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Special Issue "Physical Activity and Mental Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eric E. Hall
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244, USA
Interests: physical activity; mental health; affect; emotion; mood; concussion; mTBI; cognitive function; resistance exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Elaine A. Hargreaves
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Interests: Physical Activity; Mental Health; Affect; Motivation; Physical Activity; Behaviour Change; Men’s Health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on physical activity and mental health for the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. This is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information about the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

For this Special Issue, we would be interested in your research related to physical activity and mental health. Despite the often negative connotations, mental health represents a continuum that ranges from mental illness (e.g., depression, anxiety, PTSD) to the promotion of psychological well-being (e.g, self-esteem, quality of life, positive affect, resilience). Physical activity is often associated with many positive changes in physical health and function, but the effects of physical activity on the prevention and treatment of issues related to mental health have often been overlooked. Presently, this topic has started to stimulate increasing interest in researchers and practitioners. Exercise and Sport Science Australia has recently released a position statement which has targeted the importance of physical health in those with mental illness.

This Special Issue hopes to present innovative research and strategies that explore the relationship between physical activity and mental health. We use the term “physical activity” in the broadest sense to include sport, exercise, walking, yoga, and any other bodily movement. We encourage submissions that demonstrate interesting innovations that utilize physical activity to help vulnerable populations improve mental illness (e.g., PTSD, depression, substance abuse issues, mental issues in student-athletes) or to promote positive psychological well-being. We are equally interested in the impact of physical activity interventions and acute bouts of exercise on constructs related to mental health. 

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to physical activity and mental health. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Eric E. Hall
Dr. Elaine A. Hargreaves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Sport
  • Physical Activity
  • Mental Health
  • Mental Illness
  • Anxiety
  • Emotion
  • Mood
  • Depression
  • Self-Esteem
  • Cognitive Function
  • Affect

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Regular Moderate- to Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Rather Than Walking Is Associated with Enhanced Cognitive Functions and Mental Health in Young Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020614 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
The beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on the brain has been well established. Both acute and regular PA can boost a range of cognitive functions and enhance mood and mental health. Notably, the effect of acute PA on the brain and cognitive [...] Read more.
The beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on the brain has been well established. Both acute and regular PA can boost a range of cognitive functions and enhance mood and mental health. Notably, the effect of acute PA on the brain and cognitive functions is generally found to be dose-dependent, in terms of both the amount and intensity of the exercise episode. In contrast, in the case of regular PA, the literature has primarily focused on the amount of exercise, and limited studies have assessed the influence of the exercise intensity. Since PA in higher intensity causes more extensive, more powerful, and longer-lasting neurobiological changes, it may prove more beneficial to cognitive functions and mental health. In the present study, we set out to test this hypothesis by employing a battery of questionnaires and laboratory tests with a sample of young adults. We found that more frequent vigorous- and moderate-intensity PA rather than walking (considered low to moderate intensity) was associated with better cognitive and mental health measures. Meanwhile, compared with no moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) at all, as few as 1~2 days per week (lasting at least 10 min each time) of MVPA was associated with a variety of benefits, particularly related to coping with challenging situations. In light of the neurobiological literature, the present study speaks to the value of moderate- to vigorous- rather than low-intensity PA in enhancing cognitive functions and mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Article
Great Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of the Factors That Influence Affective Forecasts for Exercise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020551 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The extent to which people expect to feel pleasure during exercise is proposed to influence an individual’s decision to be active. In order to identify the factors that shape this affective forecast for exercise, this study explored what people think about when creating [...] Read more.
The extent to which people expect to feel pleasure during exercise is proposed to influence an individual’s decision to be active. In order to identify the factors that shape this affective forecast for exercise, this study explored what people think about when creating their affective forecast for exercise. Thirty-one inactive participants provided an affective forecast for a moderate intensity exercise session using the global affective forecast questionnaire. Immediately after, they were asked a series of questions to verbally explain what they were thinking about in order to generate their forecast. Thematic analysis identified four themes relating to the exercise intensity, the exercise outcomes, the exercise environment, and the enjoyment of exercise that influenced affective forecast creation. Exercise practitioners should design strategies to manipulate these factors, and structure exercise environments to support a positive affective forecast and better motivate exercise participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Article
The Limits of Cognitive Reappraisal: Changing Pain Valence, but not Persistence, during a Resistance Exercise Task
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193739 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Physiological discomfort is commonly cited as a barrier for initiating and persisting with exercise. Although individuals may think of physiological discomfort as determined by physical sensations, it can also be influenced by cognitive and emotional factors. We explored the impacts of interpreting the [...] Read more.
Physiological discomfort is commonly cited as a barrier for initiating and persisting with exercise. Although individuals may think of physiological discomfort as determined by physical sensations, it can also be influenced by cognitive and emotional factors. We explored the impacts of interpreting the purpose of pain as a sign of muscle building (helpful) vs. a sign of muscle tearing and possible injury (harmful) and tested the effect of cognitive reappraisals, or shifting interpretations of pain, on exercise persistence and the subjective experience of discomfort during exercise. Seventy-eight participants were randomized to listen to voice recordings that framed exercise-related pain as helpful vs. harmful before participating in a standard muscular endurance test using the YMCA protocol. Although the two experimental groups did not differ in the overall number of resistance training repetitions achieved, participants who were asked to think about the benefits (rather than the negative consequences) of pain reported less negative pain valence during exercise. Thus, the experience of pain was influenced by appraisals of the meaning of pain, but differences in pain valence did not impact exercise persistence. Theoretical implications and applications for affect-based exercise interventions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Article
Reducing Self-Stigma in People with Severe Mental Illness Participating in a Regular Football League: An Exploratory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193599 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
For the past 15 years, a regular indoor football competition has been taking place in Madrid (Spain) with 15 teams from different mental health services in the city, in which teams face off weekly as part of a competition lasting nine months of [...] Read more.
For the past 15 years, a regular indoor football competition has been taking place in Madrid (Spain) with 15 teams from different mental health services in the city, in which teams face off weekly as part of a competition lasting nine months of the year. We are not aware of whether a similar competition experience is offered in other cities. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether participating in this league, called Ligasame, has an influence on participants’ self-stigma. To do so, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI) was adapted into Spanish and applied to 108 mental health patients, 40% of which participated in Ligasame, and the remainder of which did not. The results obtained reflect significant differences between those participating in Ligasame and those that did not in terms of two specific dimensions related to self-stigma (stereotype endorsement and stigma resistance) and total score. On the other hand, no significant differences were found in terms of other variables, such as patients’ prior diagnosis, age or belonging to different resources/associations. In this article, we discuss the importance of these results in relation to reducing self-stigma through participation in a regular yearly mental health football league. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Article
Assessing the Mental Health, Physical Activity Levels, and Resilience of Today’s Junior College Students in Self-Financing Institutions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173210 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
In recent decades, the number of adolescents and young adults with poor mental health has been increasing, particularly among students in tertiary institutions. This study investigates the physical activities, resilience, and mental health status of junior college students in Hong Kong. The questionnaire [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the number of adolescents and young adults with poor mental health has been increasing, particularly among students in tertiary institutions. This study investigates the physical activities, resilience, and mental health status of junior college students in Hong Kong. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, the Positive Mental Health Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Four hundred and sixteen students participated in the study. The results showed a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.485) between resilience and mental health, and a low positive correlation (r = 0.258) between resilience and physical activity. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc test showed that arts students engaged in more physical activity than students from other disciplines. A multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of a positive mental health status. The significant predictors are: resilience (β = 0.704; 95% CI = 0.575–0.833; P < 0.001), physical activity score (β = 0.032; 95% CI = 0.016–0.048; P < 0.001), the male gender (β = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.171–1.900; P < 0.05), and students’ enrollment in a health science discipline (β = 1.052, 95% CI = 0.175–1.930; P < 0.05). Preventive measures, such as strengthening resilience, a broad curriculum and taking note of the demographic and cognitive characteristics of students are essential for improving the mental health of freshmen in colleges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Article
Insights Following Implementation of an Exercise Intervention in Older Veterans with PTSD
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142630 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) face numerous barriers to exercise. Little is known about behavioral strategies to promote participation in this population. This is a secondary analysis of individual barriers and goals, exercise prescription characteristics, and patient perceptions of a 12-week, community-based, [...] Read more.
