especially, there are very few studies on the risk in depressive disorders, though bipolar disorders are more thoroughly studied. More knowledge is also needed about alcoholism and other substance use disorders.

In this Special Issue, we welcome submissions to fill in the gap of knowledge on the suicide risk, suicidal process and measure on prevention in specific mental disorders, which may be distinguished from other mental disorders. Public health preventive strategies to avoid these mental disorders develop into suicidal behavior are also of great interest. Qualitative research, as well as constructive reviews and meta-analyses, are also welcome.

Dr. Louise Brådvik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Alcohol use disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Eating disorders
  • Emotional instable disorder
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Neuropsychiatric developmental disorders
  • Comorbidity and suicide
  • Suicide risk and protective factors
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Suicidal process
  • Suicide prevention on primary, secondary and tertiary level

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092028 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 6480
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)

Research

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Article
Aspects of Additional Psychiatric Disorders in Severe Depression/Melancholia: A Comparison between Suicides and Controls and General Pattern
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071299 - 21 Jun 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Objective: Additional and comorbid diagnoses are common among suicide victims with major depressive disorder (MDD) and have been shown to increase the suicide risk. The aim of the present study was first, to investigate whether patients with severe depression/melancholia who had died by [...] Read more.
Objective: Additional and comorbid diagnoses are common among suicide victims with major depressive disorder (MDD) and have been shown to increase the suicide risk. The aim of the present study was first, to investigate whether patients with severe depression/melancholia who had died by suicide showed more additional psychiatric disorders than a matched control group. Second, general rates of comorbid and additional diagnoses in the total group of patients were estimated and compared with literature on MDD. Method: A blind record evaluation was performed on 100 suicide victims with severe depression/melancholia (MDD with melancholic and/or psychotic features: MDD-M/P) and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2010. Diagnoses in addition to severe depression were noted. Results: Less than half of both the suicides and controls had just one psychiatric disorder (47% in the suicide and 46% in the control group). The average number of diagnoses was 1.80 and 1.82, respectively. Additional diagnoses were not related to an increased suicide risk. Anxiety was the most common diagnosis. Occurrence of suspected schizophrenia/schizotypal or additional obsessive-compulsive symptoms were more common than expected, but alcohol use disorders did not appear very frequent. Conclusions: The known increased risk of suicide in MDD with comorbid/additional diagnoses does not seem to apply to persons with MDD-M/P (major depressive disorder-depression/Melancholia). Some diagnoses, such as schizophrenia/schizotypal disorders, were more frequent than expected, which is discussed, and a genetic overlap with MDD-M/P is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Article
Taking One’s Own Life in Hospital? Patients and Health Care Professionals Vis-à-Vis the Tension between Assisted Suicide and Suicide Prevention in Switzerland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061272 - 15 Jun 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2933
Abstract
In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS) organizing assisted suicide (AS) is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the [...] Read more.
