Special Issue "Mathematical and Statistical Models in Environmental Research and Public Health with Applications"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Wing-Keung Wong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Finance, College of Management, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan
Interests: financial economics; econometrics; mathematical finance; mathematical economics; equity analysis; investment theory; risk management; behavioral finance; behavioral economics; operational research; stochastic dominance theory; time series analysis; Bayesian theory and decision theory; environmental research and public health
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mathematics and statistics play a vital role in many fields in environmental research and public health, and provide the theories and tools that have been widely used in all areas of environmental research and public health.

Knowledge of mathematics, probability, and statistics is essential to develop theories in environmental research and public health and to test their validity through the analysis of empirical real-world data.

A Special Issue on “Mathematical and Statistical Models in Environmental Research and Public Health with Applications”, edited by Wing Keung Wong, will be devoted to advancements in mathematical and statistical models with applications in different areas of environmental research and public health. This Special Issue will also bring together practical, state-of-the-art applications of mathematics, probability, and statistical techniques in environmental research and public health.

We invite investigators to contribute original research articles that advance the use of mathematics, probability, and statistics in the areas of environmental research and public health. All submissions must contain original unpublished work not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Prof. Dr. Wing-Keung Wong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mathematics
  • Probability
  • Statistics
  • Environmental Research and Public Health

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of Green Innovation Input and Channel Service in a Dual-Channel Value Chain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224566 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper constructs a dual-channel value chain composed of one altruistic manufacturer and one altruistic retailer, where the manufacturer makes green innovation input for green products and sells its green products to its customers through both the direct channel and the traditional channel, [...] Read more.
This paper constructs a dual-channel value chain composed of one altruistic manufacturer and one altruistic retailer, where the manufacturer makes green innovation input for green products and sells its green products to its customers through both the direct channel and the traditional channel, the retailer provides channel service for customers and sells green products through the traditional channel. We consider two scenarios in which the manufacturer and the retailer make decentralized and centralized decisions, respectively. We develop two dynamic game models for the two scenarios and analyze the dynamic behaviors of the two dynamic game models using bifurcation diagram, LLE (largest Lyapunov exponent) and attraction of basin, etc. We find that the stability region in decentralized decision model is greater than that of centralized decision, and narrow with increase of service value, green innovation input. In the decentralized decision model, the stability of the system decreases with the altruistic behavior increasing. With the price adjustment speed increasing, the dual-channel green value chain system enters into chaotic state through flip bifurcation or N-S bifurcation. In the stable state, the manufacturer and the retailer can obtain the maximum utility with the appropriate value of green innovation input. In the chaotic state, the utilities of the manufacturer and retailer are greatly affected and significantly reduced. This study will provide good guidance for sustainable development decision-making of dual-channel green value chain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Empirical Study of Applying Statistical Disclosure Control Methods to Public Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224519 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Patient data or information collected from public health and health care surveys are of great research value. Usually, the data contain sensitive personal information. Doctors, nurses, or researchers in the public health and health care sector do not analyze the available datasets or [...] Read more.
Patient data or information collected from public health and health care surveys are of great research value. Usually, the data contain sensitive personal information. Doctors, nurses, or researchers in the public health and health care sector do not analyze the available datasets or survey data on their own, and may outsource the tasks to third parties. Even though all identifiers such as names and ID card numbers are removed, there may still be some occasions in which an individual can be re-identified via the demographic or particular information provided in the datasets. Such data privacy issues can become an obstacle in health-related research. Statistical disclosure control (SDC) is a useful technique used to resolve this problem by masking and designing released data based on the original data. Whilst ensuring the released data can satisfy the needs of researchers for data analysis, there is high protection of the original data from disclosure. In this research, we discuss the statistical properties of two SDC methods: the General Additive Data Perturbation (GADP) method and the Gaussian Copula General Additive Data Perturbation (CGADP) method. An empirical study is provided to demonstrate how we can apply these two SDC methods in public health research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Economic Growth, Carbon Emissions, and Fossil Fuel Consumption in China: Cointegration and Multivariate Causality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214176 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Most authors apply the Granger causality-VECM (vector error correction model), and Toda–Yamamoto procedures to investigate the relationships among fossil fuel consumption, CO 2 emissions, and economic growth, though they ignore the group joint effects and nonlinear behaviour among the variables. In order to [...] Read more.
