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Age-Related Sarcopenia, Obesity and Inflammaging: Effects of Physical Activity and Nutrition

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 11439

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: menopause; older adults; sarcopenia; fall prevention; exercise; active aging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: exercise; gait speed; sarcopenia; strength; quality of life; risk of falls in older adults; anxiety; depression; fatigue; sleep quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: physical therapy; older adults; sarcopenia; body composition; physical exercise; health promotion; quality of life
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce that the upcoming Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health will be titled " Age-Related Sarcopenia, Obesity and Inflammaging: Effects of Physical Activity and Nutrition”.

The overall life expectancy of the human population is rapidly increasing worldwide and the average age is rising at an accelerating rate. With aging, there is an increased risk of unfavorable changes in body composition, including a decrease in muscle quality and quantity (key elements in the diagnosis of sarcopenia) and an increase in fat mass (obesity). The two conditions can coexist as sarcopenic obesity, and they can even be masked by a normal body mass index. Sarcopenia and obesity are associated with several health-related adverse effects, with an important socioeconomical burden. Although there are several pathophysiolog­ical mechanisms, a proinflammatory environment seems to play an important role in the appearance and the association between sarcopenia and obesity. The prevention and treatment of sarcopenia and obesity require a multifactorial approach, including lifestyle interventions, among which physical exercise and diet have a very important role. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) will focus on the current state of knowledge on the links between nutrition, physical activity and exercise with sarcopenia and obesity in older adults. New research papers, reviews, case reports and conference papers are welcome. Papers dealing with new approaches to sarcopenia and obesity management are also invited. Other manuscript types accepted include methodological papers, position papers, brief reports and commentaries.

Prof. Dr. Fidel Hita-Contreras
Prof. Dr. Antonio Martinez-Amat
Prof. Dr. Agustín Aibar Almazán
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sarcopenia
  • obesity
  • exercise
  • diet
  • muscle mass
  • muscle strength
  • physical performance
  • inflammation
  • older adults

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenic Obesity Tendency and Nutritional Status Is Related to the Risk of Sarcopenia, Frailty, Depression and Quality of Life in Patients with Dementia
by Hsi-Hsien Chou, Te-Jen Lai, Chi-Hua Yen, Po-Sheng Chang, Ji-Cyun Pan and Ping-Ting Lin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052492 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of dementia patients and examine the correlation with sarcopenia, frailty, depression, and quality of life. We enrolled patients aged 60 years and over with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≤ 26 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of dementia patients and examine the correlation with sarcopenia, frailty, depression, and quality of life. We enrolled patients aged 60 years and over with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≤ 26 (Taiwan), and dementia diagnosed by a neurologist or psychiatrist. Nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength and endurance were evaluated by handgrip, leg-back strength, dumbbell curls, sit to stand test, and gait speed. Quality of life, frailty, and depression status were measured by questionnaires. Patients with moderate dementia (MMSE ≤ 20) had a significantly lower MNA score, muscle function, and quality of life than patients with mild dementia (p < 0.01). A lower MNA score was significantly associated with the risk of frailty (odds ratio: 4.76, p < 0.01), depression (odds ratio: 3.17, p = 0.03), and poor quality of life (odds ratio: 2.73, p < 0.05), and sarcopenia (odds ratio: 3.97, p = 0.03) after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, patients with dementia were at risk of malnutrition, and nutritional status was associated to the risk of sarcopenia, frailty, depression, and quality of life. Full article
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9 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
Muscle Strength and Physical Performance Are Associated with Reaction Time Performance in Older People
by José Daniel Jiménez-García, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Raquel Fábrega-Cuadros, Francisco Álvarez-Salvago and Agustín Aibar-Almazán
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115893 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Background: Functional mobility and muscle strength are well known risk factors for sarcopenia. Furthermore, possible associations have been suggested between predisposing factors of sarcopenia and reaction time among the elderly. This study aims to analyze possible associations of functional mobility and muscle strength [...] Read more.
Background: Functional mobility and muscle strength are well known risk factors for sarcopenia. Furthermore, possible associations have been suggested between predisposing factors of sarcopenia and reaction time among the elderly. This study aims to analyze possible associations of functional mobility and muscle strength and reaction times in a population of people aged >60 years. Methods: A total of 290 older people (69.35 ± 5.55 years) participated in this study. The following parameters were assessed: optoacoustic lower-limb reaction time (OALLRT); acoustic lower-limb reaction time (ALLRT); optic lower-limb reaction time (OLLRT, using an optical detection system), functional mobility (through the timed up-and-go test) and muscle strength (using a dynamometer). Results: Our results show that lower values of muscle strength were associated with increased reaction times in OALLRT (β = −0.170; 95% confidence interval −0.011–0.000; R2 = 0.237; p = 0.035) and in ALLRT (β = −0.228; 95% confidence interval −0.011–0.002; R2 = 0.199; p = 0.006). Conclusion: Increased muscle strength (which at low values are risk factors for sarcopenia) was associated with decreased reaction times in people >60 years of age. Full article
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Review

