Special Issue "Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Carlo Mangano
Website
Guest Editor
1. Head of Digital Dentistry Unit Research, S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
2. Founding member and President elect of Digital Dentistry Society
Interests: 3D Printing; dental implants; bone Regeneration; bioceramics; customized Scaffolds; tissue Engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

3D scanners (intraoral, desktop and face scanners, cone beam computed tomography) and computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, together with new aesthetic materials and powerful manufacturing and prototyping tools (milling machines and 3D printers) are radically transforming the dental profession. As a consequence, in recent years we are witnessing a real evolution of dental care. However, there is a need for scientific evidence regarding the new high-tech protocols and new materials. In the present thematic issue, we solicit the submission of original research articles (technological reports, case reports, case series, retrospective and prospective clinical studies, randomized controlled trials), as well as review articles, on the topics of digital dentistry. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

- data acquisition by means of 3D scanners (intraoral scanners, desktop scanners, face scanners, cone beam computed tomography; 3D axiography);

- data processing by means of CAD software;

- production of prosthetic restorations, surgical guides, custom-made implants and scaffolds for bone regeneration, and orthodontic aligners and devices by means of milling machines, 3D printers, laser sintering;

- clinical application of CAD/CAM restorations, guided implant surgery, custom-made implants and bone regeneration, digital orthodontics;

- the virtual patient.

Prof. Carlo Mangano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • digital dentistry
  • 3D Scanners
  • CBCT
  • CAD/CAM software
  • milling machines
  • 3D printers
  • direct metal laser sintering
  • guided surgery
  • custom-made implants
  • custom-made bone regeneration

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Accuracy Evaluation of Single-Tooth Abutment Using Two-Dimensional Analysis in Two Intraoral Scanners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061021 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to two-dimensionally evaluate deviation errors at five digital cross-sections of single-tooth abutment in regards to data obtained from two intraoral scanners, and to evaluate accuracy of individual scanners. Two intraoral scanners, the Trios 3® (3 Shape, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to two-dimensionally evaluate deviation errors at five digital cross-sections of single-tooth abutment in regards to data obtained from two intraoral scanners, and to evaluate accuracy of individual scanners. Two intraoral scanners, the Trios 3® (3 Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) and EzScan® (Vatech, Hwaseong, Korea), were evaluated by utilizing 13 stone models. The superimposed 3D data files were sectioned into five different planes: buccal-lingual section (BL), mesial-distal section (MD), transverse high section (TH), transverse middle section (TM), and transverse low section (TL). Accuracy comparison between the two scanners in 5 groups was performed. BL vs. MD of each scanner, and three transverse groups (TH, TM, TL) of each scanner were analyzed for accuracy comparison. In comparison of 2-D analyses for two intraoral scanners, Trios 3® showed statistically significant higher accuracy in root mean square (RMS) at BL, TH, and TL (p < 0.05). For each scanner, RMS value showed that mesial-distal sections were more prone to error than buccal-lingual section, which exhibited statistically significant errors (p < 0.05) while the transverse groups did not. Two-dimensional analysis is more insightful than three-dimensional analysis on single-tooth abutment. In mesiodistal areas, rough prepped areas, and sharp edges where scanner accessibility is difficult, high deviation errors are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Conventional versus Digital Impressions for Full Arch Screw-Retained Maxillary Rehabilitations: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050829 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 25
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to compare conventional versus digital impressions for Full-Arch maxillary rehabilitations. Methods: Patients selected for this study were treated with full-arch screw-retained rehabilitations supported by six immediately loaded dental implants. Patients have been scheduled randomly [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study was to compare conventional versus digital impressions for Full-Arch maxillary rehabilitations. Methods: Patients selected for this study were treated with full-arch screw-retained rehabilitations supported by six immediately loaded dental implants. Patients have been scheduled randomly into control (conventional impression group, CIG) and test (digital impression group, DIG) groups respectively for a fully conventional workflow and a fully digital workflow. In both groups, within 24 h, temporary prostheses