Most authors apply the Granger causality-VECM (vector error correction model), and Toda–Yamamoto procedures to investigate the relationships among fossil fuel consumption, CO 2 emissions, and economic growth, though they ignore the group joint effects and nonlinear behaviour among the variables. In order to circumvent the limitations and bridge the gap in the literature, this paper combines cointegration and linear and nonlinear Granger causality in multivariate settings to investigate the long-run equilibrium, short-run impact, and dynamic causality relationships among economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and fossil fuel consumption in China from 1965–2016. Using the combination of the newly developed econometric techniques, we obtain many novel empirical findings that are useful for policy makers. For example, cointegration and causality analysis imply that increasing CO 2 emissions not only leads to immediate economic growth, but also future economic growth, both linearly and nonlinearly. In addition, the findings from cointegration and causality analysis in multivariate settings do not support the argument that reducing CO 2 emissions and/or fossil fuel consumption does not lead to a slowdown in economic growth in China. The novel empirical findings are useful for policy makers in relation to fossil fuel consumption, CO 2 emissions, and economic growth. Using the novel findings, governments can make better decisions regarding energy conservation and emission reductions policies without undermining the pace of economic growth in the long run. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corruption, Hidden Economy and Environmental Pollution: A Spatial Econometric Analysis Based on China’s Provincial Panel Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162871 - 11 Aug 2019
Abstract
Previous studies show that the environmental quality is significantly influenced by corruption and the hidden economy separately. However, what is the impact of their interaction effect on environmental quality? Based on Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model, this study calculates the scale of [...] Read more.
Previous studies show that the environmental quality is significantly influenced by corruption and the hidden economy separately. However, what is the impact of their interaction effect on environmental quality? Based on Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model, this study calculates the scale of hidden economy in Chinese provinces firstly. Then, we apply the method of spatial econometrics to analyze the interaction effect of corruption and the hidden economy on environmental pollution with China’s provincial panel data from 1998 to 2017. The results indicate that the interaction effect between corruption and hidden economy significantly increases pollutant discharge, suggesting that both anti-corruption and control of the hidden economy may improve environmental quality directly and indirectly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Stability and Complexity Analysis of a Low-Carbon Supply Chain Considering Fairness Concern Behavior and Sales Service
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152711 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
This paper studies a low-carbon dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer sells products through the direct channel and traditional channel, and a retailer sells products through the traditional channel. The manufacturer considers carbon emission reduction and has fairness concern behavior. The retailer [...] Read more.
This paper studies a low-carbon dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer sells products through the direct channel and traditional channel, and a retailer sells products through the traditional channel. The manufacturer considers carbon emission reduction and has fairness concern behavior. The retailer provides sales service in the traditional channel and considers fairness concern behavior. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of different parameter values on the price stability and utility of the supply chain system emphatically using 2D bifurcation diagram, parameter plot basin, the basins of attraction, chaos attractor and sensitivity to the initial value, etc. The results find that the retailer’s fairness concern behavior shrinks the stability of the supply chain system more than that of the manufacturer’s fairness concern behavior. The system stability region decreases with the increase of carbon emission reduction level and the retailer’s fairness concern. The customers’ preference for the direct channel decreases the stable range of the direct channel, while it enlarges the stable range of the traditional channel. The supply chain system enters into chaos through flip bifurcation with the increase of price adjustment speed. In a stable state, the manufacture improving customer’s preference for the direct channel and the retailer choosing the appropriate fairness concern level can achieve the maximum utility separately. In a chaotic state, the average utilities of the manufacturer and retailer all decline, while that of the retailer declines even more. By selecting appropriate control parameter, the low-carbon dual-channel supply chain system can return to a stable state from chaos again. The research of this paper is of great significance to price decisions of participants and supply chain operation management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Design of Hyperstable Feedback Controllers for a Class of Parameterized Nonlinearities. Two Application Examples for Controlling Epidemic Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152689 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper studies the hyperstability and the asymptotic hyperstability of a single-input single-output controlled dynamic system whose feed-forward input-output dynamics is nonlinear and eventually time-varying consisting of a linear nominal part, a linear incremental perturbed part and a nonlinear and eventually time-varying one. [...] Read more.
