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Special Issue "Vision and Driving Safety"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 6152

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carolina Ortiz
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Vision Sciences and Applications, Department of Optics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: driving safety; road behavior; distracted driving; binocular vision; visual impairment; aging
Dr. Sonia Ortiz-Peregrina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Vision Sciences and Applications, Department of Optics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: driving performance; driving safety; distracted driving; older drivers; visual impairment; visual tests; fitness to drive

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the World Health Organization, approximately 1.35 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. Although traffic safety is traditionally assessed by numbers of accidents, driving involves interaction between driver, vehicle, and environment.

Vision is the fundamental sensory mechanism used for driving. The aging population is leading to an increase in the number of drivers with visual impairment due to different age-related ocular diseases. This visual impairment affects driving performance, behaviors, and safety.

Older drivers have shown a greater risk of a fatal crash per distance driven, poorer maintenance of the vehicle’s position in the lane, worse pedestrian detection, and more nighttime driving difficulties. However, they often develop compensatory strategies such as reducing speed, which could mitigate some of these effects as a result of a loss of key functional abilities.

On the other hand, distraction caused by the in-vehicle environment, such as mobile phone use, is a growing concern for road safety and may pose a greater risk to drivers with a deteriorated visual capacity.  

The aim of this Special Issue is to find out which visual functions best represent the complexity of the driving environment. This could help to propose new criteria for visual examinations of drivers and thus improve road safety.

Researchers are invited to submit original research and review articles regarding any aspect of visual status of the driver or how visual impairment affects driving performance and safety risk. We also expect contributions about driver behavior or risk perception that influences road safety.

Dr. Carolina Ortiz
Guest Editor

Dr. Sonia Ortiz-Peregrina
Assistant Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • distracted driving
  • self-regulation
  • driver behavior
  • speeding
  • road signs visibility
  • pedestrian safety
  • aging
  • visual impairment
  • visual field loss
  • ocular disease

