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Special Issue "Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 22506

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Domenico M. Cavallo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and High Technology, University of Insubria, 22100 Como, Italy
Interests: occupational hygiene; environmental hygiene; exposure assessment; risk assessment; risk management; air pollution; exposure modeling; indoor air quality; nanosafety; chemical risk assessment; miniaturized sensors; exposure science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Andrea Spinazzè
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and High Technology, University of Insubria, 22100 Como, Italy
Interests: occupational hygiene; environmental hygiene; exposure assessment; risk assessment; risk management; air pollution; exposure modeling; indoor air quality; nanosafety; chemical risk assessment; miniaturized sensors; exposure science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Francesca Borghi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Science and High Technology, University of Insubria, 22100 Como, Italy
Interests: occupational hygiene; environmental hygiene; exposure assessment; risk assessment; risk management; air pollution; exposure modeling; indoor air quality; nanosafety; chemical risk assessment; miniaturized sensors; exposure science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The evaluation of occupational exposure to chemicals can be performed through instrumental measurements (environmental monitoring) or, alternatively, by means of modelling tools for estimating occupational exposure. Regarding this last issue, a certain number of tools, generally consisting of mathematical models, have been developed for the quantitative estimation of occupational exposure to chemical agents. Exposure assessment models are generally considered as useful tools for exposure assessors to deal with risk assessments in several exposure scenarios. However, available studies show that more knowledge is needed about model functionalities, applicability domain, refinement, validation, magnitude of uncertainties, and model reliability.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to present original research articles, reviews, and short communications concerning the following:

  • Possible applications and performance evaluation (in terms of accuracy, precision, conservatism, inter-assessor/inter-rater reliability, etc.) of exposure modelling tools;
  • Case studies concerning exposure assessment in occupational settings by means of modelling tools for inhalation or dermal exposure to chemicals;
  • Design, development, and improvement of new exposure modelling tools or of new features of modelling tools conceived and specifically designed for occupational exposure to chemicals.

Prof. Dr. Domenico M. Cavallo
Dr. Andrea Spinazzè
Dr. Francesca Borghi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exposure modeling
  • occupational exposure assessment
  • accuracy
  • robustness
  • validity
  • reliability
  • occupational exposure models
  • REACH

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
A New Model Algorithm for Estimating the Inhalation Exposure Resulting from the Spraying of (Semi)-Volatile Binary Liquid Mixtures (SprayEva)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013182 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The spraying of liquid multicomponent mixtures is common in many professional and industrial settings. Typical examples are cleaning agents, additives, coatings, and biocidal products. In all of these examples, hazardous substances can be released in the form of aerosols or vapours. For occupational [...] Read more.
The spraying of liquid multicomponent mixtures is common in many professional and industrial settings. Typical examples are cleaning agents, additives, coatings, and biocidal products. In all of these examples, hazardous substances can be released in the form of aerosols or vapours. For occupational and consumer risk assessment in regulatory contexts, it is therefore important to know the exposure which results from the amount of chemicals in the surrounding air. In this research, a mechanistic mass balance model has been developed that covers the spraying of (semi)-volatile substances, taking into account combined exposure to spray mist, evaporation from droplets, and evaporation from surfaces as well as the nonideal behaviour of components in liquids and backpressure effects. For wall-spraying scenarios, an impaction module has been developed that quantifies the amount of overspray and the amount of material that lands on the wall. Mechanistically, the model is based on the assumption that continuous spraying can be approximated by a number of sequentially released spray pulses, each characterized by a certain droplet size, where the total aerosol exposure is obtained by summation over all release pulses. The corresponding system of differential equations is solved numerically using an extended Euler algorithm that is based on a discretisation of time and space. Since workers typically apply the product continuously, the treated area and the corresponding evaporating surface area grows over time. Time-dependent concentration gradients within the sprayed liquid films that may result from different volatilities of the components are therefore addressed by the proposed model. A worked example is presented to illustrate the calculated exposure for a scenario where aqueous solutions of H2O2 are sprayed onto surfaces as a biocidal product. The results reveal that exposure to H2O2 aerosol reaches relevant concentrations only during the spraying phase. Evaporation from sprayed surfaces takes place over much longer time periods, where backpressure effects caused by large emission sources can influence the shape of the concentration time curves significantly. The influence of the activity coefficients is not so pronounced. To test the plausibility of the developed model algorithm, a comparison of model estimates of SprayExpo, SprayEva, and ConsExpo with measured data is performed. Although the comparison is based on a limited number (N = 19) of measurement data, the results are nevertheless regarded as supportive and acceptable for the plausibility and predictive power of SprayEva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Article
Estimating Inhalation Exposure Resulting from Evaporation of Volatile Multicomponent Mixtures Using Different Modelling Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041957 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 873 | Correction
Abstract
In many professional and industrial settings, liquid multicomponent mixtures are used as solvents, additives, coatings, biocidal products, etc. Since, in all of these examples, hazardous liquids can evaporate in the form of vapours, for risk assessments it is important to know the amount [...] Read more.
