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Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 24928

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2. Institute of Science and Environment, University of St. Joseph, Rua de Londres 106, Macao 999078, China
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; environmental biotechnology; environmental engineering; phytomanagement; bioremediation; phytoremediation; nature-based solutions; freshwater ecosystem conservation and restoration; education for sustainability
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Guest Editor
Centre for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry (CBQF), Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: environmental biotechnology; phytoremediation; phytomanagement; microbial-assisted phytotechnological approaches; plant–microbe interactions; soil fertility; development of bioinoculant formulations; effects of climate change and related abiotic stresses on plant growth and development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce the Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) entitled “Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation". We welcome the submission of interdisciplinary work in the format of original research papers, case studies, as well as systematic reviews.

The submissions should cover the latest research related to natural and artificial wetland dynamics in terms of pollution abatement, water quality, the presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), and public health related issues, including microbial pathogens and pollutant pathways. Furthermore, special emphasis will also be given to wetland restoration and conservation, and ecosystem services and their use as tools for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Wetlands, natural or artificial, play an important role in maintaining ecological service functions, which more than a billion people depend on, and are thus of great value. They face several challenges, related not only with climate change, but also with their misuse, as well as the increasing pressures related to population increase, pollution, and land reclamation. Wetland degradation has the potential to influence human health, biodiversity, and local climate, whereby ecological security may also be jeopardized. This is a global problem that ravages rural and urban territories. This Special Issue aims to disseminate important findings and share innovative ideas in this field of expertise.

Dr. Cristina Sousa Coutinho Calheiros
Dr. Sofia Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environmental pollution
  • Contamination
  • Water quality
  • Phytoremediation
  • Ecosystem services
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Wetlands
  • Contaminant of emerging concern
  • Environment and public health
  • Microbial pathogens

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2942 KiB  
Article
Organic Compounds and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Behavior in Greywater Treated by a Constructed Wetland
by Naomi Monsalves, Ana María Leiva, Gloria Gómez and Gladys Vidal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032305 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Laundry greywater is considered as an alternative source of non-potable water, as it is discharged in approximately 70% of homes. Because this water contains compounds such as biodegradable and recalcitrant organic matter, surfactants, and microbiological compounds, it must be treated prior to reuse. [...] Read more.
Laundry greywater is considered as an alternative source of non-potable water, as it is discharged in approximately 70% of homes. Because this water contains compounds such as biodegradable and recalcitrant organic matter, surfactants, and microbiological compounds, it must be treated prior to reuse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the behavior of organic matter and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in greywater treated by a constructed wetland (CW). The results show that the organic matter removal efficiencies were 67.19%, 50.15%, and 63.57% for biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), respectively; these efficiencies were not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the CW allows the distribution of TOC and ionic compounds in the fractions below 1000 Da to increase by 5.03% and 13.05%, respectively. Meanwhile, the treatment of microbiological compounds generated non-significant removals (p > 0.05), along with increases in bacteria resistant to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ceftriaxone (CTX) of 36.34%, and 40.79%, respectively. In addition, a strong association between ARB to CIP, CTX, cationic and non-ionic surfactants was determined, indicating the role of surfactants in ARB selection. It is suggested that disinfection systems should be employed prior to the reuse of the treated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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13 pages, 35497 KiB  
Article
Mangrove Conservation in Macao SAR, China: The Role of Environmental Education among School Students
by Karen Araño Tagulao, Allan B. I. Bernardo, Loi Hoi Kei and Cristina Sousa Coutinho Calheiros
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063147 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3349
Abstract
Mangrove forests are one of the most ecologically valuable ecosystems in the world and provide a wide variety of ecosystem services to coastal communities, including cities. Macao, a highly urbanized coastal city located on the southern coast of China west of the Pearl [...] Read more.
Mangrove forests are one of the most ecologically valuable ecosystems in the world and provide a wide variety of ecosystem services to coastal communities, including cities. Macao, a highly urbanized coastal city located on the southern coast of China west of the Pearl River, is home to several species of mangroves with many associated flora and fauna. Mangrove forests in Macao are vulnerable to threats due to pressure from rapid and massive urban developments in the area, which led to mangrove loss in the past decades. To address this issue, the local authorities established special Ecological Zones for the management of the local mangroves. To reinforce local conservation efforts, educating the local population about the value of mangroves, especially school students, is of utmost importance. To evaluate the impact of environmental education activities on the environmental orientation, knowledge, and values of students toward mangrove conservation in Macao, a quasi-experimental study was undertaken. The effectiveness of a mangroves exhibition and field visit were evaluated using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale—Macao version in a group of local school students who participated in the activities. Overall, the results provided consistently positive evaluations of the impact of the environmental education program. The strongest improvements were found in the students’ pro-environmental orientations, knowledge about mangroves, and value for environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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13 pages, 2367 KiB  
Article
Seven Years Study of the Seasonal Dynamics of Zooplankton Communities in a Large Subtropical Floodplain Ecosystem: A Test of the PEG Model
by Baogui Liu, Jiayi Wu, Yang Hu, Guoxiang Wang and Yuwei Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020956 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Irregular hydrological events, according to a classic plankton ecology group (PEG) study, can generate major deviations from the standard PEG model. However, little is known about the function of hydrological factors in influencing the seasonal dynamics of plankton. We used multivariate and Partial [...] Read more.