This paper studies the hyperstability and the asymptotic hyperstability of a single-input single-output controlled dynamic system whose feed-forward input-output dynamics is nonlinear and eventually time-varying consisting of a linear nominal part, a linear incremental perturbed part and a nonlinear and eventually time-varying one. The nominal linear part is described by a positive real transfer function while the linear perturbation is defined by a stable transfer function. The nonlinear and time-varying disturbance is, in general, unstructured but it is upper-bounded by the combination of three additive absolute terms depending on the input, output and input-output product, respectively. The non-linear time-varying feedback controller is any member belonging to a general class which satisfies an integral Popov’s-type inequality. This problem statement allows the study of the conditions guaranteeing the robust stability properties under a variety of the controllers designed for the controlled system and controller disturbances. In this way, set of robust hyperstability and asymptotic hyperstability of the closed-loop system are given based on the fact that the input-output energy of the feed-forward controlled system is positive and bounded for all time and any given initial conditions and controls satisfying Popov’s inequality. The importance of those hyperstability and asymptotic hyperstability properties rely on the fact that they are related to global closed-loop stability, or respectively, global closed-loop asymptotic stability of the same uncontrolled feed-forward dynamics subject to a great number of controllers under the only condition that that they satisfy such a Popov’s-type inequality. It is well-known the relevance of vaccination and treatment controls for Public Health Management at the levels of prevention and healing. Therefore, two application examples concerning the linearization of known epidemic models and their appropriate vaccination and/or treatment controls on the susceptible and infectious, respectively, are discussed in detail with the main objective in mind of being able of achieving a fast convergence of the state- trajectory solutions to the disease- free equilibrium points under a wide class of control laws under deviations of the equilibrium amounts of such populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Causal Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth. Evidence from Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132367 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: From a causal point of view, there exists a set of socioeconomic indicators concerning life expectancy. The objective of this paper is to determine the indicators which exhibit a relation of causality with life expectancy at birth. Methods: Our analysis applies the [...] Read more.
Background: From a causal point of view, there exists a set of socioeconomic indicators concerning life expectancy. The objective of this paper is to determine the indicators which exhibit a relation of causality with life expectancy at birth. Methods: Our analysis applies the Granger causality test, more specifically its version by Dumitrescu–Hurlin, starting from the information concerning life expectancy at birth and a set of socioeconomic variables corresponding to 17 Spanish regions, throughout the period 2006–2016. To do this, we used the panel data involving the information provided by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare (MHCSW) and the National Institute of Statistics (NIS). Results: Per capita income, and the rate of hospital beds, medical staff and nurses Granger-cause the variable “life expectancy at birth”, according to the Granger causality test applied to panel data (Dumitrescu–Hurlin’s version). Conclusions: Life expectancy at birth has become one of the main indicators able to measure the performance of a country’s health system. This analysis facilitates the identification of those factors which exhibit a unidirectional Granger-causality relationship with life expectancy at birth. Therefore, this paper provides useful information for the management of public health resources from the point of view of the maximization of social benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Dynamic Price Game Model in a Low-Carbon, Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Return Rates and Fairness Concern Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111978 - 04 Jun 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we developed a dynamic price game model for a low-carbon, closed-loop supply chain system in which (1) the manufacturer had fairness concern and carbon emission reduction (CER) behaviors, and market share and profit maximization were their objectives, and (2) the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we developed a dynamic price game model for a low-carbon, closed-loop supply chain system in which (1) the manufacturer had fairness concern and carbon emission reduction (CER) behaviors, and market share and profit maximization were their objectives, and (2) the retailer showed fairness concern behaviors in market competition and provided service input to reduce return rates. The retailer recycled old products from customers, and the manufacturer remanufactured the recycled old products. The effects of different parameter values on the stability and utility of the dynamic price game model were determined through analysis and numerical simulation. Results found that an increasing customer loyalty to the direct marketing channel decreased the stable region of the manufacturer’s price adjustment and increase that of the retailer. The stable region of the system shrank with an increase of CER and the retailer’s service level, which expanded with return rates. The dynamic system entered into chaos through flip bifurcation with the increase of price adjustment speed. In the chaotic state, the average utilities of the manufacturer and retailer all declined, while that of the retailer declined even more. Changes to parameter values had a great impact on the utilities of the manufacturer and retailer. By selecting appropriate control parameters, the dynamic system can return to a stable state from chaos again. The research of this paper is of great significance to participants’ price decision-making and supply chain operation management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Environment Degradation: Evidence from Emerging Markets in Asia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091636 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study is conducted to examine the concerns of the foreign direct investment (FDI) causing environment degradation and also to test the validity of the traditional Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the context of emerging markets in the Asian region. Data of these [...] Read more.
This study is conducted to examine the concerns of the foreign direct investment (FDI) causing environment degradation and also to test the validity of the traditional Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the context of emerging markets in the Asian region. Data of these countries from 1980–2016 are utilised. This study employs panel cointegration Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS), which treats the endogeneity problem, and its estimators are adjusted for serial correlation. Moreover, this study also uses panel Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS), which includes contemporaneous value, leads and, lags of the first difference of the regressors to correct endogeneity problems and serial correlations. Findings from this study indicate that the pollution heaven hypothesis and the EKC curve are generally valid in the region. In addition, FDI has a strong impact on the environment. Full article
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