were delivered. Four months after the implant positioning, the two groups dealt with the fabrication of definitive restorations: conventional pick-up was performed in the control group, and definitive digital impressions were carried out in the test group. The time involved following these two procedures was recorded. Patients underwent intraoral digital radiographs to evaluate the accuracy of the framework-implant connection, check for the presence of voids at the bar-implant connection and measure bone level. Criteria used to assess success at the prosthetic level were the occurrence of prosthetic maintenance, the absence of fractures of the acrylic resin superstructure and voids. Results: A total of 50 patients received immediately loaded prostheses supported by six implants (total 300 implants). A fixture and prosthetic survival rate of 100% was observed. All digital X-ray examinations revealed a bar-implant connection accuracy and no voids. Differences that were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in marginal bone loss were found between control and test groups. Significantly less time was spent to perform digital impression procedure (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Clinical and radiological results of the test group advocate a satisfactory accuracy and predictability of the intraoral scanner (IOS) to be a reliable alternative in clinical practice for implant full-arch rehabilitations and suggest fabrication of definitive restorations with a successful marginal fit precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Intra-Oral Scanner (I.O.S.) on The Marginal Accuracy of CAD/CAM Single Crowns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040544 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the quality of digital workflows generated by different scanners (Intra-oral digital scanners (I.O.S.s)) focusing on marginal fit analysis. A customized chrome-cobalt (Cr-Co) implant abutment simulating a maxillary right first molar was fixed in [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the quality of digital workflows generated by different scanners (Intra-oral digital scanners (I.O.S.s)) focusing on marginal fit analysis. A customized chrome-cobalt (Cr-Co) implant abutment simulating a maxillary right first molar was fixed in hemi-maxillary stone model and scanned by eight different I.O.S.s: Omnicam® (Denstply Sirona, Verona, Italy) CS3500®, CS3600®, (Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA, USA), True Definition Scanner® (3M, St. Paul, MN, USA), DWIO® (Dental Wings, Montreal, Quebec, Canada), PlanScan® (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland), 3D PROGRESS Plus® (MHT, Verona, Italy), TRIOS 3® (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Nine scans were performed by each tested I.O.S. and 72 copings were designed using a dental computer-assisted-design/computer-assisted-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software (exocad GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany). According to CAD data, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) copings were digitally milled (Roland DWX-50, Irvine, CA, USA). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) direct vision allowed for marginal gap measurements in eight points for each specimen. Descriptive analysis was performed using mean, standard deviation, and median, while the Kruskal–Wallis test was performed to determine whether the marginal discrepancies were significantly different between each group (significance level p < 0.05). The overall mean marginal gap value and standard deviation were 53.45 ± 30.52 μm. The minimum mean value (40.04 ± 18.90 μm) was recorded by PlanScan®, then 3D PROGRESS Plus® (40.20 ± 21.91 μm), True Definition Scanner® (40.82 ± 26.19 μm), CS3500® (54.82 ± 28.86 μm) CS3600® (59,67 ± 28.72 μm), Omnicam® (61.57 ± 38.59 μm), DWIO® (62.49 ± 31.54 μm), while the maximum mean value (67.95 ± 30.41 μm) was recorded by TRIOS 3®. The Kruskal–Wallis tests revealed a statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.5) in the mean marginal gaps between copings produced by 3D PROGRESS Plus®, PlanScan, True Definition Scanner, and the other evaluated I.O.S.s. The use of an I.O.S. for digital impressions may be a viable alternative to analog techniques. Although in this in vitro study PlanScan®, 3D PROGRESS Plus® and True Definition Scanner® may have showed the best performances, all I.O.S.s tested could provide clinically encouraging results especially in terms of marginal accuracy, since mean marginal gap values were all within the clinically acceptable threshold of 120 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printed Temporary Veneer Restoring Autotransplanted Teeth in Children: Design and Concept Validation Ex Vivo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030496 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
