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Special Issue "Adolescent Depressive Disorder"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 14225

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Fernando L. Vázquez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: psychotherapy; psychopathology; psychogical assessment; prevention; depressive disorder; active aging; gender violence; adolescent; university students; caregivers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of adolescence, but because symptom presentation may vary from adult characteristics, it is often unrecognized and untreated. In fact, epidemiological data shows that approximately 8% of adolescents experience depression worldwide. Clinical studies of youth depression show that it is a chronic and recurrent condition. In addition, during early adolescence, a striking gender difference also emerges, with girls about twice as likely to be affected as boys. Depression in adolescents is a major risk factor for suicide, the second leading cause of death in this age group. Serious social and educational impairments, interpersonal difficulties later in life, early parenthood, and increased risk of other mental disorders and substance use have been associated with the diagnosis of MDD in this period. Despite the high prevalence and the serious negative consequences of depression, growing research, and continued innovations can provide great potential for prevention, early intervention, and long-term treatment to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

This Special Issue is open to the subject area of “Adolescent Depressive Disorder”. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest.

Prof. Dr. Fernando L. Vázquez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Cause and pathogenesis
  • Comorbidity
  • Risk factor
  • Suicide
  • Assessment
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Psychological therapy
  • Pharmacological treatment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress and Prevalence of Major Depression and Its Predictors in Female University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115845 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Depression, anxiety and stress are increasingly concerning phenomena in our society, with serious consequences on physical and mental health. The repercussions may be particularly devastating in particular population subgroups, such as female university students. The purpose of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Depression, anxiety and stress are increasingly concerning phenomena in our society, with serious consequences on physical and mental health. The repercussions may be particularly devastating in particular population subgroups, such as female university students. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and the prevalence of depression and associated factors, in Spanish university women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 871 students from the Santiago de Compostela University (mean age 20.7 years, SD = 2.8). Information was collected on sociodemographic and academic characteristics; symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress; diagnosis of major depression; optimism, resilience, social support, life engagement, and five personality domains, using validated instruments. Of the participants, 18.1%, 22.8% and 13.5% presented with severe/very severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. A total of 12.9% had major depression. Higher life engagement was associated with lower risk of depression (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.98), while higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.12–1.28) and openness to experience (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.02–1.14) were associated with greater risk. These findings reveal an alarming percentage of female university students who experience major depression and severe/very severe stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
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Article
The Predictive Role of Affectivity, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196984 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Background: This study analyzes the relationship between depression and anxiety levels and positive and negative affect, self-esteem, and perceived social support from family and friends in an early and middle adolescent sample. These are psychological variables that are often associated with the prediction [...] Read more.
Background: This study analyzes the relationship between depression and anxiety levels and positive and negative affect, self-esteem, and perceived social support from family and friends in an early and middle adolescent sample. These are psychological variables that are often associated with the prediction of emotional disorders, especially depression. Methods: Participants (N = 467) were a representative sample of this group of adolescents and were recruited from schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Part of the sample (N = 177) was assessed three additional times—at one-, two-, and four-month intervals. Results: Results showed a practical stability of all measures across the four intervals, with no significant differences between sexes. Anxiety and depression displayed a similar pattern of significant relationships with affectivity, self-esteem, and social support. Depression had a higher correlation coefficient (−0.47) with positive affect, and so did anxiety with negative affect (0.58). Conclusions: Taking into account 23 initial scores on affectivity, self-esteem, and social support in predicting both depression and anxiety scores at one-month, two-month, and four-month intervals, positive affect was present in three regression analyses, predicting depression scores; negative affect was present in anxiety scores. Results are discussed according to previous findings, as well as the tripartite model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
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Article
The Potential Influence of Group Membership on Outcomes in Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186553 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Background: Adolescent depression prevention programs are typically delivered in groups in which adolescents share a common setting and interventionist, but the influence of the group is usually ignored or statistically controlled. We tested whether the primary outcomes of reductions in depressive symptoms and [...] Read more.
Background: Adolescent depression prevention programs are typically delivered in groups in which adolescents share a common setting and interventionist, but the influence of the group is usually ignored or statistically controlled. We tested whether the primary outcomes of reductions in depressive symptoms and future onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) varied as a function of group membership. Methods: Data were available from two randomized trials in which 220 adolescents received the Blues Program indicated prevention intervention in 36 separate groups; participants were assessed at baseline, post intervention, and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-ups. Results: Ten percent of participants had developed MDD 2 years post intervention. Group-level effects for MDD onset over follow-up were nonsignificant (accounted for <1% of variance; ICC = 0.004, ns). Group-level effects for depressive symptom change across the follow-up period were also nonsignificant (ICC = 0.001, ns) but group effects accounted for 16% of depressive symptom change immediately post intervention (ICC = 0.159, p < 0.05). Group-level clustering of posttest depressive symptoms was not associated with size of group or gender composition. Conclusions: Membership in specific adolescent cognitive-behavioral depression prevention groups may have an impact in terms of immediate symptom reduction but does not appear to have significant prevention effects in terms of long-term symptom change or MDD onset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
Article
Influence of Body Dissatisfaction on the Self-Esteem of Brazilian Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103536 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Background: The present study investigated the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on the self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1011 students at public and private schools in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The body shape questionnaire and [...] Read more.
Background: The present study investigated the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on the self-esteem of Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1011 students at public and private schools in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The body shape questionnaire and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale were applied. Chi-square test, Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation, the odds ratio and binary logistic regression were used. Results: The rate of low self-esteem was 33.8% in the adolescents; 27.8% of the adolescents presented some degree of BD, with severe BD in 5.8%. A significant low negative correlation was found between self-esteem and BD in all the adolescents. In the Odds Ratio analysis, it was observed that the odds of having low self-esteem increased in adolescents with BD as compared to adolescents without BD, being 3.85 times higher in females (CI 95%, 2.12–6.99), 2.83 times higher in males (CI 95%, 1.22–6.58), 5.79 times higher in adolescents attending public schools (CI 95% 2.06–16.26), and 2.96 times higher in adolescents attending private schools (CI 95%, 1.79–4.88). Conclusions: Low self-esteem affected one-third of the adolescents, both male and female. BD and education in public schools are predictor variables of low self-esteem in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
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Article
Cross-Lagged Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Response Style in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041380 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence and they are a major concern for individuals and society. The Response Style Theory and the Scar Theory both suggest a relationship between response styles and depressive symptoms, but the theories differ in the order of [...] Read more.
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence and they are a major concern for individuals and society. The Response Style Theory and the Scar Theory both suggest a relationship between response styles and depressive symptoms, but the theories differ in the order of the development of depressive symptoms. Longitudinal reciprocal prospective relationships between depressive symptoms and response styles were examined in a community sample of 1343 adolescents. Additionally, response style was constructed with the traditional approach, which involves examining three response styles separately without considering the possible relations between them, and with the ratio approach, which accounts for all three response styles simultaneously. No reciprocal relationships between depressive symptoms and response style were found over time. Only longitudinal relationships between response style and depressive symptoms were significant. This study found that only depressive symptoms predicted response style, whereas the response style did not emerge as an important underlying mechanism responsible for developing and maintaining depressive symptoms in adolescents. These findings imply that prevention and intervention programs for adolescents with low depressive symptoms should not focus on adaptive and maladaptive response style strategies to decrease depressive symptoms, but should focus more on behavioral interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
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Review