In many professional and industrial settings, liquid multicomponent mixtures are used as solvents, additives, coatings, biocidal products, etc. Since, in all of these examples, hazardous liquids can evaporate in the form of vapours, for risk assessments it is important to know the amount of chemicals in the surrounding air. Although several models are available in legal contexts, the current implementations seem to be unable to correctly simulate concentration changes that actually occur in volatile mixtures and in particular in thin films. In this research, the estimation of evaporation rates is based on models that take into account non-ideal behaviour of components in liquids and backpressure effects as well. The corresponding system of differential equations is solved numerically using an extended Euler algorithm that is based on a discretisation of time and space. Regarding air dispersion of volatile components, the model builds upon one-box and two-box mass balance models, because there is some evidence that these models, when selected and applied appropriately, can predict occupational exposures with sufficient precision. That way, numerical solutions for a wide variety of exposure scenarios with instantaneous and continuous/intermittent application, even considering “moving worker situations”, can be obtained. A number of example calculations have been carried out on scenarios where binary aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide or glutaraldehyde are applied as a biocidal product to surfaces by wiping. The results reveal that backpressure effects caused by large emission sources as well as deviations from liquid-phase ideality can influence the shape of the concentration time curves significantly. The results also provide some evidence that near-/far-field models should be used to avoid underestimation of exposure in large rooms when small/medium areas are applied. However, the near-field/far-field model should not be used to estimate peak exposure assuming instantaneous application, because then the models tend to overestimate peak exposure significantly. Although the example calculations are restricted to aqueous binary mixtures, the proposed approach is general and can be used for arbitrary liquid multicomponent mixtures, as long as backpressure effects and liquid-phase non-idealities are addressed adequately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Communication
Theoretical Background of Occupational-Exposure Models—Report of an Expert Workshop of the ISES Europe Working Group “Exposure Models”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031234 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
On 20 October 2020, the Working Group “Exposure Models” of the Europe Regional Chapter of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES Europe) organised an online workshop to discuss the theoretical background of models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals. In [...] Read more.