Irregular hydrological events, according to a classic plankton ecology group (PEG) study, can generate major deviations from the standard PEG model. However, little is known about the function of hydrological factors in influencing the seasonal dynamics of plankton. We used multivariate and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling to analyze the seasonal variation in crustacean zooplankton and related environmental factors from winter 2009 to winter 2016 in Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China. We found a distinct seasonal pattern in zooplankton development, which deviated, in part, from the PEG model, as we found indications of (1) a weaker degree of food limitation in winter and spring, likely due to high concentrations of allochthonous sources caused by decomposition of seasonally flooded hygrophytes, also affecting sediment dynamics; (2) a peak in crustacean zooplankton biomass in summer when the water level was high (and predation was lower), and where horizontal transport of zooplankton from the littoral zone to the pelagic was possibleand (3) a higher predation pressure in autumn, likely due to a shrinking water volume that left the fish concentrated in less water. The majority of these differences can be attributed to the direct or indirect impacts of physical factor variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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16 pages, 1720 KiB  
Article
Ecological Water Requirement in Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yellow River Based on Flow Components and Hydraulic Index
by Shibao Lu, Wenting Cai, Wei Shao, Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary, Muhammad Faisal, Hongbo Zhang and Yangang Xue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010956 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Deterioration of the ecological environment in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River in China substantially impacts the growth and development of aquatic organisms in the drainage basin. This paper builds a conceptual model by applying flow components and fish ecological [...] Read more.
Deterioration of the ecological environment in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River in China substantially impacts the growth and development of aquatic organisms in the drainage basin. This paper builds a conceptual model by applying flow components and fish ecological requirements relation with a relevant object of main fish in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River. The paper utilized the flow restoration method by employing the River2D model (two-dimensional model of river hydrodynamics and fish habitat), and a one-dimensional hydrodynamics HEC-RAS (hydrologic engineering center’s-river analysis system). The calculation result showed that the runoff condition required for Silurus lanzhouensis survival is that the monthly lowest flow in a year is 150 m3·s−1, and the lowest flow for suitable flow from April to October is 150 m3·s−1, and 300 m3·s−1 from November to March. The research result is closer to the actual condition and has more outstanding operability. Meanwhile, the results proposed the coupling method of ecological water requirement for the mainstream of the Yellow River. Moreover, the results portrayed the ecological flow process according to the upper envelope of minimum and maximum ecological water requirements of each fracture surface. It is regarded that the ecological flow process is deemed as the initial value of the reservoir regulation model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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16 pages, 2735 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Bed Depth Reduction, Media Change, and Partial Saturation as Combined Strategies to Modify in Vertical Treatment Wetlands
by Ismael Vera-Puerto, Hugo Valdés, Christian Correa, Valeria Perez, Roberto Gomez, Erica Alarcon and Carlos Arias
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094842 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2916
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of vertical subsurface flow treatment wetlands (VSSF TWs) for treating rural domestic wastewater when strategies such as bed depth reduction and media change are used in combination with bottom saturation. Two treatment wetland [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of vertical subsurface flow treatment wetlands (VSSF TWs) for treating rural domestic wastewater when strategies such as bed depth reduction and media change are used in combination with bottom saturation. Two treatment wetland systems were implemented: normal (VF-N), with a bed depth of 1.0 m, and modified (VF-M), with a bed depth of 0.5 m and a bottom layer of natural zeolite. Schoenoplectus californicus was used as experimental plant. These two treatment systems were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 120 mm/d in two phases. Phase I did not use bottom saturation, while Phase II involved a bottom saturation of the zeolite layer of the VF-M system. The results show that bed depth reduction did not have a significant effect (p > 0.05) in terms of organic matter, solids, and ammonium removal. Conversely, it had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on phosphate as well as a negative effect on pathogen removal. This influence could be explained by initial media capacity for phosphorus removal and filtration importance in the case of pathogens. Partial saturation only had a positive influence on total nitrogen removal. The addition of a bottom layer of natural zeolite showed no positive effect on nutrient removal. The plant showed adaptation and positive development in both VF-N and VF-M. The water balance showed that water loss was not influenced by bed depth reduction. Therefore, according to the previous results, a combination of the proposal modifications to VSSF TWs can be introduced for treating rural domestic wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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20 pages, 9763 KiB  
Article
Landscape Pattern Evolution Processes of Wetlands and Their Driving Factors in the Xiong’an New Area of China
by Miao Yang, Jiaguo Gong, Yong Zhao, Hao Wang, Cuiping Zhao, Qin Yang, Yingshen Yin, Ying Wang and Bo Tian
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094403 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
Wetland landscape patterns are the result of various ecological and hydrological processes. Based on the land use landscape types from 1980 to 2017, a transfer matrix, landscape pattern analysis index, and principal component analysis were used to analyze the landscape pattern evolution in [...] Read more.