(1) Background: Three-dimensional printing is progressing rapidly and is applied in many fields of dentistry. Tooth autotransplantation offers a viable biological approach to tooth replacement in children and adolescents. Restoring or reshaping the transplanted tooth to the anterior maxilla should be done as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Three-dimensional printing is progressing rapidly and is applied in many fields of dentistry. Tooth autotransplantation offers a viable biological approach to tooth replacement in children and adolescents. Restoring or reshaping the transplanted tooth to the anterior maxilla should be done as soon as possible for psychological and aesthetic reasons. However, to avoid interfering with the natural healing process, reshaping of transplanted teeth is usually delayed three to four months after transplantation. This delay creates a need for simple indirect temporary aesthetic restoration for autotransplanted teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a digital solution for temporary restoration of autotransplanted teeth using 3D printing. (2) Methods: Four dry human skulls and four dry human mandibles were scanned using cone beam computed tomography to create 3D models for 15 premolars. Digital impression of the maxillary arch of one of the skulls was captured by intra oral scanner. The digital work flow for the design and fabrication of temporary veneers is presented. The seating and adaptation of the 3D printed veneers were evaluated using stereomicroscopy and micro-computed tomography. (3) Results: Evaluation of the veneer seating using stereomicroscopy showed that the mean marginal gap at all of the sides was below the cut-off value of 200 µm. The overall mean marginal gap was 99.9 ± 50.7 µm (median: 87.8 (IQR 64.2–133 µm)). The internal adaptation evaluation using micro-computed tomography showed an average median gap thickness of 152.5 ± 47.7 (IQR 129–149.3 µm). (4) Conclusions: The present concept of using temporary veneers that are designed and fabricated with CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) technology using a DLP (digital light processing) printer may present a viable treatment option for restoration of autotransplanted teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Full-Digital Protocol (SCAN-PLAN-MAKE-DONE®) for the Design and Fabrication of Implant-Supported Monolithic Translucent Zirconia Crowns Cemented on Customized Hybrid Abutments: A Retrospective Clinical Study on 25 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030317 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Purpose: To present a novel, full-digital protocol for the design and fabrication of implant-supported monolithic translucent zirconia crowns cemented on customized hybrid abutments. Methods: The present retrospective clinical study was based on data from patients who had been treated with single Morse-taper connection [...] Read more.
Purpose: To present a novel, full-digital protocol for the design and fabrication of implant-supported monolithic translucent zirconia crowns cemented on customized hybrid abutments. Methods: The present retrospective clinical study was based on data from patients who had been treated with single Morse-taper connection implants (Exacone®, Leone Implants, Florence, Italy) and were prosthetically restored with monolithic translucent zirconia crowns, cemented on customized hybrid abutments. The full-digital protocol (SCAN-PLAN-MAKE-DONE®) consisted of 8 phases: (1) intraoral scan of the implant position with scanbody; (2) computer-assisted design (CAD) of the individual abutment (saved as “supplementary abutment design” in external folder) and temporary crown; (3) milling of the individual zirconia abutment and of the temporary polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) crown, with extraoral cementation of the zirconia abutment on the relative titanium bonding base, to generate an individual hybrid abutment; (4) clinical application of the individual hybrid abutment and cementation of the temporary PMMA crown; (5) two months later, intraoral scan of the individual hybrid abutment in position; (6) CAD of the final crown with margin line design on the previously saved “supplementary abutment design”, superimposed on the second scan of the abutment in position; (7) milling of the final crown in monolithic translucent zirconia, sintering, and characterization; and (8) clinical application of the final crown. All patients were followed for a period of 1 year. The primary outcomes of this study were the marginal adaptation of the final crown (checked clinically and radiographically), the quality of occlusal and interproximal contact points at delivery, and the aesthetic integration; the secondary outcomes were the 1-year survival and success of the implant-supported restoration. An implant-supported restoration was considered successful in the absence of any biological or prosthetic complication, during the entire follow-up period. Results: In total, 25 patients (12 males, 13 females; 26–74 years of age; mean age 51.1 ± 13.3 years) who had been restored with 40 implant-supported monolithic translucent zirconia crowns were included in this study. At delivery, the marginal adaptation was perfect for all crowns. However, there were occlusal issues (2/40 crowns: 5%), interproximal issues (1/40 crowns: 2.5%), and aesthetic issues (1/40 crowns: 2.5%). The overall incidence of issues at delivery was therefore 10% (4/40 crowns). At 1 year, one implant failed; thus the survival of the restorations was 97.5% (39/40 crowns in function). Among the