On 20 October 2020, the Working Group “Exposure Models” of the Europe Regional Chapter of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES Europe) organised an online workshop to discuss the theoretical background of models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals. In this report, participants of the workshop with an active role before and during the workshop summarise the most relevant discussion points and conclusions of this well-attended workshop. ISES Europe has identified exposure modelling as one priority area for the strategic development of exposure science in Europe in the coming years. This specific workshop aimed to discuss the main challenges in developing, validating, and using occupational-exposure models for regulatory purposes. The theoretical background, application domain, and limitations of different modelling approaches were presented and discussed, focusing on empirical “modifying-factor” or “mass-balance-based” approaches. During the discussions, these approaches were compared and analysed. Possibilities to address the discussed challenges could be a validation study involving alternative modelling approaches. The wider discussion touched upon the close relationship between modelling and monitoring and the need for better linkage of the methods and the need for common monitoring databases that include data on model parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Communication
The ECETOC-Targeted Risk Assessment Tool for Worker Exposure Estimation in REACH Registration Dossiers of Chemical Substances—Current Developments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228443 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
(1) Background: The ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) tool is widely used for estimation of worker exposure levels in the development of dossiers for REACH registration of manufactured or imported chemical substances in Europe. A number of studies have been published since 2010 [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) tool is widely used for estimation of worker exposure levels in the development of dossiers for REACH registration of manufactured or imported chemical substances in Europe. A number of studies have been published since 2010 in which the exposure estimates of the tool are compared with workplace exposure measurement results and in some instances an underestimation of exposure was reported. The quality and results of these studies are being reviewed by ECETOC. (2) Methods: Original exposure measurement data from published comparison studies for which six or more data points were available for each workplace scenario and a TRA estimate had been developed to create a curated database to examine under what conditions and for which applications the tool is valid or may need adaptation. (3) Results: The published studies have been reviewed for completeness and clarity and TRA estimates have been constructed based on the available information, following a set of rules. The full review findings are expected to be available in the course of 2021. (4) Conclusions: The ECETOC TRA tool developers periodically review the validity and limitations of their tool, in line with international recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Article
Evaluation of Stoffenmanager and a New Exposure Model for Estimating Occupational Exposure to Styrene in the Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics Lamination Process
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124486 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate occupational exposure models by comparing model estimations of Stoffenmanager, version 8.2, and exposure scores calculated using a new exposure model with personal exposure measurements for styrene used in the fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) lamination processes in Korea. Using the [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate occupational exposure models by comparing model estimations of Stoffenmanager, version 8.2, and exposure scores calculated using a new exposure model with personal exposure measurements for styrene used in the fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) lamination processes in Korea. Using the collected exposure measurements (n = 160) with detailed contextual information about the type of process, working conditions, local exhaust ventilation, respiratory protections, and task descriptions, we developed a new model algorithm to estimate the score for occupational exposures on situation level. We assumed that the source of exposure originates from the near field only (within the breathing zone of workers). The new model is designed as a simple formula of multiplying scores for job classification, exposure potential, engineering controls, chemical hazard, and exposure probability and then dividing the score for workplace size. The final score is log-transformed, ranging from 1 to 14, and the exposure category is divided into four ratings: no exposure (1), low (2), medium (3), and high (4) exposures. Using the contextual information, all the parameters and modifying factors are similarly entered into the two models through direct translation and coding processes with expert judgement, and the exposure estimations and scores using the two models are calculated for each situation. Overall bias and precision for Stoffenmanager are −1.00 ± 2.07 (50th) and −0.32 ± 2.32 (90th) for all situations (n = 36), indicating that Stoffenmanager slightly underestimated styrene exposures. Pearson’s correlation coefficients are significantly high for Stoffenmanager (r = 0.87) and the new model (r = 0.88), and the correlation between the two models is significantly high (r = 0.93) (p < 0.01). Therefore, the model estimations using Stoffenmanager and the new model are significantly correlated with the styrene exposures in the FRP lamination process. Further studies are needed to validate and calibrate the models using a larger number of exposure measurements for various substances in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Article
