Special Issue "Tourism and Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jinsoo Hwang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwanjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Interests: youth mental health; psychotic disorders; transitions; care pathways; culture and ethnicity in mental health and mental health legislation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my honor to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue on “Tourism and Health”.

Tourism and health are inseparable because people can relax both mentally and physically through travel. For example, along with economic growth, people hope to enhance their quality of life, so they travel to improve their mental health. Another example is medical tourism because a lot of people travel abroad for basic medical treatments, highly advanced surgical procedures, healthcare, and beautification purposes. More importantly, such medical tourism significantly affects the national economy.

Thus, this Special Issue seeks papers on health in the context of tourism. This Special Issue is theoretically meaningful because little research has examined the relationship between tourism and health. In addition, from a practical point of view, this Special Issue is expected to play a significant role in developing marketing strategies for travel agencies, focusing on medical tourism.

Dr. Jinsoo Hwang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • medical tourism marketing
  • patient travelers
  • medical clinics in tourism
  • the healthcare tourism market
  • travelers’ well-being perceptions
  • healing
  • life satisfaction
  • physical environment and traveler health
  • fine dust
  • employee well-being in the tourism industry

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Do Informal Social Ties and Local Festival Participation Relate to Subjective Well-Being?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010016 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 719
Abstract
The present study examined the relationship between social capital, local festival participation, and subjective well-being. Moreover, this study examined whether the effect of social capital on subjective well-being can be mediated by festival participation. In addition, it examined the decomposition effect of festival [...] Read more.
The present study examined the relationship between social capital, local festival participation, and subjective well-being. Moreover, this study examined whether the effect of social capital on subjective well-being can be mediated by festival participation. In addition, it examined the decomposition effect of festival participation and control of models for demographic characteristics. Data used are from the International Comparative Survey on Lifestyle and Values (ICSLV) SWB South Korea Survey. The total number of respondents for the analysis is 1694. The findings indicate that trustful relationships with family and relatives, friends, and neighbors are considerably related to subjective well-being than structural social capital. Moreover, the trust of informal social ties shows considerable potential in facilitating individuals’ local festival participation, which is associated with subjective well-being. Individuals who often participate in traditional local festivals in their communities show higher subjective well-being than those who never attend any festivals. Local festivals in communities can play an important role in strengthening links with individuals in these communities and affect community residents’ well-being. Lastly, the findings can suggest beneficial theoretical and practical implications, and enrich the previous literature on social capital and festival participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Leisure Participation on Life Satisfaction in Older Korean Adults: A Panel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124402 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
South Koreans’ life expectancy has dramatically increased over the last four decades. However, the life satisfaction index of older Korean adults has been in the bottom third globally. The large majority of older Koreans spend most of the day watching television at home. [...] Read more.
South Koreans’ life expectancy has dramatically increased over the last four decades. However, the life satisfaction index of older Korean adults has been in the bottom third globally. The large majority of older Koreans spend most of the day watching television at home. However, concrete evidence regarding the effects of leisure involvement on older adults’ quality of later life is scant. Only a few existing studies have examined the link via cross-sectional survey data. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether meaningful leisure participation outside the home in older age plays an essential role in improving life satisfaction. To achieve the research aim, nationally representative panel data from the Korea Employment Information Service were used for the data analysis. The results indicated that social and productive leisure participation in religious activity, social gatherings, and volunteering was significantly related to quality of life in older adults. Moreover, frequent participation in travel and cultural activities outside the home were positively related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that participation in meaningful leisure activities is a critical factor contributing to subjective well-being and good mental health in older Korean adults and should be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of COVID-19 on Tourist Satisfaction with B&B in Zhejiang, China: An Importance–Performance Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103747 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3882
Abstract
After the outbreak of COVID-19 (especially in the stage of tourism recovery), the bed and breakfast (B&B) tourism industry faced big challenges in improving its health strategies. B&Bs are very important for the tourism industry in China and many other countries. However, few [...] Read more.