surviving implant-supported restorations, three experienced complications (one loss of connection between the hybrid abutment and the implant, one decementation of the zirconia abutment, and one decementation of the zirconia crown). The success of restorations amounted to 92.4%. Conclusions: The restoration of single Morse-taper connection implants with monolithic translucent zirconia crowns cemented on customized hybrid abutments via the novel SCAN-PLAN-MAKE-DONE® full-digital protocol seems to represent a reliable treatment option. However, further studies on a larger number of patients and dealing with different prosthetic restorations (such as implant-supported fixed partial prostheses) are needed to confirm the validity of this protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study between a Novel In Vivo Method and CBCT for Assessment of Ridge Alterations after Socket Preservation—Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010127 - 05 Jan 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare two different methods for evaluation of alveolar bone resorption after the socket preservation procedure. In the current study, 9 patients with a total of nine teeth indicated for extraction were included. Patients received alveolar ridge [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare two different methods for evaluation of alveolar bone resorption after the socket preservation procedure. In the current study, 9 patients with a total of nine teeth indicated for extraction were included. Patients received alveolar ridge preservation with allograft (BoneAlbumin™, OrthoSera Dental, Gyor, Hungary) or Platelet-Rich fibrin (PRF). CBCT (Planmeca ProMax 3D, Helsinki, Finland), was taken at 1 week and 4 months after the socket preservation procedure. A 3D scan, obtained with Trios (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) of the alveolar bone of the surgical site and the adjacent teeth at the place of extraction was performed during the surgical procedure, immediately after the graft placement in the alveolar socket, and after 4 months. Virtual study models were generated using the three-dimensional file processing software “Meshlab” (ISTI—CNR Rome Italy). The changes of alveolar height and width were measured and analyzed. Results were taken from both methods. Radiographic examination revealed that the average value of horizontal resorption is 0.6–2.4 mm, and vertical resorption is 0.46–2.8 mm. On virtual models, the average value for horizontal resorption is 1.92–3.64 mm, the vertical resorption value is 0.95–2.10 mm. The Trios intraoral scan can provide non-invasive and more accurate quantitative insights into the dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge after the bone remodeling process. More research is needed for verification of these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Outcomes of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns with CAD/CAM Technology. A 1-Year Follow-Up Prospective Clinical Study of 65 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112523 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical performance of posterior monolithic single crowns in terms of failure or complications and the secondary aim was to assess the quality of these restorations according to the United States Public Health [...] Read more.
Aim/Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine the clinical performance of posterior monolithic single crowns in terms of failure or complications and the secondary aim was to assess the quality of these restorations according to the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Methods: Ιn a private dental clinic, 65 patients with need of posterior crowns were restored with monolithic zirconia crowns. All the restorations were evaluated 6 and 12 months after their cementation. The modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria and periodontal parameters were applied for the clinical evaluation of the crowns. Restorations with Alpha or Bravo rating were considered a success. Results: Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Sixty-five patients (mean age: 49.52) were restored with 65 monolithic zirconia crowns. No fracture of the restorations was recorded. The overall success rate was 98.5%. The clinical quality of all crowns was acceptable except for the marginal discoloration of one crown at the 6- and 12-month follow-up examination. Conclusions: In this study, no fracture of single-tooth monolithic crowns occurred and the success rate was high. Monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated is a viable option for the restoration of single posterior teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation for Yaw Control of the Mandibular Condyle and Its Actual Application to Orthognathic Surgery: A One-Year Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112380 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: Favourable occlusal interdigitation and an optimized position of the mandibular condyle after surgery are essential for obtaining favourable results. The position of the condyle is determined during the operation. However, it is difficult to maintain the condyle’s original position post-surgery despite [...] Read more.
