Next Article in Journal
Upper and Lower Limb Strength and Body Posture in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism: An Observational Case-Control Study
Next Article in Special Issue
External and Total Hip Rotation Ranges of Motion Predispose to Low Back Pain in Elite Spanish Inline Hockey Players
Previous Article in Journal
Bullying Victimization among Mexican Adolescents: Psychosocial Differences from an Ecological Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Validation of the Instrument for the Measurement of Learning and Performance in Football
Open AccessArticle

Courage in Competition: Adaptation of the Sports Courage Scale for American English and Validation of the Factor Structure with Student-Athletes at Clemson University

1
Buca Educational Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir 35380, Turkey
2
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
3
Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134834
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
While courage is widely attributed to athletic pursuits, it has received little scientific attention from both researchers and applied practitioners. A reliable measurement is required to examine courage in sports and competitive activities. Therefore, this research aimed to adapt the original Turkish Sports Courage Scale-31 into American English (SCS-AE). The SCS-31 measure was translated from Turkish into the American English language by the Brislin forward and backward translation technique and language validity. Then, the translated SCS-AE was administered to 548 American university college students (Mean age = 19.02, SD = 1.21). All participants played a sport (e.g., football, soccer, basketball, gymnastics). Based on confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), 31 items of SCS-AE were reduced to 24 items with four factors (i.e., assertiveness, determination, mastery, and venturesome). The fit indices were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.06, NFI = 0.96 and NNFI = 0.97). The internal consistency measured by Cronbach alpha, ranging from 0.73 to 0.78, were considered acceptable. The convergent validity and discriminant validity of SCS-AE were also achieved. Our findings indicate strong support for research using the four-factor model of the SCS-AE and adequate support for the five-factor model with sufficient caution regarding the internal consistency of the self-sacrifice factor. While cultural differences in courage perception might exist between these countries, the findings showed more similarities than differences in courage. Results indicated that the SCS-AE is usable for research purposes in the suggested format. Future directions are discussed using the SCS-31 and SCS-AE for research. View Full-Text
Keywords: courage scale; measurement; adaptation; sports; competitive activities courage scale; measurement; adaptation; sports; competitive activities
MDPI and ACS Style

Konter, E.; Kueh, Y.C.; Kuan, G. Courage in Competition: Adaptation of the Sports Courage Scale for American English and Validation of the Factor Structure with Student-Athletes at Clemson University. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4834.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop