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Special Issue "Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care"

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Carlo Mangano

Department of Dental Sciences, S. Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: digital dentistry; 3D scanners; CBCT, CAD/CAM software; milling machines; 3D printers; direct metal laser sintering; guided surgery; custom-made implants; custom-made bone regeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

3D scanners (intraoral, desktop and face scanners, cone beam computed tomography) and computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, together with new aesthetic materials and powerful manufacturing and prototyping tools (milling machines and 3D printers) are radically transforming the dental profession. As a consequence, in recent years we are witnessing a real evolution of dental care. However, there is a need for scientific evidence regarding the new high-tech protocols and new materials. In the present thematic issue, we solicit the submission of original research articles (technological reports, case reports, case series, retrospective and prospective clinical studies, randomized controlled trials), as well as review articles, on the topics of digital dentistry. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

- data acquisition by means of 3D scanners (intraoral scanners, desktop scanners, face scanners, cone beam computed tomography; 3D axiography);

- data processing by means of CAD software;

- production of prosthetic restorations, surgical guides, custom-made implants and scaffolds for bone regeneration, and orthodontic aligners and devices by means of milling machines, 3D printers, laser sintering;

- clinical application of CAD/CAM restorations, guided implant surgery, custom-made implants and bone regeneration, digital orthodontics;

- the virtual patient.

Prof. Carlo Mangano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • digital dentistry
  • 3D Scanners
  • CBCT
  • CAD/CAM software
  • milling machines
  • 3D printers
  • direct metal laser sintering
  • guided surgery
  • custom-made implants
  • custom-made bone regeneration