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) face numerous barriers to exercise. Little is known about behavioral strategies to promote participation in this population. This is a secondary analysis of individual barriers and goals, exercise prescription characteristics, and patient perceptions of a 12-week, community-based, randomized controlled exercise trial targeting older adults with PTSD, (N = 45; mean age = 68; male = 91%). The most common cited goals for participating included weight loss (65%) and increasing strength (65%). Exercise mode varied among those who completed the program (n = 37), with 14 (38%) using exclusively treadmill; eight (22%) using only bike, and 15 (41%) utilizing a combination. Patient-reported exercise duration and intensity progressively increased over the 12 weeks, and duration differed by mode of exercise. We observed high rates of attendance (84%) and completion (88%) to the program. Patient-reported barriers to attendance most often included health problems (62%) and medical appointments (55%). Participant responses to a program evaluation revealed high levels of satisfaction, preferences for group-based programs, and insights about the acceptability of the exercise environment (physical and social). This study is the first to report on goals, barriers, exercise prescription needs, and individual responses to supervised exercise training in a unique population, that is, older veterans with PTSD. Results of this study can inform future health promotion programs targeting older veterans with PTSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Article
Sense of Coherence and Connectedness to Nature as Predictors of Motivation for Practicing Karate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142483 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Background: Physical activity yields exceptionally positive results when it takes place out in the open air, in contact with nature. Both contact with nature and practicing sport constitute a certain kind of philosophy of life and living by its rules plays a [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity yields exceptionally positive results when it takes place out in the open air, in contact with nature. Both contact with nature and practicing sport constitute a certain kind of philosophy of life and living by its rules plays a vital role in positive mental health―understood as maintaining a high sense of coherence. Martial arts are examples of sports that are rooted in a philosophy. The goal of this study was to explore the links between a sense of coherence and connectedness to nature in the context of motivations for practicing karate. Methods: A total of 127 practitioners of karate were examined using the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO), the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Results: The most important objective for women training karate was a fit, shapely body, and for men the most important objective was physical fitness. Connectedness to nature had the strongest positive relationship with the measure of physical fitness (in both genders). A sense of comprehensibility increased men’s motivational conflict, whereas, in women, this IPAO dimension was positively related to feeling emotionally connected to the natural world. Connectedness to nature was related to motivational conflict positively in women and negatively in men. Feeling emotionally connected to the natural world correlated with a sense of comprehensibility, a sense of manageability, and a sense of meaningfulness. Sense of comprehensibility and sense of meaningfulness tended to increase with age. Conclusions: Understanding both the natural environment and the utility of setting sport-related goals led to increasing one’s efforts on the way to both successes and defeats, and, most of all, overcoming one’s weaknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Article
Physical Activity and Mental Toughness as Antecedents of Academic Burnout among School Students: A Latent Profile Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112024 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Background: The purpose of the current survey-based study was to identify patterns of academic burnout and their antecedents among secondary school students. Methods: Secondary school students (n = 1209) completed a survey measuring academic burnout, physical activity, and mental toughness. Results: Using [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of the current survey-based study was to identify patterns of academic burnout and their antecedents among secondary school students. Methods: Secondary school students (n = 1209) completed a survey measuring academic burnout, physical activity, and mental toughness. Results: Using latent profile analyses, three burnout profiles were identified: a “moderately engaged group” (n = 699; 57.8%), a “burnout group” (n = 389; 32.2%), and a “well-functioning group” (n = 121; 10.0%). Group comparisons revealed that the “well-functioning group” reported significantly higher levels of physical activity and mental toughness than the other two groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that lack of physical activity and mental toughness are potential risk factors for academic burnout. These findings may inform the development of intervention programs for academic burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Article
Handgrip Strength is Associated with Psychological Functioning, Mood and Sleep in Women over 65 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050873 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Background: The predictive nature of handgrip strength (HGS) was analyzed, showing a direct association with the functional domains of health, cognitive and social levels, and some inverse association with depressive values. Aim: To analyze the relationship between HGS and the psychological functioning of [...] Read more.
Background: The predictive nature of handgrip strength (HGS) was analyzed, showing a direct association with the functional domains of health, cognitive and social levels, and some inverse association with depressive values. Aim: To analyze the relationship between HGS and the psychological functioning of older people, such as depression, mood and sleep. Method: A total of 38 women, participated in this study (age = 72.29 ± 5.21 year). As measurement instruments a hand dynamometer was used for HGS, Profile of Mood Status (POMS) 29 was used for mood, the geriatric depression scale was used for depression, and the Oviedo questionnaire was used for sleep. A cluster analysis was performed taking into account the performance in the HGS. Results: The group that obtained a high HGS result showed a better total score for vigor, depression, insomnia and sleep. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between HGS and vigor, depression, insomnia and sleep total score. Conclusion: HGS in women over 65 years was associated with psychological functioning and sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Protocol
Efficacy of a Multicomponent Intervention for Fibromyalgia Based on Pain Neuroscience Education, Exercise Therapy, Psychological Support, and Nature Exposure (NAT-FM): Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020634 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The study protocol of a prospective and randomized controlled trial for the assessment of the efficacy of nature activity therapy for people with Fibromyalgia (NAT-FM) is described. The primary outcome is the mean change from baseline in the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) [...] Read more.