Background: Favourable occlusal interdigitation and an optimized position of the mandibular condyle after surgery are essential for obtaining favourable results. The position of the condyle is determined during the operation. However, it is difficult to maintain the condyle’s original position post-surgery despite the efforts of the surgeons. Indeed, a degree of rotation of the condyle is unavoidable, since it is difficult to verify whether the condyle is positioned correctly during surgery. Purpose: To maximize contact between the bone segments, the condyle was rotated around the vertical axis using surgical simulations. We examined changes to the condyle-fossa relationship after comparing virtual surgery to actual surgery. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, 20 patients were diagnosed with skeletal malocclusion and participated in computer-aided surgical simulation before undergoing orthognathic surgery. In the simulation, the mandibular condyles were rotated around the vertical axis, and the proximal segments were fixed to the distal segments using a customized miniplate and positioning device during actual surgery. This study investigated the relationship between the condyle and fossa using cone-beam computed tomography for several different time periods (preoperative (T0), virtual surgery (Tv), postoperative three days (T1) and one year (T2)). Results: The coronal and sagittal view exhibited significant differences in the mean values between T1and T0, Tv, and T2 for all joint spaces. As a result of the distance, the mean value of T2 in both the superior joint space (JS) and the lateral JS was significantly higher than that of Tv. In contrast, the mean value of Tv in the medial JS was significantly higher than that of T2. Moreover, the mean value of T2 on the axial plane was significantly larger than the values of Tv and T1. The mean value of T0 was also significantly larger than those of Tv and T1, and the mean value of Tv was larger than that of T1. Although the condyle was rotated, it exhibited a tendency to return to its preoperative position. There was no statistically significant difference in functional evaluation between T0 and T2. Conclusion: Our method of using yaw control for the condyle during virtual surgery and transferring this technique to the actual surgery can improve the conventional surgical technique by positioning the proximal segment in a pre-planned position, thus achieving optimal results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Full in-Office Guided Surgery with Open Selective Tooth-Supported Templates: A Prospective Clinical Study on 20 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112361 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Background: Guided implant surgery appears to have several benefits, such as the possibility of inserting flapless implants in a prosthetically driven manner, avoiding dangerous anatomical structures. However, to date, only a few surgeons routinely use guided surgery in partially edentulous patients. Aim: To [...] Read more.
Background: Guided implant surgery appears to have several benefits, such as the possibility of inserting flapless implants in a prosthetically driven manner, avoiding dangerous anatomical structures. However, to date, only a few surgeons routinely use guided surgery in partially edentulous patients. Aim: To present the results obtained with tooth-supported surgical templates characterized by an innovative open design with selective support, and manufactured via a full in-office procedure with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. Methods: Over a two-year period (2016–2018), all partially edentulous patients with one to three missing teeth (in maxilla and/or mandible), referred to a private dental practice for restoration with dental implants, were considered for inclusion in this prospective clinical study. An intraoral scanner (CS 3600®, Carestream Dental) and cone beam computed tomography (CS 9300®, Carestream Dental) were used to acquire the 3D information on the patients. Guided surgery software (SMOP®, Swissmeda) was used to plan the surgeries and to design open, selective, tooth-supported templates that were fabricated with a stereolithographic (SLA) desktop 3D printer (XFAB2000®, DWS). Guided implant surgeries were performed and patients were followed for a period of one year. The study outcomes were fit and stability of surgical templates, duration (time) of surgery, intra and post-operative complications, and implant stability and survival. Results: Twenty (20) partially edentulous patients (9 males, 11 females; mean age 54.4 ± 9.4 years) were included in the study; 28 open, selective, tooth-supported templates were designed with the aim of inserting 38 implants. Among the surgical templates, 24 had optimal fit and stability, three had optimal fit and sufficient stability, and only one had inadequate fit and unsatisfactory stability and was therefore not suitable for clinical use. The average time of the intervention was 15.7 ± 5.2 min per template. No intra-operative complications were reported, but one implant was not stable at placement and had to be removed. In total, 36 implants were restored with 10 two-unit fixed partial prostheses and 16 single crowns. All implants were successfully functioning at one year, even if, in two single crowns, minor prosthetic complications (abutment screw loosening) occurred. Conclusions: Full in-office guided surgery with open, selective, tooth-supported templates seem to represent a clinically predictable surgical procedure to restore partially edentulous patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these positive outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Peri-Implant Soft Tissues around Machined and Direct Metal Laser Sintered (DMLS) Healing Abutments in Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081611 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: Direct metal laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that allows fabrication of dental implants and related components with a highly porous surface. To date, no human studies have investigated the soft tissue adhesion and presence of inflammatory infiltrate with [...] Read more.