After the outbreak of COVID-19 (especially in the stage of tourism recovery), the bed and breakfast (B&B) tourism industry faced big challenges in improving its health strategies. B&Bs are very important for the tourism industry in China and many other countries. However, few studies have studied the impact of B&Bs, under COVID-19, on tourism in China. Our paper is among one of the first studies to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on tourist satisfaction with B&Bs in China. The work/travel restrictions started from 20 January 2020, and work/after travel resumed from 20 February 2020 in Zhejiang, China. Data were collected from 588 tourists (who experienced B&Bs in Zhejiang, China) from a WeChat online survey, from 1 March to 15 March 2020. The current study attempted to fill the gap by studying the changing tourist satisfaction levels with B&Bs before/after COVID-19. Moreover, some suggestions are given to the B&B industry for tourism resumption after COVID-19 by an importance–performance analysis (IPA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Smog-Related Factors on Korean Domestic Tourists’ Decision-Making Process
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103706 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
The present study aims to explore Korean domestic tourists’ decision-making processes by utilizing an extended model of goal-directed behavior (EMGB) as a theoretical framework. Integrating government policy (PLY) and protection motivation for smog (PMS) with the original model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) makes [...] Read more.
The present study aims to explore Korean domestic tourists’ decision-making processes by utilizing an extended model of goal-directed behavior (EMGB) as a theoretical framework. Integrating government policy (PLY) and protection motivation for smog (PMS) with the original model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) makes it easier to better understand the formation process of tourists’ behavioral intentions for domestic travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is employed to identify the structural relationships among the latent variables. The results of the EMGB indicated that desire had the strongest effect on the behavioral intention of tourists to travel domestically; positive anticipated emotion is the main source of desire, followed by negative anticipated emotion. Government PLY on smog has a significant, positive and indirect effect on behavioral intentions of domestic or potential tourists through the protection motive theory. We found that desires are verified as a determinant of the behavioral intention’s formation, more significant than that of perceived behavioral control, frequency of past behavior and protection motivation. In addition, this study offers theoretical and practical suggestions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Applying the Modified Health Belief Model (HBM) to Korean Medical Tourism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103646 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate how foreigners’ health beliefs influence their visiting intentions to Korean medical tourism. This study used an online survey engine (docs.google.com/forms) to collect data from foreigners who are from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Mongolia, who [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how foreigners’ health beliefs influence their visiting intentions to Korean medical tourism. This study used an online survey engine (docs.google.com/forms) to collect data from foreigners who are from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Mongolia, who are potential Korean medical tourists. Out of 213 questionnaires collected, 200 questionnaires (93.9%) were used for the statistical analysis. The Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, “Experience”, “Susceptibility”, “Severity”, “Barrier”, “Benefit”, and “Visiting Intention”, had construct validity; Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was tested for item reliability. It is expected that four variables in the health belief model (HBM) that are determined by objective and logical thinking processes will affect the choice of Korean medical tourism. The results showed that Susceptibility, Severity, Barrier, and Benefit had significant effects on Visiting Intention and was a valid measurement to determine “Visiting Intention”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Influence Rural Tourism Intention by Risk Knowledge during COVID-19 Containment in China: Mediating Role of Risk Perception and Attitude
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103514 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
With both cost and safety taken into account in the context of the life-threatening COVID-19 pandemic globally, rural tourism is expected to be the top choice for Chinese residents for relaxation and enhancing parent-child relationships. In this paper, a structural equation (SEM) model [...] Read more.
With both cost and safety taken into account in the context of the life-threatening COVID-19 pandemic globally, rural tourism is expected to be the top choice for Chinese residents for relaxation and enhancing parent-child relationships. In this paper, a structural equation (SEM) model was proposed to compare risk knowledge, risk perception, risk aversion attitudes and behavioral intentions towards rural tourism. According to the empirical results, there was a large proportion of tourists showing preference for rural tourism recently. Potential participants in rural tourism paid most attention to the performance realization and time cost of scenic spots, while the psycho-social risk posed by COVID-19 had little impact. The inherent risk nature of risk aversion attitudes made knowledge of the pneumonia risk less effective in reducing tourists’ intentions, while knowledge of the pneumonia risk was more effective in alleviating the risk perception that potential tourists have towards rural tourism. With regard to travel intention and recommendation intention of rural tourism, the negative impacts of risk aversion attitude were more considerable compared to risk perception. Meanwhile, the parallel mediating effect of risk perception and risk aversion attitude in rural tourism needed to be taken into consideration together. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Visitors’ Motives for Attending a Healthy Food Exhibition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082703 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Environmental issues (i.e., food safety and environmental pollution) have increased concerns about individuals’ health as well as global environment. These concerns drive awareness for the influences of healthy foods, and eventually lead them to visit healthy food exhibitions. This research aims to understand [...] Read more.