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Improvements of Warning Signs for Black Ice Based on Driving Simulator Experiments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127549 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Black ice is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in winter, and warning signs for black ice are generally ineffective because of the lack of credible information. To overcome this limitation, new warning signs for black ice were developed using materials [...] Read more.
Black ice is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in winter, and warning signs for black ice are generally ineffective because of the lack of credible information. To overcome this limitation, new warning signs for black ice were developed using materials that change color in response to different temperatures. The performance and effects of the new signs were investigated by conducting driver behavior analysis. To this end, driving simulator experiments were conducted with 37 participants for two different rural highway sections, i.e., a curve and a tangent. The analysis results of the driving behavior and visual behavior experiments showed that the conventional signs had insufficient performance in terms of inducing changes in driving behavior for safety. Meanwhile, the new signs actuated by weather conditions offered a statistically significant performance improvement. Typically, driver showed two times higher speed deceleration when they fixed eyes on the new weather-actuated warning sign (12.80 km/h) compared to the conventional old warning sign (6.84 km/h) in the curve segment. Accordingly, this study concluded that the new weather-actuated warning signs for black ice are more effective than the conventional ones for accident reduction during winters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
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Article
Influence of Vision on Drivers: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212116 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Background: Driving is the main mode of transportation in many countries, and visual safety depends largely on good visual health. The objective of this study is to analyze the visual health of Spanish drivers; as well as analyze the difference between professional and [...] Read more.
Background: Driving is the main mode of transportation in many countries, and visual safety depends largely on good visual health. The objective of this study is to analyze the visual health of Spanish drivers; as well as analyze the difference between professional and non-professional drivers. Methods: A visual screening was carried out in Spanish drivers from all over Spain, in which the following tests were performed: monocular visual acuity in distance and near vision, visual field, stereopsis, contrast sensitivity, intraocular pressure and balance test binocular. Subsequently, a questionnaire was carried out on the patient’s driving data and ocular antecedents. Results: 74.5% of the drivers used glasses to drive, of which 61.5% used progressive glasses. However, 39.4% reported having difficulties seeing well. The mean visual acuity in the distance and near was 0.93 ± 0.13 and 0.94 ± 0.13, respectively. Significant differences have been found in accident risk based on visual acuity (p < 0.001). But no significant differences have been found in terms of visual field, stereopsis, contrast sensitivity, binocular balance and intraocular pressure (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Vision appears to play a key role in driving and a good visual assessment is recommended for early detection of visual problems that may affect road safety. A study with a larger sample size would be necessary to confirm the results of this pilot study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
Article
The Effects of Driving Experience on the P300 Event-Related Potential during the Perception of Traffic Scenes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910396 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The incidence of human-error-related traffic collisions is markedly reduced among drivers who have few years of driving experience compared with those with little driving experience or fewer driving opportunities, even if they have a driver’s license. This study analyzes the effect of driving [...] Read more.
The incidence of human-error-related traffic collisions is markedly reduced among drivers who have few years of driving experience compared with those with little driving experience or fewer driving opportunities, even if they have a driver’s license. This study analyzes the effect of driving experience on the perception of the traffic scenes through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Primarily, we focused on visual attention during driving, the essential visual function in the visual search and human gaze, and evaluated the P300, which is involved in attention, to explore the effect of driving experience on the visual attention of traffic scenes, not for improving visual ability. In the results, the P300 response was observed in both experienced and beginner drivers when they paid visual attention to the visual target. Furthermore, the latency for the peak amplitude of the P300 response among experienced drivers was markedly faster than that in beginner drivers, suggesting that the P300 latency is a piece of crucial information for driving experience on visual attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
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Article
Assessing Willingness to Engage in Risky Driving Behaviour Using Naturalistic Driving Footage: The Role of Age and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910227 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Young novice drivers are more prone than older drivers to get involved in a risky driving situation. Some young drivers underestimate risk while overestimating their driving abilities, increasing the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviour. Age and inexperience both influence risk estimation, though [...] Read more.
Young novice drivers are more prone than older drivers to get involved in a risky driving situation. Some young drivers underestimate risk while overestimating their driving abilities, increasing the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviour. Age and inexperience both influence risk estimation, though it is not clear which of these variables is more important. Can drivers’ willingness to engage in risky behaviour be assessed in a similar way to hazard perception skill using video-based risky situations? The aim of the current study was to assess whether a video-based tool could measure the willingness to participate in risky driving situations and whether it can distinguish between different types of risky driving scenarios across gender and driver age groups. We also explored the moderating effect of age and gender on drivers’ experience in relation to the risky manoeuvres and participants’ willingness to engage in risky situations. Participants were presented with naturalistic videos from the perspective of the driver that contained active risky situations (result of driver’s own actions) and were asked to make a decision regarding a potential action (to overtake a bus/bicycle or pass through an amber light) and whether they would accelerate at this point. Participants reported that they were more willing to accelerate and overtake cyclists and buses and less willing to pass a light in amber. Young drivers were more willing to both engage in the risky behaviours and accelerate than older drivers, with young males reporting higher scores than the other groups. Gender differences were observed, with males being more prone to overtake and pass through a light in amber than females; however, this difference was not observed for the intention to accelerate. All the above effects remained when we tested the impact of experience on decision making while controlling for age and gender, although driving experience was no longer significant. These results demonstrate that drivers’ intention to assume risk can indeed be measured in a similar video-based methodology to that used by hazard perception tests. The findings raise the possibility of assessing and training drivers on a wider range of safety-related behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
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Article
Development of a Method to Potentially Substitute Direct Evaluation of Mesopic Visual Acuity in Drivers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094733 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
(1) Background: In mesopic lighting conditions, or under adverse environmental circumstances, visual information is reduced, which increases the risk of traffic accidents. This effect could be reduced with a precise evaluation of the visual function under mesopic conditions, but it is difficult to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In mesopic lighting conditions, or under adverse environmental circumstances, visual information is reduced, which increases the risk of traffic accidents. This effect could be reduced with a precise evaluation of the visual function under mesopic conditions, but it is difficult to replicate in clinics. This study aims to develop an easy-to-adopt method to evaluate mesopic visual acuity (VA) in drivers. (2) Methods: Prospective and observational study in drivers. logMAR mesopic VA was compared with photopic VA measured under different combinations of contrast charts and filters to find the combination that responds best to mesopic conditions. (3) Results: Fifty-six drivers were examined. The best correlation was found with an 80% density filter and a Weber contrast chart of 20%. The logMAR VA for this combination was 0.01 ± 0.11, which was close to the mesopic VA values (0.01 ± 0.12). The difference between both logMAR VA was 0.00 ± 0.06 (R = 0.86; p ≤ 0.001; ICC = 0.86). (4) Conclusions: The use of 20% contrast optotypes and the interposition of an 80% filter under photopic conditions provide VA values similar to those measured under mesopic lighting conditions, making this simple system a good predictor of mesopic VA values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
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Article
Aggressive Driving Behaviours in Cannabis Users. The Influence of Consumer Characteristics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083911 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
This study analysed dangerous driving behaviours in twenty young occasional cannabis users through objective and self-reported data, studying the relationship between the two aspects. Visual function was assessed in a baseline session and after smoking cannabis, as well as speed-related behaviour in a [...] Read more.
This study analysed dangerous driving behaviours in twenty young occasional cannabis users through objective and self-reported data, studying the relationship between the two aspects. Visual function was assessed in a baseline session and after smoking cannabis, as well as speed-related behaviour in a driving simulator. The participants responded to questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, their consumption profile, and the incidence of dangerous behaviours (Dula Dangerous Driving Index; DDDI). After cannabis use, the results revealed a significant deterioration in visual function. In terms of speed management, they showed significantly greater acceleration force in the two different sections of the route, and they drove significantly faster. Our correlations indicate that males and heavier users display more risky speed management. Likewise, the heavier cannabis users admitted to increased dangerous driving behaviour, and an accident in the preceding year was associated with a trend towards aggressive driving behaviour according to the DDDI questionnaire. The findings of this study suggest that cannabis users adopt dangerous behaviours when driving, despite the effect this drug has on certain important functions, such as vision. The results suggest a need for awareness-raising and information campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision and Driving Safety)
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