Background: Direct metal laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that allows fabrication of dental implants and related components with a highly porous surface. To date, no human studies have investigated the soft tissue adhesion and presence of inflammatory infiltrate with porous DMLS healing abutments (HAs), nor have they compared these with the classic machined ones. Purpose: To evaluate the degree of cell adhesion (integrin expression) and the quantity/quality of inflammatory infiltrate, on HAs with different surfaces; full DMLS, full machined, and hybrid (half DMLS and half machined). Methods: Fifty implant patients were randomly assigned to receive one of these different Has: T1, full DMLS (11 subjects); T2, machined in the upper portion and DMLS in the lower one (10 subjects); T3, DMLS in the upper portion and machined in the lower one (19 subjects); T4, full machined (10 patients). Thirty days after placement, circular sections of soft tissues around HAs were retrieved for immunohistochemical evaluation. Results: With regard to the adhesion molecules, the samples showed different intensity of integrin expression, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between T1 and the other groups. All the samples were positive for the different clusters related to the inflammatory infiltrate (T lymphocytes, CD3; B lymphocytes, CD20; and macrophages, CD68), but a lower infiltrate was found in T1, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) among the groups. Conclusions: The HA surface seems to influence the degree of cell adhesion and the inflammatory infiltrate of the surrounding soft tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Implant Casts Generated with Conventional and Digital Impressions—An In Vitro Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081599 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital dental impressions with the accuracy of impressions obtained via conventional techniques. Methods: Two different master models were created, one with parallel implants (model 1) and the other with non-parallel implants [...] Read more.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital dental impressions with the accuracy of impressions obtained via conventional techniques. Methods: Two different master models were created, one with parallel implants (model 1) and the other with non-parallel implants (model 2). These reference master models included 4 Klockner KL RP implants (Klockner Implant System SA, Barcelona, Spain), which were juxta-placed and equidistant in the intermentoneal region. In model 1 the implants were placed parallel to each other, whereas in model 2 the implants were placed such that there was a divergence angle of 15° between the more distal implants, and a convergence angle of 15° between the two central implants. A total of four types of impressions were obtained from model 1 (four groups, n = 10 each), including closed tray impressions with replacement abutments; open tray impression groups for dragging copings, without splinting; open tray impressions for ferrules; and impressions obtained using the 3MTM True Definition Scanner system. For model 2 three groups were created (three groups, n = 10 each), including closed tray impressions with replacement abutments; open tray impression for dragging copings, without splinting; and impressions obtained using the 3MTM True Definition Scanner system. The master models and the models obtained using conventional methods were digitalized in order to compare them via an extraoral high-resolution scanner (Imetric IScan D104i, Porretruy, Switzerland). The STL (Stereo Lithography (format for transferring 3 dimensional shape information)) digital values were loaded into reverse-engineering software and superimposed with their respective STL master models in order to evaluate deviations in three dimensions. We then analyzed the squares of the deviations in the three axes and evaluated the median and the sum of the deviation square. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM Corp. Released 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. The normality of the distributions was analyzed according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The median comparison was performed using the differences between the medians, analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: For model 1, the deviations of the digital impressions were smaller than those associated with the conventional techniques. The sum value in group D was 1,068,292, which was significantly lower than those of groups A, B, and C, which were shown to be 2,114,342, 2,165,491, and 1,265,918, respectively. This improvement was not observed when using model 2, however, where the conventional techniques yielded similar results. Group F simultaneously presented the lowest total square sum of the three deviations (1,257,835), indicating a significantly higher accuracy for this group in model 2, while the sum values were 1,660,975 and 1,489,328 for groups E and G, respectively. Conclusion: Digital impressions of full-arch models were able to achieve the accuracy of conventional impressions in an in vitro model. Nevertheless, further in vivo studies are needed to validate these in vitro results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Lateral Sinus Floor Elevation Performed with Trapezoidal and Modified Triangular Flap Designs: A Randomized Pilot Study of Post-Operative Pain Using Thermal Infrared Imaging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061277 - 16 Jun 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Purpose: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was the clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two different sinus flap lift techniques using a visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS), [...] Read more.