Environmental issues (i.e., food safety and environmental pollution) have increased concerns about individuals’ health as well as global environment. These concerns drive awareness for the influences of healthy foods, and eventually lead them to visit healthy food exhibitions. This research aims to understand the attendees’ motives for participating in a healthy food exhibition. Specific objectives are to identify crucial visitors’ motives influencing satisfaction with the healthy food exhibition and to verify whether visitors’ satisfaction with the exhibition enhances their memory for the experience in the exhibition. The survey was conducted by targeting visitors who participated in the Busan International Food Expo, and the data collected from 363 attendees were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS statistical programs. The analysis results revealed that three dimensions of healthy food exhibition motives, namely perceived healthiness, perceived hedonism and perceived food safety, increase visitors’ satisfaction with the healthy food exhibition, and that satisfaction with the healthy food exhibition further had a positive impact on the visitors’ memory for the exhibition experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Theory of Planned Behaviour in Medical Tourism: International Comparison in the Young Consumer Segment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051626 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) assumes the possibility of predicting and explaining humans’ behaviour by identifying their intentions. The intentions are shaped by three groups of factors: attitudes towards, social norms and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. The aim of the [...] Read more.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) assumes the possibility of predicting and explaining humans’ behaviour by identifying their intentions. The intentions are shaped by three groups of factors: attitudes towards, social norms and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. The aim of the research is to examine the applicability of the TPB in medical tourism and to check whether there are differences in predicting the intentions of medical tourists from different countries. The study covered potential medical tourists—521 young consumers from three regionally important markets in medical tourism services: Jordan, Poland and Turkey. The study used a research survey to collect data, which were analysed using the multiple regression and analysis of variance methods. The research showed that the TPB model can be used in medical tourism. The results also show that the consumers’ country of origin is a significant factor when predicting their intention to use medical tourism services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Form Wellbeing Perception and Its Outcomes in the Context of Elderly Tourism: Moderating Role of Tour Guide Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031029 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Many people travel to improve their wellbeing perception (WBP), and senior tourists in South Korea are no exception in that they hope to enhance their quality of life through tourism. As such, this study explored the significance of WBP in the senior tourism [...] Read more.
Many people travel to improve their wellbeing perception (WBP), and senior tourists in South Korea are no exception in that they hope to enhance their quality of life through tourism. As such, this study explored the significance of WBP in the senior tourism industry in South Korea. The current paper collected samples from 349 senior tourists. Analysis of data indicated that brand prestige contributes to increasing WBP among seniors and improving consumer attitude. In addition, it was found that WBP positively affects both consumer attitude and word-of-mouth (WOM). Lastly, tour guide services moderated the relationship between (1) brand prestige and WBP and (2) consumer attitude and WOM. The current paper then presents theoretical and practical implications of the statistical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Grey System Theory in the Study of Medical Tourism Industry and Its Economic Impact
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030961 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The Asia-Pacific region is known as a favorite destination for global medical travelers due to its medical expertise, innovative technology, safety, attractive tourism destination and cost advantage in the recent decade. This study contributes to propose an approach which effectively assesses performance of [...] Read more.
The Asia-Pacific region is known as a favorite destination for global medical travelers due to its medical expertise, innovative technology, safety, attractive tourism destination and cost advantage in the recent decade. This study contributes to propose an approach which effectively assesses performance of medical tourism industry based on considering the economic impact factors as well as provides a conceptual framework for the industry analysis. Grey system theory is utilized as a major analyzing approach. According to that, factors impact on the sustainable development of medical tourism in Asia-Pacific region could be identified. The performance of each destination in this region was simultaneously revealed. The results presented an overall perspective of the medical tourism industry in the scope of the Asia-Pacific region, and in Taiwan particularly. Data was collected on six major destinations including Singapore, Thailand, India, South Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan. The results proved that tourism sources and healthcare medical infrastructures play a crucial role in promoting the healthcare travel industry, while cost advantage and marketing effectiveness were less considered. In addition, performance analyse indicated that Thailand has a good performance and stands in the top ranking, followed by Malaysia, India, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, respectively. The revenue of Taiwan has increased slowly in the last six years, with a market worth approximately NT$20.5 billion, and the number of medical travelers is expected to increase to 777,523 by 2025. The findings of this study are expected to provide useful information for the medical tourism industry and related key players in strategic planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Local–Migrant Interaction in Everyday Life in an Ancient Tourism Town
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010266 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Daily interaction is a primary means of understanding social change which is of vital importance for community well-being. In tourism host communities, daily interactions among different resident groups reflect tourism’s effects which are directly related to tourists’ experiences and community harmony. In this [...] Read more.