Wetland landscape patterns are the result of various ecological and hydrological processes. Based on the land use landscape types from 1980 to 2017, a transfer matrix, landscape pattern analysis index, and principal component analysis were used to analyze the landscape pattern evolution in the Xiong’an New Area of China, which has a large area with a lake and river wetlands. The results showed that the wetland area has changed greatly since 2000 and the beach land has decreased greatly, while the area of the lake and river wetlands has increased slightly. Beach land was the dominant landscape type of the wetland. The dominant degree of the wetland landscape showed a slightly decreasing trend, and the patches tended to be scattered. The shape complexity of the ponds was the lowest, while that of rivers was the highest. The fragmentation degree of the wetland patches increased, the proportion of landscape types tended to be equalized, and the landscape heterogeneity increased. The leading factors of the wetland landscape change can be summarized as socioeconomic, meteorological, and hydrological processes, with a cumulative contribution rate of 85.3%, among which socioeconomic development was the most important factor. The results have important guiding significance for the ecological restoration and management of wetlands in the Xiong’an New Area and other wetland ecosystems with rivers and lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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15 pages, 27346 KiB  
Article
Adjusted Unit Value Transfer as a Tool for Raising Awareness on Ecosystem Services Provided by Constructed Wetlands for Water Pollution Control: An Italian Case Study
by Anacleto Rizzo, Giulio Conte and Fabio Masi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041531 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are nature-based solutions (NBS) for water pollution control that can also be designed to be multipurpose in terms of additional ecosystem services (ESs), such as biodiversity support and social benefits. Awareness about additional ESs of CWs can be raised with [...] Read more.
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are nature-based solutions (NBS) for water pollution control that can also be designed to be multipurpose in terms of additional ecosystem services (ESs), such as biodiversity support and social benefits. Awareness about additional ESs of CWs can be raised with value transfer (VT) methods for ESs monetization, in particular, the simplified adjusted unit VT method. A multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was performed to compare grey and green infrastructure alternatives for the management of a combined sewer overflow in the Buccinasco town (Italy), in which the criteria related to ESs were monetized with an adjusted VT method (B£ST software). The results highlighted the potential interest in the implementation of the green infrastructure in a new urban park, due to the activation of additional ESs of interest, such as health and recreational aspects. The results were also confirmed by a sensitivity analysis, which simulated the variation of preferences among different stakeholder groups (e.g., citizens, environmentalists). In conclusion, this work provided a transparent methodology to support decisions regarding green and grey infrastructure, allowing to evaluate additional ESs from the beginning of the decision stage with low cost and efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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12 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Screening the Capacity of 34 Wetland Plant Species to Remove Heavy Metals from Water
by Maria Schück and Maria Greger
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134623 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs), consisting of vegetated rafts, may reduce heavy metal levels in polluted water, but the choice of plant species for efficient metal removal needs to be further investigated. We screened the capacity of 34 wetland plant species to remove metals [...] Read more.
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs), consisting of vegetated rafts, may reduce heavy metal levels in polluted water, but the choice of plant species for efficient metal removal needs to be further investigated. We screened the capacity of 34 wetland plant species to remove metals dissolved in water to identify suitable species for FTWs. The plants were grown hydroponically for 5 days in a solution containing 1.2 µg Cd L−1, 68.5 µg Cu L−1, 78.4 µg Pb L−1, and 559 µg Zn L−1. Results show large variation in metal removal rate and capacity between the investigated species. The species with highest removal capacity could remove up to 52–94% of the metals already after 0.5 h of exposure and up to 98–100% of the metals after 5 days of exposure. Plant size contributed more to high removal capacity than did removal per unit of fine roots. Carex pseudocyperus and C. riparia were the most efficient and versatile species. The findings of this study should be considered as a starting point for further investigation of plant selection for improved water purification by FTWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation)
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