Comparison between Communicated and Calculated Exposure Estimates Obtained through Three Modeling Tools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114175 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the risk assessment approach of the REACH legislation in industrial chemical departments with a focus on the use of three models to calculate exposures, and discuss those factors that can determine a bias between the estimated exposure (and [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the risk assessment approach of the REACH legislation in industrial chemical departments with a focus on the use of three models to calculate exposures, and discuss those factors that can determine a bias between the estimated exposure (and therefore the expected risk) in the extended safety data sheets (e-SDS) and the expected exposure for the actual scenario. To purse this goal, the exposure estimates and risk characterization ratios (RCRs) of registered exposure scenarios (ES; “communicated exposure” and “communicated RCR”) were compared with the exposure estimates and the corresponding RCRs calculated for the actual, observed ES, using recommended tools for the evaluation of exposure assessment and in particular the following tools: (i) the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment v.3.1 (ECETOC TRA), (ii) STOFFENMANAGER® v.8.0 and (iii) the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). We evaluated 49 scenarios in three companies handling chemicals. Risk characterization ratios (RCRs) were calculated by dividing estimated exposures by derived no-effect levels (DNELs). Although the calculated exposure and RCRs generally were lower than communicated, the correlation between communicated and calculated exposures and RCRs was generally poor, indicating that the generic registered scenarios do not reflect actual working, exposure and risk conditions. Further, some observed scenarios resulted in calculated exposure values and RCR higher than those communicated through chemicals’ e-SDSs; thus ‘false safe’ scenarios (calculated RCRs > 1) were also observed. Overall, the obtained evidences contribute to doubt about whether the risk assessment should be performed using generic (communicated by suppliers) ES with insufficient detail of the specific scenario at all companies. Contrariwise, evidences suggested that it would be safer for downstream users to perform scenario-specific evaluations, by means of proper scaling approach, to achieve more representative estimates of chemical risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Communication
Exposure Models for REACH and Occupational Safety and Health Regulations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020383 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3843
Abstract
Model tools for estimating hazardous substance exposure are an accepted part of regulatory risk assessments in Europe, and models underpin control banding tools used to help manage chemicals in workplaces. Of necessity the models are simplified abstractions of real-life working situations that aim [...] Read more.
Model tools for estimating hazardous substance exposure are an accepted part of regulatory risk assessments in Europe, and models underpin control banding tools used to help manage chemicals in workplaces. Of necessity the models are simplified abstractions of real-life working situations that aim to capture the essence of the scenario to give estimates of actual exposures with an appropriate margin of safety. The basis for existing inhalation exposure assessment tools has recently been discussed by some scientists who have argued for the use of more complex models. In our opinion, the currently accepted tools are documented to be the most robust way for workplace health and safety practitioners and others to estimate inhalation exposure. However, we recognise that it is important to continue the scientific development of exposure modelling to further elaborate and improve the existing methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)

Review

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Review
Modelling Exposure by Spraying Activities—Status and Future Needs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157737 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Spray applications enable a uniform distribution of substances on surfaces in a highly efficient manner, and thus can be found at workplaces as well as in consumer environments. A systematic literature review on modelling exposure by spraying activities has been conducted and status [...] Read more.
Spray applications enable a uniform distribution of substances on surfaces in a highly efficient manner, and thus can be found at workplaces as well as in consumer environments. A systematic literature review on modelling exposure by spraying activities has been conducted and status and further needs have been discussed with experts at a symposium. This review summarizes the current knowledge about models and their level of conservatism and accuracy. We found that extraction of relevant information on model performance for spraying from published studies and interpretation of model accuracy proved to be challenging, as the studies often accounted for only a small part of potential spray applications. To achieve a better quality of exposure estimates in the future, more systematic evaluation of models is beneficial, taking into account a representative variety of spray equipment and application patterns. Model predictions could be improved by more accurate consideration of variation in spray equipment. Inter-model harmonization with regard to spray input parameters and appropriate grouping of spray exposure situations is recommended. From a user perspective, a platform or database with information on different spraying equipment and techniques and agreed standard parameters for specific spraying scenarios from different regulations may be useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Review
Validity of Tier 1 Modelling Tools and Impacts on Exposure Assessments within REACH Registrations—ETEAM Project, Validation Studies and Consequences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124589 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
In the last years, the evaluation and validation of exposure modelling tools for inhalation exposure assessment at workplaces received new and highly increased attention by different stakeholders. One important study in this regard is the ETEAM (Evaluation of Tier 1 [...] Read more.
