Special Issue "Risk Assessment and Risk Management for the Exposure to Chemicals in the Environment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kathy Lewis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agriculture and Environment Research Unit, University of Hertfordshire, Department of Biology and Environment Science, Hatfield, United Kingdom
Interests: environmental impacts of agriculture & land use; agri-environmental management; agriculture and climate change; fate and toxicity of agricultural chemicals; agricultural risk assessment and regulation. agri-environmental management; agriculture and climate change; fate and toxicity of agricultural chemicals; agricultural risk assessment and regulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. John Tzilivakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agriculture & Environment Research Unit, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB, UK
Interests: agricultural risk assessments; agricultural pollution mitigation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 Everything, whether naturally-occurring or synthetic in nature, consists of chemical substances. Many of these substances, for example, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, detergents and food/feed additives, have contributed greatly to an increased quality of life and prosperity. However, some also have the potential to seriously damage human health, biodiversity and the environment. Consequently, the identification of chemical hazards, estimation of exposure, evaluation of the associated risks, and the introduction of management and control measures are all vital to ensure the health and safety of individuals and biodiversity as well as environmental quality. This Special Issue, therefore, focuses on chemical risk assessment, hazard identification, risk management and control, regulatory approaches and chemical risk assessment policy. We invite original, unpublished articles that describe recent advances in these disciplines and closely related areas.

Prof. Kathy Lewis
Dr. John Tzilivakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • environment
  • chemicals
  • hazard
  • risk management
  • risk mitigation
  • REACH

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Dissipation Dynamics and Residue of Four Herbicides in Paddy Fields Using HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020236 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The dissipation dynamics and residue of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in paddy fields at Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) condition were carefully investigated in this study. The four herbicides’ residues were determined based on a quick, easy, cheap, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method coupled [...] Read more.
The dissipation dynamics and residue of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in paddy fields at Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) condition were carefully investigated in this study. The four herbicides’ residues were determined based on a quick, easy, cheap, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD) for pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, acetochlor, and butachlor in all matrices ranged from 0.04–1.0 ng. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the four herbicides ranged from 0.01–0.1 mg/kg. Moreover, the average recoveries of the four herbicides ranged from 78.9–108% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15% at three different fortified levels for different matrices. The dissipation results indicated that the average half-lives (t1/2) of the four herbicides in soil were in the range of 3.5–17.8 days, and more than 95% of the four herbicides dissipated within 5 days in water. Furthermore, the final residues of the four herbicides were all below the LOQ at harvest time. Such results highlight the dissipation dynamics and residue of the four herbicides in a rice cropping system and contribute to risk assessment as well as scientific guidance on the proper and safe application of herbicides in paddy fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Carbamazepine on the Release of Chitobiase, Molting, and Reproduction in Daphnia similis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020209 - 13 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
As one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments, carbamazepine (CBZ) has recently been shown to cause acute and chronic toxicity in a variety of non-target aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the ecotoxicological effects it has on the [...] Read more.
As one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments, carbamazepine (CBZ) has recently been shown to cause acute and chronic toxicity in a variety of non-target aquatic organisms. However, little is known about the ecotoxicological effects it has on the molting and reproduction of crustaceans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxic responses to CBZ in the crustacean Daphnia similis. After acute exposure (4 days), CBZ did not cause lethal toxicity at the tested concentrations. However, CBZ did inhibit the molting and release of chitobiase at concentrations higher than 6.25 μg/L, with 96 h EC50 (median effective concentration) values of 864.38 and 306.17 μg/L, respectively. The results of chronic exposure showed that the mean number of molts, size of the first brood, mean number of offspring per brood, mean number of broods per female, and total offspring per female decreased significantly with increasing CBZ concentrations. Significant effects of CBZ on the molting or fecundity in D. similis were observed even at concentrations as low as 0.03 μg/L. In conclusion, CBZ can cause inhibition of molting, delayed reproduction, and reduced fecundity in D. similis. CBZ toxicity to D. similis depends on the timing and duration of the exposure. Moreover, our results indicated that CBZ would act as an endocrine disrupter in D. similis, as with vertebrates (e.g., fish). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Synergistic Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals on Aliivibrio fischeri in Major River Basins in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020208 - 13 Jan 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
This work introduces the potential synergistic toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which have been detected in substantial amounts in major river basins in South Korea. Different dose-response curve functions were employed in each experimental toxicity dataset for Aliivibrio fischeri. [...] Read more.
This work introduces the potential synergistic toxicity of binary mixtures of pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which have been detected in substantial amounts in major river basins in South Korea. Different dose-response curve functions were employed in each experimental toxicity dataset for Aliivibrio fischeri. We tested the toxicity of 30 binary mixtures at two effect concentrations: high effect concentration [EC50] and low effect concentration (EC10) ranges. Thus, the toxicological interactions were evaluated at 60 effected concentration data points in total and based on model deviation ratios (MDRs) between predicted and observed toxicity values (e.g., three types of combined effects: synergistic (MDR > 2), additive (0.5 ≤ MDR ≤ 2), and antagonistic (MDR < 0.5)). From the 60 data points, MDRs could not be applied to 17 points, since their toxicities could not be measured. The result showed 48%-additive (n = 20), 40%-antagonistic (n = 17), and 12%-synergistic (n = 6) toxicity effects from 43 binaries (excluding the 17 combinations without MDRs). In this study, EC10 ratio mixtures at a low overall effect range showed a general tendency to have more synergistic effects than the EC50 ratio mixtures at a high effect range. We also found an inversion phenomenon, which detected three binaries of the combination of synergism at low concentrations and additive antagonism at high concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methods for Evaluating the Combined Effects of Chemical and Nonchemical Exposures for Cumulative Environmental Health Risk Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122797 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) has been proposed as a means of evaluating possible additive and synergistic effects of multiple chemical, physical and social stressors on human health, with the goal of informing policy and decision-making, and protecting public health. Routine application of CRA [...] Read more.
Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) has been proposed as a means of evaluating possible additive and synergistic effects of multiple chemical, physical and social stressors on human health, with the goal of informing policy and decision-making, and protecting public health. Routine application of CRA to environmental regulatory and policy decision making, however, has been limited due to a perceived lack of appropriate quantitative approaches for assessing combined effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures. Seven research projects, which represented a variety of disciplines, including population health science, laboratory science, social sciences, geography, statistics and mathematics, were funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help address this knowledge gap. We synthesize key insights from these unique studies to determine the implications for CRA practice and priorities for further research. Our analyses of these seven projects demonstrate that the necessary analytical methods to support CRA are available but are ultimately context-dependent. These projects collectively provided advancements for CRA in the areas of community engagement, characterization of exposures to nonchemical stressors, and assessment of health effects associated with joint exposures to chemical and psychosocial stressors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenanthrene Mitigates Cadmium Toxicity in Earthworms Eisenia fetida (Epigeic Specie) and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Endogeic Specie) in Soil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112384 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
In classical toxicology studies, the interaction of combined doses of chemicals with dissimilar modes of toxic action in soil is complex and depending on the end point investigated and the experimental protocol employed. This study was used to examine the interactive effect of [...] Read more.
In classical toxicology studies, the interaction of combined doses of chemicals with dissimilar modes of toxic action in soil is complex and depending on the end point investigated and the experimental protocol employed. This study was used to examine the interactive effect of phenanthrene and Cadmium on two ecologically different species of earthworms; Eisenia. fetida and Aporrectodea. caliginosa. This interactive effect was scrutinized by using the acute toxicity test with the concentrations of 2.51 mg kg−1 and 3.74 mg kg−1, respectively, being lethal for 50% of E. fetida and A. caliginosa. The results showed that in the mixture treatment, phenanthrene at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg−1 significantly mitigated both earthworms species mortality and body-mass loss. Moreover, the factor of Cd accumulated in E. fetida and A. caliginosa tissues was significantly decreased by about 12% and 16%, respectively. Linear regression correlation coefficient revealed that the reduction of both earthworm species mortality was negatively and significantly correlated (r2 = 0.98 ± 0.40 and 1 ± 3.9 p < 0.001) with phenanthrene concentration in soil. However, over 20 mg kg−1 of phenanthrene, both organisms mortality rate increased again, as was the Bioaccumulation factor of phenanthrene. Thus, this study proposes that the antagonistical effect of phenanthrene on Cd at a degree of concentration can be used to mitigate Cd effect on soil living organisms. However, as an implication of these results, the interpretation of standardized toxicity bioassays, including whole effluent toxicity tests and single-compound toxicity tests, should be performed with caution. In addition, risk assessment protocols for environment pollution by a mixture of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons should include robust methods that can detect possible interactive effects between contaminants to optimize environmental protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Assessment and Source Identification of Toxic Metals in the Agricultural Soil around a Pb/Zn Mining and Smelting Area in Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091838 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Mining and smelting activities are the primary sources of toxic metal pollution in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pollution risk and identify sources of metals in the arable soil of a Zn/Pb mining and smelting district located in [...] Read more.
Mining and smelting activities are the primary sources of toxic metal pollution in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pollution risk and identify sources of metals in the arable soil of a Zn/Pb mining and smelting district located in Huize, in Southwest China. Topsoil (346) and profile (three) samples were collected and analyzed to determine the total concentrations of eight toxic elements (Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni). The results showed that the mean Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni concentrations were 9.07, 0.37, 25.0, 512, 88.7, 239, 1761 and 90.3 mg/kg, respectively, all of which exceeded both the Huize and Yunnan soil background levels. Overall the topsoil was quite acidic, with a mean pH of 5.51. The mean geoaccumulation index (Igeo) revealed that the pollution level was in the order of Pb > Zn > Cd > Hg > As > Ni > Cu > Cr. The ecological risk index (Ei) indicated that there were serious contamination risks for Cd and Hg, high risk for Pb, moderate risk for As, and Cd and Hg were the dominant contributors to the high combined ecological risk index (Er) with a mean parameter of 699 meaning a serious ecological risk. The Nemerow pollution index (Pn) showed that 99.1% of soil samples were highly polluted or worse. Horizontally, high concentrations of Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn appeared in the north and middle of the study area, while Cr, Cu and Ni showed an opposite trend. Vertically, as the depth increased, Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn contents declined, but Cr, Cu and Ni exhibited an increasing trend. The mobilities of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cd > Hg > As > Pb. Horizontal and vertical distribution, coupled with correlation analysis, PCA and CA suggested that Cd, Hg, As, Pb and Zn mainly came from the anthropogenic sources, whereas Cr and Ni had a lithogenic origin. The source of Cu was a combination of the presence of parent materials as well as human activities. This study provides a base for the local government to control the toxic metal pollution and restore the soil environment system and an effective method to identify the sources of the studied pollutants. Full article
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