Purpose: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was the clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two different sinus flap lift techniques using a visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS), and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). Materials Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 15 patients (30 sinuses in total) randomly allocated into two groups. For the sinuses of Group I a trapezoidal flap was used, while for Group II a modified triangular flap without anterior release was utilized. Postoperative pain was scored by means of a 100-mm VAS ranging from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst pain imaginable), and was recorded at 2, 4, 6 and 14 days after surgery. Swelling was recorded by a verbal rating scale (VRS) and was classified into four categories: a score of 1 referred the absence of swelling, patients with intra-oral swelling in the surgical zone scored 2, any extra-oral swelling in the surgical zone scored 3, and intense swelling exhibited by extra-oral swelling extending beyond the surgical zone scored 4. The facial temperature was recorded before and after sinus augmentation, and at 2, 4, 6, and 14 days post-surgery to check the course of healing. Results: In Group I pain intensity was recorded at 2 days after surgery with a mean score of 38.67 ± 6.4 mm. Swelling was greater at 2 and 4 days, and was absent at day 6. The facial temperature difference before and after the procedure was 4.737 °C ± 0.37. In Group II the pain score were lower than in Group I (p < 0.05). The score for swelling was 2 on the first and second days, and was reduced on day 4. After the second day the difference in temperature was significantly reduced as compared to the day of surgery (0.77 °C); at 2 and 4 days no difference was registered. Conclusions: The results of this clinical study show the significant effectiveness of the modified triangular flap in the sinus lift procedure for reducing pain and swelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Population-Based Linkage of Big Data in Dental Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112357 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Population-based linkage of patient-level information opens new strategies for dental research to identify unknown correlations of diseases, prognostic factors, novel treatment concepts and evaluate healthcare systems. As clinical trials have become more complex and inefficient, register-based controlled (clinical) trials (RC(C)T) are a promising [...] Read more.
Population-based linkage of patient-level information opens new strategies for dental research to identify unknown correlations of diseases, prognostic factors, novel treatment concepts and evaluate healthcare systems. As clinical trials have become more complex and inefficient, register-based controlled (clinical) trials (RC(C)T) are a promising approach in dental research. RC(C)Ts provide comprehensive information on hard-to-reach populations, allow observations with minimal loss to follow-up, but require large sample sizes with generating high level of external validity. Collecting data is only valuable if this is done systematically according to harmonized and inter-linkable standards involving a universally accepted general patient consent. Secure data anonymization is crucial, but potential re-identification of individuals poses several challenges. Population-based linkage of big data is a game changer for epidemiological surveys in Public Health and will play a predominant role in future dental research by influencing healthcare services, research, education, biotechnology, insurance, social policy and governmental affairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Soft Tissue Contour Impression with Analogic or Digital Work Flow: A Case Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122623 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Purpose: Transferring precise information to the dental laboratory is one of the key factors to achieving clinical success. The aim of the present study was to describe classical and digital work-flows used to rehabilitate an implant with a convergent collar in the aesthetic [...] Read more.
Purpose: Transferring precise information to the dental laboratory is one of the key factors to achieving clinical success. The aim of the present study was to describe classical and digital work-flows used to rehabilitate an implant with a convergent collar in the aesthetic zone following the BOPT (biologically oriented preparation technique) approach and to report the three years follow-up outcomes of two patients rehabilitated following such procedures. Materials and methods: Two central incisors of two different patients were rehabilitated with a tissue-level implant with a convergent collar and, after a provisional and healing phase, one implant was “impressed” using a classical workflow and one using a digital one. The primary outcome measured was the mean bone loss. An intraoral radiograph was taken at crown delivery and at the three years follow-up visit. Secondary Esthetic outcomes pre-op and post-op were evaluated using the PES (pink esthetic score). Results: At the three years follow-up visit, radiographic analysis showed no signs of bone resorption. For the analogic procedure, the pre-and post-op PES scores were 8, whereas for the digital procedure the pre-op PES score was 4 and a post-op score of 9 was obtained. Conclusions: classical and digital work flows succeeded in giving precise and complete anatomical information of implant position, including the soft tissue contour. Minimum bone loss and an esthetic success were obtained in both procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry: The Evolution of Dental Care)
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