In the last years, the evaluation and validation of exposure modelling tools for inhalation exposure assessment at workplaces received new and highly increased attention by different stakeholders. One important study in this regard is the ETEAM (Evaluation of Tier 1 Exposure Assessment Models) project that evaluated exposure assessment tools under the European REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), (but next to the ETEAM project—as a project publicly funded by the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA)—it is a rather new development that research groups from universities in Europe, but also internationally, investigated this issue. These other studies focused not only on REACH tier 1 tools but also investigated other tools and aspects of tool validity. This paper tries to summarise the major findings of studies that explored the different issues of tool validity by focusing on the scientific outcomes and the exposure on the science community. On the other hand, this publication aims to provide guidance on the choice and use of tools, addressing the needs of tool users. The consequences of different stakeholders under REACH are discussed from the results of the validation studies. The major stakeholders are: (1) REACH registrants or applicants for REACH authorisations, meaning those companies, consortia or associations who are subject to REACH; (2) Evaluating authorities within the scope of REACH, meaning the ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) secretariat and committees, but also the competent authorities of the member states or the European Union; (3) Developers of the different models and tools; (4) Users of the different models and tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Review
How to Obtain a Reliable Estimate of Occupational Exposure? Review and Discussion of Models’ Reliability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152764 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
Evaluation and validation studies of quantitative exposure models for occupational exposure assessment are still scarce and generally only consider a limited number of exposure scenarios. The aim of this review was to report the current state of knowledge of models’ reliability in terms [...] Read more.
Evaluation and validation studies of quantitative exposure models for occupational exposure assessment are still scarce and generally only consider a limited number of exposure scenarios. The aim of this review was to report the current state of knowledge of models’ reliability in terms of precision, accuracy, and robustness. A systematic review was performed through searches of major scientific databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed), concerning reliability of Tier1 (“ECETOC TRA”-European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE, and EMKG-Expo-Tool) and Tier2 models (STOFFENMANAGER® and “ART”-Advanced Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Tool). Forty-five studies were identified, and we report the complete information concerning model performance in different exposure scenarios, as well as between-user reliability. Different studies describe the ECETOC TRA model as insufficient conservative to be a Tier1 model, in different exposure scenarios. Contrariwise, MEASE and EMKG-Expo-Tool seem to be conservative enough, even if these models have not been deeply evaluated. STOFFENMANAGER® resulted the most balanced and robust model. Finally, ART was generally found to be the most accurate and precise model, with a medium level of conservatism. Overall, the results showed that no complete evaluation of the models has been conducted, suggesting the need for correct and harmonized validation of these tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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Other

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Correction
Correction: Tischer, M.; Roitzsch, M. Estimating Inhalation Exposure Resulting from Evaporation of Volatile Multicomponent Mixtures Using Different Modelling Approaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1957
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 9834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169834 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Case Report
AltrexChimie, a Web Application for the Management and the Interpretation of Occupational Exposure Measurements to Chemical Substances
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103375 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
In most occupational settings, several chemical agents are commonly found, and the associated exposure risk for workers must be assessed. For this purpose, air samples can be collected and analyzed. AltrexChimie is a web application that helps industrial hygienists in the organization of [...] Read more.
In most occupational settings, several chemical agents are commonly found, and the associated exposure risk for workers must be assessed. For this purpose, air samples can be collected and analyzed. AltrexChimie is a web application that helps industrial hygienists in the organization of the air sampling strategy and in the subsequent phases of data management, analysis, and communication. AltrexChimie contains a database of more than 550 chemical substances and their respective French Occupational Exposure Limit Values (OELV): Custom OELVs can also be defined by the user. AltrexChimie helps with the definition of key features of the sampling strategy, in particular by promoting a methodology for the design of Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs). Once measurement data are entered, they can be analyzed to obtain exposure diagnostics. Data management features allow for the easy storage and retrieval of measurements, and comprehensive dashboards help industrial hygienists (IHs) in the communication of results. Finally, with AltrexChimie it is also possible to assess exposure to multiple chemical substances and their additive effects. While most free software applications for the assessment of chemical exposure focus on the statistical computation of specific indicators, AltrexChimie offers several tools to assist IHs in the exposure assessment workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
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