Daily interaction is a primary means of understanding social change which is of vital importance for community well-being. In tourism host communities, daily interactions among different resident groups reflect tourism’s effects which are directly related to tourists’ experiences and community harmony. In this exploratory article, grounded theory was applied to analyze daily interactions between locals and migrants in Zhouzhuang, the first ancient tourism town in China, based on in-depth interviews. A model framework was also constructed. The results pinpoint subjective interaction intention and objective interaction opportunities as two influencing factors which operate reciprocally and directly influence locals’ and migrants’ daily interactions. The findings suggest that many locals and migrants experience clear communication boundaries in daily interactions. Both groups’ subjective interaction intentions were influenced by their cultural backgrounds, group perceptions, and original social networks, all of which are difficult to modify within a short time. Therefore, increasing objective communication opportunities is a key way to promote intergroup interaction and integration. These findings provide theoretical and practical implications for tourism host communities’ well-being and sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Tourists’ Experience of Quality of Street Foods on Destination’s Image, Life Satisfaction, and Word of Mouth: The Moderating Impact of Food Neophobia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010163 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Due to growing food-related tourism, there is increasing interest about street foods worldwide, including South Korea. Many types of food-related experiences have been considered as one of the significant elements to develop positive perceptions about a destination, and street food has been recognized [...] Read more.
Due to growing food-related tourism, there is increasing interest about street foods worldwide, including South Korea. Many types of food-related experiences have been considered as one of the significant elements to develop positive perceptions about a destination, and street food has been recognized as a critical clue for encouraging tourists to a destination. Previous scholars mentioned street food as a public health risk element as well as a significant factor to attract tourists’ attention. Therefore, this study aims to find out how experiential quality of street foods is related to the destination image, life satisfaction, and word of mouth as perceived by tourists in night markets of South Korea. Data was collected from 325 foreigners who visited night markets and have experienced street foods in Korea. This study demonstrates the results of the influence of quality of street foods on tourist experience, on destination image, on life satisfaction, and on word of mouth in Korea. In addition, the result shows a moderating impact of food neophobia on the formulated relationships. There are statistically significant differences between groups with high neophobia perception and low neophobia perception of street foods. Based on the results of this study, we propose not only academic implications for future studies, but also managerial implications for food enterprises and food tourism organizers related to street food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Role of Healthy Green Spaces, Psychological Resilience, Attitude, Brand Attachment, and Price Reasonableness in Increasing Hotel Guest Retention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010133 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
The present research was an empirical endeavor to explore the effect of green spaces on the traveler retention process and to establish a theory connecting such green spaces, psychological resilience, attitude, brand attachment, and retention in the hotel industry. A quantitative approach was [...] Read more.
The present research was an empirical endeavor to explore the effect of green spaces on the traveler retention process and to establish a theory connecting such green spaces, psychological resilience, attitude, brand attachment, and retention in the hotel industry. A quantitative approach was employed to achieve study objectives. Our findings from the structural analysis indicated that green spaces as nature-based solution significantly influence psychological resilience. In addition, such relationship contributes to increasing positive attitude, strengthening brand-self connection and brand prominence, and building traveler retention. A salient role of attitude in determining retention was found. A further analysis (metric invariance) revealed that the linkage from green spaces to psychological resilience was moderated by hotel price reasonableness, and the association became stronger when guests feel that hotel price is reasonable. Overall, this research successfully verified the importance of a hotel’s green spaces and its role in guest psychological and affective responses and behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Antecedents and Consequences of Travelers’ Well-Being Perceptions: Focusing on Chinese Tourist Shopping at a Duty Free
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245081 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the antecedents and consequences of travelers’ well-being perceptions in the context of a duty-free shop. For this, data were collected from 742 Chinese tourists who purchased goods at duty free shops while traveling in Korea [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the antecedents and consequences of travelers’ well-being perceptions in the context of a duty-free shop. For this, data were collected from 742 Chinese tourists who purchased goods at duty free shops while traveling in Korea within the past year using an online survey company’s system in China. The results indicated that pragmatic, hedonic, and sociability experiences have a positive influence on travelers’ well-being perceptions. In addition, travelers’ well-being perceptions aided the enhancement of brand attitude and brand preference, which in turn positively affected word-of-mouth. Novelty is the originality of this study as very few studies on this topic are presented in the extant literature and practical implications are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Critical Success Factors of Medical Tourism: The Case of South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244964 