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11 pages, 1372 KiB  
Review
Inflammatory Profile of Older Adults in Response to Physical Activity and Diet Supplementation: A Systematic Review
by Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, Melinna Ortiz-Ortiz, David Alfredo Hernández-Ontiveros and Minerva Janini Mejía-Rangel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054111 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Chronic, low-grade inflammation in the elderly, usually known as inflammaging, accelerates the development of age-related diseases, including cancer, obesity, sarcopenia, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Two of the most studied interventions against inflammation are diet supplementation and the regular practice of exercise. The search for [...] Read more.
Chronic, low-grade inflammation in the elderly, usually known as inflammaging, accelerates the development of age-related diseases, including cancer, obesity, sarcopenia, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Two of the most studied interventions against inflammation are diet supplementation and the regular practice of exercise. The search for this systematic review was performed in Scopus, EBSCO, and PubMed databases within the last 10 years. Only randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of supplementation and exercise against inflammatory markers in older adults were included. After applying eligibility criteria and risk-of-bias assessment, 11 studies were included in the systematic review. In total, 638 participants were analyzed and the main supplements evaluated were amino acid or protein supplementation from different sources. In the counterpart, the exercise applied in the evaluations included strengthening exercises or aerobic training. The interventions had a range of duration between 4 and 24 weeks, and the effects on inflammation markers in most of the studies showed a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and non- or slightly significant change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, these results suggest that exercise and supplement interventions can contribute to diminishing the inflammation process in the elderly. We can also conclude that further well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the possible synergistic effects of exercise and food supplementation against inflammation in the elderly due to the limited studies that currently exist. This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO, ID CRD42023387184. Full article
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Other

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17 pages, 672 KiB  
Systematic Review
Analysis of Structural Characteristics and Psychometric Properties of the SarQoL® Questionnaire in Different Languages: A Systematic Review
by María Visitación Martínez-Fernández, Irene Sandoval-Hernández, Alejandro Galán-Mercant, Manuel Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jesús Martínez-Cal and Guadalupe Molina-Torres
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084561 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
Background: Sarcopenia is the gradual and global loss of muscle and its functions. Primary sarcopenia is associated with the typical changes of advanced aging and affects approximately 5–10% of the population. The Sarcopenia and Quality of Life (SarQoL®) questionnaire is composed [...] Read more.
Background: Sarcopenia is the gradual and global loss of muscle and its functions. Primary sarcopenia is associated with the typical changes of advanced aging and affects approximately 5–10% of the population. The Sarcopenia and Quality of Life (SarQoL®) questionnaire is composed of 55 items, 22 questions, and is organized into seven domains of quality of life. The main objective of this systematic review was to analyze the structural characteristics and psychometric properties of it, as well as to classify its measurement properties, its methodological quality, and the criteria as good measurement properties of the adaptations and validations made on the SarQoL® questionnaire in different languages. Methods: A systematic review was carried out in the PUBMED, Web of Science, Cinahl, LatinIndex, and SCOPUS databases. The keywords used were: “SarQoL”, “assessment”, “sarcopenia”, “geriatric”, “PROM”, “quality of life”, and “questionnaire”, using the Boolean operator “AND”. All articles published up to 15 January 2022 were considered. Methodological quality and psychometric properties were assessed based on the COSMIN guidelines and the guidelines and general recommendations of PRISMA. Documents published in languages other than English were excluded, as well as versions of the SarQoL® published in the form abstracts for conferences when the full text was not available. Results: A total of 133 articles were identified, 14 of which were included. The evaluated questionnaires and the structural characteristics and psychometric properties of each of them were collected. Conclusion: The different cross-cultural versions of the questionnaire showed good basic structural and psychometric characteristics for the evaluation of patients with sarcopenia. Full article
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