In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS) organizing assisted suicide (AS) is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the mortal dose after a more or less rigorous exploration of the patient’s decisional capacity. However, Swiss health care facilities and professionals are committed to providing suicide prevention. Despite the liberal attitude in society, the legitimacy of organized AS is ethically questioned. How can health professionals be supported in their moral uncertainty when confronted with patient wishes for suicide? As an approach towards reaching this objective, two ethics policies were developed at the Basel University Hospital to offer orientation in addressing twofold and divergent duties: handling requests for AS and caring for patients with suicidal thoughts or after a suicide attempt. According to the Swiss tradition of “consultation” (“Vernehmlassung”), controversial views were acknowledged in the interdisciplinary policy development processes. Both institutional policies mirror the clash of values and suggest consistent ways to meet the challenges: respect and tolerance regarding a patient’s wish for AS on the one hand, and the determination to offer help and prevent harm by practicing suicide prevention on the other. Given the legal framework lacking specific norms for the practice of RTDS, orientation is sought in ethical guidelines. The comparison between the previous and newly revised guideline of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences reveals, in regard to AS, a shift from the medical criterion, end of life is near, to a patient rights focus, i.e., decisional capacity, consistent with the law. Future experience will show whether and how this change will be integrated into clinical practice. In this process, institutional ethics policies may—in addition to the law, national guidelines, or medical standards—be helpful in addressing conflicting duties at the bedside. The article offers an interdisciplinary theoretical reflection with practical illustration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
Article
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hospital-Treated Self-Harm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061235 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3780
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been implicated in a range of negative health outcomes in adulthood, including increased suicide mortality. In this study, we explored the relationship between ACEs and hospital-treated self-harm. Specifically, we investigated whether those who had a history of repeat [...] Read more.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been implicated in a range of negative health outcomes in adulthood, including increased suicide mortality. In this study, we explored the relationship between ACEs and hospital-treated self-harm. Specifically, we investigated whether those who had a history of repeat self-harm reported more ACEs than those who had self-harmed for the first time. Patients (n = 189) admitted to two hospitals in Glasgow (UK) following first-time (n = 41) or repeated (n = 148) self-harm completed psychosocial measures. Univariate analyses revealed that those presenting with repeat self-harm reported higher depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, intent to die, and ACEs, and lower dependent attachment style. However, only ACEs, along with female gender and depressive symptoms, significantly differentiated between the repeat self-harm group and the first-time self-harm group in the multivariate model. Controlling for all other psychosocial variables, participants who reported 4+ ACEs were significantly more likely to be in the repeat self-harm group as compared to those who experienced 0–3 ACEs. This finding highlights the pernicious effect of exposure to multiple ACEs. Further research is urgently required to better understand the mechanisms that explain this relationship. Clinicians should be aware of the extent of the association between ACEs and repeat self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
Article
Risk Factors and Prevalence of Suicide Attempt in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in the Mexican Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061198 - 07 Jun 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Background: It has been proposed that the risk of death by suicide is higher in patients with diabetes than in the general population. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the risk factors of suicidal behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: It has been proposed that the risk of death by suicide is higher in patients with diabetes than in the general population. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the risk factors of suicidal behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of suicide attempt and determine the risk factors of suicide attempt, in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican population. Methods: Clinic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, biochemical levels, depression, and suicidal behavior were evaluated in 185 Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to find predictive factors of suicide attempt. Results: 11.4% of patients reported previous suicide attempts n = 21). Younger patients (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.29–10.19), having depression (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.13–9.76) and normal BMI (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.11–8.83), were predictive factors of suicide attempt. No other variables in the study showed statistical significance. Conclusions: Our results showed a high prevalence of suicidal behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes. We found that younger age, depression and normal BMI could be risk factors of suicide attempt in these patients. Therefore, psychiatric interventions to prevent depression and suicidal behavior in this population are necessary. New studies using larger samples are necessary to replicate and confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
Article
Involving Patients and Families in the Analysis of Suicides, Suicide Attempts, and Other Sentinel Events in Mental Healthcare: A Qualitative Study in The Netherlands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061104 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3271
Abstract
Involving patients and families in mental healthcare is becoming more commonplace, but little is known about how they are involved in the aftermath of serious adverse events related to quality of care (sentinel events, including suicides). This study explores the role patients and [...] Read more.
Involving patients and families in mental healthcare is becoming more commonplace, but little is known about how they are involved in the aftermath of serious adverse events related to quality of care (sentinel events, including suicides). This study explores the role patients and families have in formal processes after sentinel events in Dutch mental healthcare. We analyzed the existing policies of 15 healthcare organizations and spoke with 35 stakeholders including patients, families, their counselors, the national regulator, and professionals. Respondents argue that involving patients and families is valuable to help deal with the event emotionally, provide additional information, and prevent escalation. Results indicate that involving patients and families is only described in sentinel event policies to a limited extent. In practice, involvement consists mostly of providing aftercare and sharing information about the event by providers. Complexities such as privacy concerns and involuntary admissions are said to hinder involvement. Respondents also emphasize that involvement should not be obligatory and stress the need for patients and families to be involved throughout the process of treatment. There is no one-size-fits-all strategy for involving patients and families after sentinel events. The first step seems to be early involvement during treatment process itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Article
Characteristics Associated with Non-Disclosure of Suicidal Ideation in Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050943 - 09 May 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
Suicide prevention efforts often depend on the willingness or ability of people to disclose current suicidal behavior. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics that are associated with non-disclosure of suicidal ideation. Data from the Dutch cross-sectional survey Health Monitor 2016 [...] Read more.