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Review
Psychological Treatments for Depression in Adolescents: More Than Three Decades Later
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094600 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Depression is a common and impairing disorder which is a serious public health problem. For some individuals, depression has a chronic course and is recurrent, particularly when its onset is during adolescence. The purpose of the current paper was to review the clinical [...] Read more.
Depression is a common and impairing disorder which is a serious public health problem. For some individuals, depression has a chronic course and is recurrent, particularly when its onset is during adolescence. The purpose of the current paper was to review the clinical trials conducted between 1980 and 2020 in adolescents with a primary diagnosis of a depressive disorder, excluding indicated prevention trials for depressive symptomatology. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the pre-eminent treatment and is well established from an evidence-based treatment perspective. The body of research on the remaining treatments is smaller and the status of these treatments is varied: interpersonal therapy (IPT) is well established; family therapy (FT) is possibly effective; and short-term psychoanalytic therapy (PT) is experimental treatment. Implementation of the two treatments that work well—CBT and IPT—has more support when provided individually as compared to in groups. Research on depression treatments has been expanding through using transdiagnostic and modular protocols, implementation through information and communication technologies, and indicated prevention programs. Despite significant progress, however, questions remain regarding the rate of non-response to treatment, the fading of specific treatment effects over time, and the contribution of parental involvement in therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
Review
Association between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Depression Symptoms in Young People and Adults Aged 15–45: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020780 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4668
Abstract
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression; however, this area is [...] Read more.
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression; however, this area is largely unexplored studies in young people and adults. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15–45. The review used a predefined protocol registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (ID no: CRD42018091642). The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. A total of 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis, one study was categorised as “very good” quality, nine studies were “good” quality, and two studies were “moderate” quality by the quality assessment based on the total score for the NOS. The majority of cohort studies support the evidence that fruit consumption is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. However, the inconsistent results were observed when the effects of vegetable consumption were analysed independently, and the effects of fruit and vegetables combined were analysed. Despite this, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15–45 years. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depressive Disorder)
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