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Clinical Outcomes of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns with CAD/CAM Technology. A 1-Year Follow-Up Prospective Clinical Study of 65 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112523 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical performance of posterior monolithic single crowns in terms of failure or complications and the secondary aim was to assess the quality of these restorations according to the United States Public Health
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Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical performance of posterior monolithic single crowns in terms of failure or complications and the secondary aim was to assess the quality of these restorations according to the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Methods: Ιn a private dental clinic, 65 patients with need of posterior crowns were restored with monolithic zirconia crowns. All the restorations were evaluated 6 and 12 months after their cementation. The modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria and periodontal parameters were applied for the clinical evaluation of the crowns. Restorations with Alpha or Bravo rating were considered a success. Results: Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Sixty-five patients (mean age: 49.52) were restored with 65 monolithic zirconia crowns. No fracture of the restorations was recorded. The overall success rate was 98.5%. The clinical quality of all crowns was acceptable except for the marginal discoloration of one crown at the 6- and 12-month follow-up examination. Conclusions: In this study, no fracture of single-tooth monolithic crowns occurred and the success rate was high. Monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated is a viable option for the restoration of single posterior teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation for Yaw Control of the Mandibular Condyle and Its Actual Application to Orthognathic Surgery: A One-Year Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112380
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: Favourable occlusal interdigitation and an optimized position of the mandibular condyle after surgery are essential for obtaining favourable results. The position of the condyle is determined during the operation. However, it is difficult to maintain the condyle’s original position post-surgery despite
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Background: Favourable occlusal interdigitation and an optimized position of the mandibular condyle after surgery are essential for obtaining favourable results. The position of the condyle is determined during the operation. However, it is difficult to maintain the condyle’s original position post-surgery despite the efforts of the surgeons. Indeed, a degree of rotation of the condyle is unavoidable, since it is difficult to verify whether the condyle is positioned correctly during surgery. Purpose: To maximize contact between the bone segments, the condyle was rotated around the vertical axis using surgical simulations. We examined changes to the condyle-fossa relationship after comparing virtual surgery to actual surgery. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 20 patients were diagnosed with skeletal malocclusion and participated in computer-aided surgical simulation before undergoing orthognathic surgery. In the simulation, the mandibular condyles were rotated around the vertical axis, and the proximal segments were fixed to the distal segments using a customized miniplate and positioning device during actual surgery. This study investigated the relationship between the condyle and fossa using cone-beam computed tomography for several different time periods (preoperative (T0), virtual surgery (Tv), postoperative three days (T1) and one year (T2)). Results: The coronal and sagittal view exhibited significant differences in the mean values between T1and T0, Tv, and T2 for all joint spaces. As a result of the distance, the mean value of T2 in both the superior joint space (JS) and the lateral JS was significantly higher than that of Tv. In contrast, the mean value of Tv in the medial JS was significantly higher than that of T2. Moreover, the mean value of T2 on the axial plane was significantly larger than the values of Tv and T1. The mean value of T0 was also significantly larger than those of Tv and T1, and the mean value of Tv was larger than that of T1. Although the condyle was rotated, it exhibited a tendency to return to its preoperative position. There was no statistically significant difference in functional evaluation between T0 and T2. Conclusion: Our method of using yaw control for the condyle during virtual surgery and transferring this technique to the actual surgery can improve the conventional surgical technique by positioning the proximal segment in a pre-planned position, thus achieving optimal results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle Full in-Office Guided Surgery with Open Selective Tooth-Supported Templates: A Prospective Clinical Study on 20 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112361
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: Guided implant surgery appears to have several benefits, such as the possibility of inserting flapless implants in a prosthetically driven manner, avoiding dangerous anatomical structures. However, to date, only a few surgeons routinely use guided surgery in partially edentulous patients. Aim: To
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Background: Guided implant surgery appears to have several benefits, such as the possibility of inserting flapless implants in a prosthetically driven manner, avoiding dangerous anatomical structures. However, to date, only a few surgeons routinely use guided surgery in partially edentulous patients. Aim: To present the results obtained with tooth-supported surgical templates characterized by an innovative open design with selective support, and manufactured via a full in-office procedure with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Methods: Over a two-year period (2016–2018), all partially edentulous patients with one to three missing teeth (in maxilla and/or mandible), referred to a private dental practice for restoration with dental implants, were considered for inclusion in this prospective clinical study. An intraoral scanner (CS 3600®, Carestream Dental) and cone beam computed tomography (CS 9300®, Carestream Dental) were used to acquire the 3D information on the patients. Guided surgery software (SMOP®, Swissmeda) was used to plan the surgeries and to design open, selective, tooth-supported templates that were fabricated with a stereolithographic (SLA) desktop 3D printer (XFAB2000®, DWS). Guided implant surgeries were performed and patients were followed for a period of one year. The study outcomes were fit and stability of surgical templates, duration (time) of surgery, intra and post-operative complications, and implant stability and survival. Results: Twenty (20) partially edentulous patients (9 males, 11 females; mean age 54.4 ± 9.4 years) were included in the study; 28 open, selective, tooth-supported templates were designed with the aim of inserting 38 implants. Among the surgical templates, 24 had optimal fit and stability, three had optimal fit and sufficient stability, and only one had inadequate fit and unsatisfactory stability and was therefore not suitable for clinical use. The average time of the intervention was 15.7 ± 5.2 min per template. No intra-operative complications were reported, but one implant was not stable at placement and had to be removed. In total, 36 implants were restored with 10 two-unit fixed partial prostheses and 16 single crowns. All implants were successfully functioning at one year, even if, in two single crowns, minor prosthetic complications (abutment screw loosening) occurred. Conclusions: Full in-office guided surgery with open, selective, tooth-supported templates seem to represent a clinically predictable surgical procedure to restore partially edentulous patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these positive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Peri-Implant Soft Tissues around Machined and Direct Metal Laser Sintered (DMLS) Healing Abutments in Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081611
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Direct metal laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that allows fabrication of dental implants and related components with a highly porous surface. To date, no human studies have investigated the soft tissue adhesion and presence of inflammatory infiltrate with
[...] Read more.