Suicide prevention efforts often depend on the willingness or ability of people to disclose current suicidal behavior. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics that are associated with non-disclosure of suicidal ideation. Data from the Dutch cross-sectional survey Health Monitor 2016 were used, resulting in 14,322 respondents (age 19+). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the strength of the associations between demographics and health-related characteristics as independent variables, and non-disclosure of suicidal ideation as the dependent variable. The mean age of the respondents was 60 years (SD 16.7) and 45% were male. Of these adults, 5% (n = 719) reported suicidal ideation in the past year, nearly half of which (48%) did not disclose suicidal ideation. Non-disclosure was significantly associated with social loneliness (OR = 1.29). Inverse significant associations were found for age (35–49 years, OR = 0.53), poor health status (OR = 0.63), frequent suicidal ideation (OR = 0.48), and severe psychological distress (OR = 0.63). The accuracy of this model was fair (AUC = 0.73). To conclude, non-disclosure is a substantial problem in adults experiencing suicidal ideation. Adults who do not disclose suicidal ideation are more likely to have few social contacts, while they are less likely to experience poor (mental) health and frequent suicidal thoughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
Article
The Challenges of Predicting Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours in a Sample of Rural Australians with Depression
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050928 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4232
Abstract
Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly in rural and remote areas. Although depression is strongly related to both suicidal ideation and attempt, it lacks specificity as a predictor, and little is known about characteristics that increase suicide risk among people with [...] Read more.
Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly in rural and remote areas. Although depression is strongly related to both suicidal ideation and attempt, it lacks specificity as a predictor, and little is known about characteristics that increase suicide risk among people with depression. A telephone version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview explored lifetime depression, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and related factors among a community-dwelling sample of rural and remote Australians, selected for an interview based on a screener for psychological distress (100% of those with high distress, 75% of those with moderate distress, and 16% of those with low distress). Of 1051 participants interviewed, 364 reported lifetime symptoms of depression; of these, 48% reported lifetime suicidal ideation and 16% reported a lifetime suicide attempt. While depression severity was a significant correlate of suicidality for both males and females, suicide attempt was significantly more common among females with a younger age of depression onset, and a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities. No additional factors were significant for males. Among rural and remote residents with lifetime symptoms of depression, the identification of suicide risk may be enhanced by considering individual and contextual factors beyond depression severity. Further research focusing on risk factors for males would be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Article
Suicide Prevention Guideline Implementation in Specialist Mental Healthcare Institutions in The Netherlands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050910 - 03 May 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
In The Netherlands, on average 40% of all suicides concern patients treated by mental healthcare institutions (MHIs). Recent evidence indicates that implemented guideline recommendations significantly reduce the odds for patients to die by suicide. Implementation of the multidisciplinary guideline for diagnosis and treatment [...] Read more.