The study protocol of a prospective and randomized controlled trial for the assessment of the efficacy of nature activity therapy for people with Fibromyalgia (NAT-FM) is described. The primary outcome is the mean change from baseline in the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) score at post-treatment (12 weeks) and at 9 months of follow-up, and secondary outcomes are changes in the positive affect, negative affect, pain, fatigue, self-efficacy, catastrophising, and emotional regulation. A total of 160 patients with fibromyalgia will be divided into two arms: treatment-as-usual (TAU) and NAT-FM+TAU. Pre, during, post, +6, and +9 months assessments will be carried out, as well as an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of intrasession and intersessions. Results will be subjected to a mixed group (NAT-FM+TAU vs. TAU) × phase (pre, post, +6 months, +9 months) general linear model. EMA intrasession measurements will be subjected to a 2 (pre vs. post) × 5 (type of activity) mixed-effects ANOVA. EMA between-session measurements obtained from both arms of the study will be analysed on both a time-domain and frequency-domain basis. Effect sizes and number needed to treat (NNT) will be computed. A mediation/moderation analysis will be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Brief Report
Leisure-Time Sedentary Behavior Is Associated with Psychological Distress and Substance Use among School-Going Adolescents in Five Southeast Asian Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122091 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Sedentary behavior has been found to be associated with poorer mental health. The aim of this study was to estimate associations of sedentary behavior with psychological distress and substance use among adolescents in five Southeast Asian countries. The cross-sectional sample included 32,696 nationally [...] Read more.
Sedentary behavior has been found to be associated with poorer mental health. The aim of this study was to estimate associations of sedentary behavior with psychological distress and substance use among adolescents in five Southeast Asian countries. The cross-sectional sample included 32,696 nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents (median age 14 years) from Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand and Timor-Leste. Leisure-time sedentary behavior, physical activity, psychological distress and substance use were assessed by self-report. Overall, the students engaged in <1 h (35.7%), 1–2 h (31.6%), 3–4 h (18.2%), 5–6 h (7.2%), and 7 or more hours (7.2%) of sedentary time a day. The prevalence of psychological distress was 14.6% single and 8.6% multiple psychological distress, and the prevalence of current tobacco use was 13.9% and current alcohol use 12.5%. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, compared to students who spent less than one hour a day engaged in sedentary leisure time, students who spent three or more hours engaged in leisure-time sedentary behavior were more likely to have single and multiple psychological distress. In fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, five or more hours of leisure-time sedentary behavior was associated with current tobacco use and one or more hours of leisure-time sedentary behavior with current alcohol use. Findings suggest an association of leisure-time sedentary behavior with psychological distress and with substance use in this adolescent population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Brief Report
High Sedentary Behavior Is Associated with Depression among Rural South Africans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081413 - 19 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and depression among rural South Africans. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI)”. Participants [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and depression among rural South Africans. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI)”. Participants responded to various measures, including sociodemographic information, health status, anthropometric measures, and sedentary behavior. The sample included 4782 persons (40 years and above). Overall, participants engaged in <4 h (55.9%), 4–<8 h (34.1%), 8–<11 h (6.4%), or 11 or more h a day (3.5%) of sedentary behavior, and 17.0% screened positive for depression. In multivariable logistic regression, which was adjusted for sociodemographic variables (Model 1) (Odds Ratio, or OR: 2.45, Confidence Interval, or CI: 1.74, 3.46) and adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables, including physical activity (Model 2) (OR: 3.00, CI: 2.00, 4.51), high sedentary time (≥11 h) was independently associated with depression. In combined analysis, compared to persons with low or moderate sedentary behavior (<8 h) and moderate or high physical activity, persons with high sedentary behavior (≥8 h) and low physical activity were more likely to have depression in Model 1 (OR: 1.60, CI: 1.65, 3.13) and Model 2 (OR: 1.60, CI: 1.05, 2.44). Findings support that sedentary behavior and combined sedentary behavior and low physical activity may be a modifiable target factor for strategies to reduce depression symptoms in this rural population in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Brief Report
High Sedentary Behaviour and Low Physical Activity are Associated with Anxiety and Depression in Myanmar and Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071251 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
The study aimed to estimate independent and combined associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity with anxiety and depression among chronic disease patients in Myanmar and Vietnam. The cross-sectional sample included 3201 chronic disease patients (median age 51 years, interquartile range 25) systematically [...] Read more.
The study aimed to estimate independent and combined associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity with anxiety and depression among chronic disease patients in Myanmar and Vietnam. The cross-sectional sample included 3201 chronic disease patients (median age 51 years, interquartile range 25) systematically recruited from primary care facilities in 2015. Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed with the General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall, the prevalence of sedentary time per day was 51.3% < 4 h, 31.2% between 4 and 8 h, and 17.5% 8 or more hours a day), and 30.7% engaged in low physical activity, 50.0% moderate, and 23.6% high physical activity. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 12.7% and 19.9%, respectively. In the final logistic regression model, adjusted for relevant confounders, higher sedentary time (≥8 h) did not increase the odds for anxiety or depression, but moderate to high physical activity decreased the odds for anxiety and depression. Combined regression analysis found that participants with both less than eight hours of sedentary time and moderate or high physical activity had significantly lower odds of having anxiety and depression. Findings suggest an independent and combined association between moderate or high physical activity and low sedentary time with anxiety and/or depression among chronic disease patients in Myanmar and Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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