Background: Direct metal laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that allows fabrication of dental implants and related components with a highly porous surface. To date, no human studies have investigated the soft tissue adhesion and presence of inflammatory infiltrate with porous DMLS healing abutments (HAs), nor have they compared these with the classic machined ones. Purpose: To evaluate the degree of cell adhesion (integrin expression) and the quantity/quality of inflammatory infiltrate, on HAs with different surfaces; full DMLS, full machined, and hybrid (half DMLS and half machined). Methods: Fifty implant patients were randomly assigned to receive one of these different Has: T1, full DMLS (11 subjects); T2, machined in the upper portion and DMLS in the lower one (10 subjects); T3, DMLS in the upper portion and machined in the lower one (19 subjects); T4, full machined (10 patients). Thirty days after placement, circular sections of soft tissues around HAs were retrieved for immunohistochemical evaluation. Results: With regard to the adhesion molecules, the samples showed different intensity of integrin expression, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between T1 and the other groups. All the samples were positive for the different clusters related to the inflammatory infiltrate (T lymphocytes, CD3; B lymphocytes, CD20; and macrophages, CD68), but a lower infiltrate was found in T1, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) among the groups. Conclusions: The HA surface seems to influence the degree of cell adhesion and the inflammatory infiltrate of the surrounding soft tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle Accuracy of Implant Casts Generated with Conventional and Digital Impressions—An In Vitro Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081599
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital dental impressions with the accuracy of impressions obtained via conventional techniques. Methods: Two different master models were created, one with parallel implants (model 1) and the other with non-parallel implants
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital dental impressions with the accuracy of impressions obtained via conventional techniques. Methods: Two different master models were created, one with parallel implants (model 1) and the other with non-parallel implants (model 2). These reference master models included 4 Klockner KL RP implants (Klockner Implant System SA, Barcelona, Spain), which were juxta-placed and equidistant in the intermentoneal region. In model 1 the implants were placed parallel to each other, whereas in model 2 the implants were placed such that there was a divergence angle of 15° between the more distal implants, and a convergence angle of 15° between the two central implants. A total of four types of impressions were obtained from model 1 (four groups, n = 10 each), including closed tray impressions with replacement abutments; open tray impression groups for dragging copings, without splinting; open tray impressions for ferrules; and impressions obtained using the 3MTM True Definition Scanner system. For model 2 three groups were created (three groups, n = 10 each), including closed tray impressions with replacement abutments; open tray impression for dragging copings, without splinting; and impressions obtained using the 3MTM True Definition Scanner system. The master models and the models obtained using conventional methods were digitalized in order to compare them via an extraoral high-resolution scanner (Imetric IScan D104i, Porretruy, Switzerland). The STL (Stereo Lithography (format for transferring 3 dimensional shape information)) digital values were loaded into reverse-engineering software and superimposed with their respective STL master models in order to evaluate deviations in three dimensions. We then analyzed the squares of the deviations in the three axes and evaluated the median and the sum of the deviation square. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM Corp. Released 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. The normality of the distributions was analyzed according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The median comparison was performed using the differences between the medians, analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: For model 1, the deviations of the digital impressions were smaller than those associated with the conventional techniques. The sum value in group D was 1,068,292, which was significantly lower than those of groups A, B, and C, which were shown to be 2,114,342, 2,165,491, and 1,265,918, respectively. This improvement was not observed when using model 2, however, where the conventional techniques yielded similar results. Group F simultaneously presented the lowest total square sum of the three deviations (1,257,835), indicating a significantly higher accuracy for this group in model 2, while the sum values were 1,660,975 and 1,489,328 for groups E and G, respectively. Conclusion: Digital impressions of full-arch models were able to achieve the accuracy of conventional impressions in an in vitro model. Nevertheless, further in vivo studies are needed to validate these in vitro results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle Lateral Sinus Floor Elevation Performed with Trapezoidal and Modified Triangular Flap Designs: A Randomized Pilot Study of Post-Operative Pain Using Thermal Infrared Imaging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061277
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was the clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two different sinus flap lift techniques using a visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS),
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Purpose: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was the clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two different sinus flap lift techniques using a visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS), and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). Materials Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 15 patients (30 sinuses in total) randomly allocated into two groups. For the sinuses of Group I a trapezoidal flap was used, while for Group II a modified triangular flap without anterior release was utilized. Postoperative pain was scored by means of a 100-mm VAS ranging from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst pain imaginable), and was recorded at 2, 4, 6 and 14 days after surgery. Swelling was recorded by a verbal rating scale (VRS) and was classified into four categories: a score of 1 referred the absence of swelling, patients with intra-oral swelling in the surgical zone scored 2, any extra-oral swelling in the surgical zone scored 3, and intense swelling exhibited by extra-oral swelling extending beyond the surgical zone scored 4. The facial temperature was recorded before and after sinus augmentation, and at 2, 4, 6, and 14 days post-surgery to check the course of healing. Results: In Group I pain intensity was recorded at 2 days after surgery with a mean score of 38.67 ± 6.4 mm. Swelling was greater at 2 and 4 days, and was absent at day 6. The facial temperature difference before and after the procedure was 4.737 °C ± 0.37. In Group II the pain score were lower than in Group I (p < 0.05). The score for swelling was 2 on the first and second days, and was reduced on day 4. After the second day the difference in temperature was significantly reduced as compared to the day of surgery (0.77 °C); at 2 and 4 days no difference was registered. Conclusions: The results of this clinical study show the significant effectiveness of the modified triangular flap in the sinus lift procedure for reducing pain and swelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Population-Based Linkage of Big Data in Dental Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112357
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Population-based linkage of patient-level information opens new strategies for dental research to identify unknown correlations of diseases, prognostic factors, novel treatment concepts and evaluate healthcare systems. As clinical trials have become more complex and inefficient, register-based controlled (clinical) trials (RC(C)T) are a promising
[...] Read more.
Population-based linkage of patient-level information opens new strategies for dental research to identify unknown correlations of diseases, prognostic factors, novel treatment concepts and evaluate healthcare systems. As clinical trials have become more complex and inefficient, register-based controlled (clinical) trials (RC(C)T) are a promising approach in dental research. RC(C)Ts provide comprehensive information on hard-to-reach populations, allow observations with minimal loss to follow-up, but require large sample sizes with generating high level of external validity. Collecting data is only valuable if this is done systematically according to harmonized and inter-linkable standards involving a universally accepted general patient consent. Secure data anonymization is crucial, but potential re-identification of individuals poses several challenges. Population-based linkage of big data is a game changer for epidemiological surveys in Public Health and will play a predominant role in future dental research by influencing healthcare services, research, education, biotechnology, insurance, social policy and governmental affairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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