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Article

Social Cognitive Orientations, Social Support, and Physical Activity among at-Risk Urban Children: Insights from a Structural Equation Model

1
Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education, Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Center for Public Policy and Health, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
3
School of Public Administration, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186745
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
This study investigates the effects of cognitive orientations associated with social cognitive theory (SCT) and exercise enjoyment on physical activity (PA) of urban at-risk children, accounting for mediating effects associated with various sources of social support. We use 2016–2017 survey data from 725 school-age children in an urban school district in Akron, Ohio in the United States (US) to inform a structural equation model, which assesses direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and exercise enjoyment on children’s PA, using mediating variables that measure social support that children report receiving from parents, Physical Education (PE) teachers, and peers. We find that self-efficacy and exercise enjoyment have notable direct and indirect effects on the children’s PA. We also find that the support children receive from PE teachers and peers appears to have greater effects on PA than does the children’s reported social support from parents. These findings suggest that children’s social cognitive orientations may influence both sources of perceived social support and the extent to which children engage in PA. While these findings have potential implications for intervention strategies to increase PA among at-risk children, further research is appropriate to improve our understanding of the determinants of PA among at-risk urban children. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; urban children; structural equation modeling; social cognitive theory; parental support; peer support; teacher support; self-efficacy; exercise enjoyment; behavioral intention; school children; pupils physical activity; urban children; structural equation modeling; social cognitive theory; parental support; peer support; teacher support; self-efficacy; exercise enjoyment; behavioral intention; school children; pupils
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Oh, N. Social Cognitive Orientations, Social Support, and Physical Activity among at-Risk Urban Children: Insights from a Structural Equation Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6745. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186745

AMA Style

Lee J, Hoornbeek J, Oh N. Social Cognitive Orientations, Social Support, and Physical Activity among at-Risk Urban Children: Insights from a Structural Equation Model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6745. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186745

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Junghyae, John Hoornbeek, and Namkyung Oh. 2020. "Social Cognitive Orientations, Social Support, and Physical Activity among at-Risk Urban Children: Insights from a Structural Equation Model" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6745. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186745

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