In The Netherlands, on average 40% of all suicides concern patients treated by mental healthcare institutions (MHIs). Recent evidence indicates that implemented guideline recommendations significantly reduce the odds for patients to die by suicide. Implementation of the multidisciplinary guideline for diagnosis and treatment of suicidal behaviors is a main objective of the Dutch National Suicide Prevention Strategy. To this end, 24 MHIs that collectively reported 73% of patient suicides in 2015 received an educational outreach intervention offered by the national center of expertise. Aim: To investigate changes in levels of implementation of guideline recommendations; and to assess the degree of variation on suicide prevention policies and practices between MHIs. Methods: Implementation study with a prospective cohort design studying change over time on all domains of a Suicide Prevention Monitor, a guideline-based instrument assessing suicide prevention policies and practices within MHIs. Data were collected in six-month intervals between 2015 and 2017. Results: MHIs improved significantly on four out of ten domains: the development of an organizational suicide prevention policy; monitoring and trend-analysis of suicides numbers; evaluations after suicide; and clinician training. No improvement was measured on the domains pertaining to multi-annual training policies; collaborative care with external partners; recording and evaluation of suicide attempts; routine assessment of suicidality in all patients; safety planning and involving next of kin and carers. Furthermore, marked practice variation between MHIs was found which did not decrease over time. Conclusion: This study shows significant improvement in the implementation of four out of ten guideline-based suicide prevention policies in 24 specialist mental healthcare institutions in The Netherlands. The implementation level of suicide prevention policies and practices still appears to vary significantly between MHIs in The Netherlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Article
Predicting Effects of Psychological Inflexibility/Experiential Avoidance and Stress Coping Strategies for Internet Addiction, Significant Depression, and Suicidality in College Students: A Prospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040788 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4418
Abstract
The aims of this study were to evaluate the predicting effects of psychological inflexibility/experiential avoidance (PI/EA) and stress coping strategies for Internet addiction, significant depression and suicidality among college students during the follow-up period of one year. A total of 500 college students [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the predicting effects of psychological inflexibility/experiential avoidance (PI/EA) and stress coping strategies for Internet addiction, significant depression and suicidality among college students during the follow-up period of one year. A total of 500 college students participated in this study. The level of PI/EA and stress coping strategies were evaluated initially. One year later, 324 participants were invited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II and the questionnaire for suicidality to evaluate depression symptoms and internet addiction and suicidality. The predicting effects of PI/EA and stress coping strategies were examined by using logistic regression analysis controlling for the effects of gender and age. The results indicated that PI/EA at the initial assessment increased the risk of Internet addiction (OR = 1.087, 95% CI: 1.042–1.135), significant depression (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.081–1.170), and suicidality (OR = 1.099, 95% CI: 1.053–1.147) at the follow-up assessment. Less effective coping at the initial assessment also increased the risk of Internet addiction (OR = 1.074, 95% CI: 1.011–1.140), significant depression (OR = 1.091, 95% CI: 1.037–1.147), and suicidality (OR = 1.074, 95% CI: 1.014–1.138) at the follow-up assessment. Problem focused and emotion-focus coping at the initial assessment was not significantly associated with the risks of Internet addiction, significant depression, and suicidality at the follow-up assessment. College students who have high PI/EA or are accustomed to using less effective stress coping strategies should be the target of prevention programs for IA (internet addiction), depression, and suicidality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
Article
Assessing the Use of Media Reporting Recommendations by the World Health Organization in Suicide News Published in the Most Influential Media Sources in China, 2003–2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030451 - 05 Mar 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3469
Abstract
Public media reports about suicide are likely to influence the population’s suicidal attempts and completed suicides. Irresponsible reports might trigger copycat suicidal behaviors, while responsible reports may help reduce suicide rates. The World Health Organization (WHO) released recommendations to encourage responsible suicide reports [...] Read more.
Public media reports about suicide are likely to influence the population’s suicidal attempts and completed suicides. Irresponsible reports might trigger copycat suicidal behaviors, while responsible reports may help reduce suicide rates. The World Health Organization (WHO) released recommendations to encourage responsible suicide reports in 2008. However, little is known about whether these recommendations are reflected in the suicide news for most countries, including China. In this study, we assessed the responsibility of suicide stories published in the most influential newspaper and Internet media sources in China from 2003 to 2015, using the media reporting recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). In total, 3965 and 1836 eligible stories from newspaper and Internet-based media, respectively, were included in the study. Newspapers and Internet-based media performed similarly in applying WHO recommendations to report suicide news. Three recommendations were applied in over 88% of suicide stories. However, four recommendations were seldom applied, including offering information about where to seek help and linking the suicide event to mental disorders. Government and the journalism industry should work together to improve media reporting of news about suicide in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Article
Suicidal Ideation among the Chinese Elderly and Its Correlates: A Comparison between the Rural and Urban Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030422 - 28 Feb 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Background: As China is going through a profound aging process, the mental health of the elderly is becoming an issue. As in many other societies, the elderly in China is a population at high risk of suicide; Methods: Data for the study were [...] Read more.
Background: As China is going through a profound aging process, the mental health of the elderly is becoming an issue. As in many other societies, the elderly in China is a population at high risk of suicide; Methods: Data for the study were taken from the Sample Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China (SSAPUR) accomplished in 2010 by the China Ministry of Civil Affairs. The valid sample for this study was composed of 18,683 individuals, including 9416 urban residents and 9267 rural residents both aged 60 or more years; Results: Logistic regression analyses showed that household income and expenditure, the number of children, chronic diseases, disability of daily living, depression, the frequency of visiting neighbors and having friends or relatives who can help or not had remarkable effects on the suicidal ideation among urban and rural old people. Gender, education, political affiliation, marital status and self-rated health status did not work on the dependent variable. However, some risk factors for suicidal ideation among the Chinese elderly were different between rural and urban regions; Conclusions: We should take different measures when facing the different groups of the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Review

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Review
Suicide Risk among Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities: A Literature Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071438 - 08 Jul 2018
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 5590
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that immigrants and ethnic minorities may be at higher risk of suicidal behaviour as compared to the general population. We conducted a literature search to identify studies in English from 1980 to 2017 related to suicide risk among immigrants [...] Read more.
Recent studies have demonstrated that immigrants and ethnic minorities may be at higher risk of suicidal behaviour as compared to the general population. We conducted a literature search to identify studies in English from 1980 to 2017 related to suicide risk among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Six hundred and seventy-eight reports were screened, and 43 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of the review. Some studies reported lower rates of suicide attempts, while other findings suggested higher rates of suicidal behaviour and deaths among immigrants as compared to the native population. Also, a positive correlation was found between suicidal behaviour and specific countries of origin. Non-European immigrant women were at the highest risk for suicide attempts, a group which included young women of South Asian and black African origin. Risk factors among migrants and ethnic minorities were found to be: language barriers, worrying about family back home, and separation from family. The lack of information on health care system, loss of status, loss of social network, and acculturation were identified as possible triggers for suicidal behaviour. Overall, results suggest that specific migrant populations and ethnic minorities present a higher risk of suicidal behaviour than native populations, as well as a higher risk of death by suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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Review
Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071425 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 295 | Viewed by 16079
Abstract
Suicide is a worldwide phenomenon. This review is based on a literature search of the World Health Organization (WHO) databases and PubMed. According to the WHO, in 2015, about 800,000 suicides were documented worldwide, and globally 78% of all completed suicides occur in [...] Read more.
Suicide is a worldwide phenomenon. This review is based on a literature search of the World Health Organization (WHO) databases and PubMed. According to the WHO, in 2015, about 800,000 suicides were documented worldwide, and globally 78% of all completed suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, suicides account for 1.4% of premature deaths worldwide. Differences arise between regions and countries with respect to the age, gender, and socioeconomic status of the individual and the respective country, method of suicide, and access to health care. During the second and third decades of life, suicide is the second leading cause of death. Completed suicides are three times more common in males than females; for suicide attempts, an inverse ratio can be found. Suicide attempts are up to 30 times more common compared to suicides; they are however important predictors of repeated attempts as well as completed suicides. Overall, suicide rates vary among the sexes and across lifetimes, whereas methods differ according to countries. The most commonly used methods are hanging, self-poisoning with pesticides, and use of firearms. The majority of suicides worldwide are related to psychiatric diseases. Among those, depression, substance use, and psychosis constitute the most relevant risk factors, but also anxiety, personality-, eating- and trauma-related disorders as well as organic mental disorders significantly add to unnatural causes of death compared to the general population. Overall, the matter at hand is relatively complex and a significant amount of underreporting is likely to be present. Nevertheless, suicides can, at least partially, be prevented by restricting access to means of suicide, by training primary care physicians and health workers to identify people at risk as well as to assess and manage respective crises, provide adequate follow-up care and address the way this is reported by the media. Suicidality represents a major societal and health care problem; it thus should be given a high priority in many realms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders)
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