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the key success factors of medical tourism using the case of South Korea. Medical tourism refers to the phenomenon of travelling across national borders intentionally to access a variety of medical treatments, especially modern medical [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify the key success factors of medical tourism using the case of South Korea. Medical tourism refers to the phenomenon of travelling across national borders intentionally to access a variety of medical treatments, especially modern medical treatment. Through conducting semi-structure face-to-face in-depth interviews with the service suppliers of Korean medical tourism, it was discovered that Korean medical tourism has been facilitated by the effect of Hallyu and advanced Korean brand power. More importantly, tourism activities for companions and extra support for patients’ convenience are identified as important success factors of Korean medical tourism, suggesting that the medical tourism industry not only includes medical services but also involves tourism perspectives, supporting the patient and their companions to stay in a comfortable and pleasurable environment. This study generated results which are valuable for both academic and industry perspectives, as this is a field which has not been extensively researched. Medical tourism representatives in other countries can consult these findings to develop the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Role of Internal and External Museum Environment in Increasing Visitors’ Cognitive/Affective/Healthy Experiences and Loyalty
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224537 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
There has not been much research on the impact of the museum environment on the formation of visitor loyalty. The purpose of this study is to discover the convoluted relationships among internal and external physical environments, involvement, knowledge value, satisfaction, and desire in [...] Read more.
There has not been much research on the impact of the museum environment on the formation of visitor loyalty. The purpose of this study is to discover the convoluted relationships among internal and external physical environments, involvement, knowledge value, satisfaction, and desire in forming visitor loyalty. A field survey was carried out at museums. A confirmatory factor analysis with the collected data showed that the measures used included an adequate level of measurement quality. The proposed model was revised by adding four meaningful approaches to improve the anticipatory ability and model fit. Results from the structural analysis demonstrated the criticality of both internal and external dimensions of physical environments in loyalty formation and identified the significant mediating impact of cognitive, evaluative, and motivational factors in our theoretical framework. Moreover, the relative importance of desire in increasing loyalty was found. Research contributions to the museum literature are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contribution of Sustainable Tourism to Economic Growth and Employment in Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193785 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. This
sector plays an important role in boosting a nation’s economy. An increase in tourism flow can
bring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product [...] Read more.
In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. This
sector plays an important role in boosting a nation’s economy. An increase in tourism flow can
bring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product (GDP) and
employment opportunities. In South Asian countries, the tourism industry is an engine of
economic development and GDP growth. This study investigates the impact of tourism on
Pakistan’s economic growth and employment. The period under study was from 1990 to 2015. To
check whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey–Fuller and
Phillips–Perron unit root tests were applied. A regression technique and Johansen cointegration
approach were employed for the analysis of data. The key finding of this study shows that there is
a positive and significant impact of tourism on Pakistan’s economic growth as well as employment
sector and there is also a long‐run relationship among the variables under study. This study
suggests that legislators should focus on the policies with special emphasis on the promotion of
tourism due to its great potential throughout the country. Policy implications of this recent study
and future research suggestions are also mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Right to A Clean Environment: Considering Green Logistics and Sustainable Tourism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093254 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
The globalization process has yielded various undesirable consequences for the environment and society, including increased environmental pollution, climate change and the exhaustion and destruction of resources. The influence of these processes makes it difficult to guarantee citizens’ rights to a clean environment, and [...] Read more.
The globalization process has yielded various undesirable consequences for the environment and society, including increased environmental pollution, climate change and the exhaustion and destruction of resources. The influence of these processes makes it difficult to guarantee citizens’ rights to a clean environment, and the implementation of this right requires complex solutions. The aim of this integrative review article is to discuss the right to a clean environment, as it relates to green logistics and sustainable tourism, by analyzing various scientific and legal sources. Rethinking the possible solutions of green logistics for sustainable tourism, such as tourism mobilities, bicycle tourism, the co-creation of smart velomobility, walkability, and others, can help us also rethink how to balance, respect, protect, and enforce human rights in the present-day context of climate change challenges. The integrative review analysis shows the importance of seeking a balance between the context (the right to a clean environment), the challenge (climate change), and the solutions (green logistics solutions for sustainable tourism). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Health)
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