Next Article in Journal
Interaction of Health Literacy and Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Their Impact on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury among Chinese Adolescents
Next Article in Special Issue
On the Design of Hyperstable Feedback Controllers for a Class of Parameterized Nonlinearities. Two Application Examples for Controlling Epidemic Models
Previous Article in Journal
Trauma Informed Child Welfare Systems—A Rapid Evidence Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Dynamic Price Game Model in a Low-Carbon, Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Return Rates and Fairness Concern Behaviors
Article

A Causal Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth. Evidence from Spain

Department of Economics and Business, Universidad de Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132367
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
Background: From a causal point of view, there exists a set of socioeconomic indicators concerning life expectancy. The objective of this paper is to determine the indicators which exhibit a relation of causality with life expectancy at birth. Methods: Our analysis applies the Granger causality test, more specifically its version by Dumitrescu–Hurlin, starting from the information concerning life expectancy at birth and a set of socioeconomic variables corresponding to 17 Spanish regions, throughout the period 2006–2016. To do this, we used the panel data involving the information provided by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare (MHCSW) and the National Institute of Statistics (NIS). Results: Per capita income, and the rate of hospital beds, medical staff and nurses Granger-cause the variable “life expectancy at birth”, according to the Granger causality test applied to panel data (Dumitrescu–Hurlin’s version). Conclusions: Life expectancy at birth has become one of the main indicators able to measure the performance of a country’s health system. This analysis facilitates the identification of those factors which exhibit a unidirectional Granger-causality relationship with life expectancy at birth. Therefore, this paper provides useful information for the management of public health resources from the point of view of the maximization of social benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: life expectancy at birth; socioeconomic indicators; panel data; Granger causality test (Dumitrescu-Hurlin) life expectancy at birth; socioeconomic indicators; panel data; Granger causality test (Dumitrescu-Hurlin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Martín Cervantes, P.A.; Rueda López, N.; Cruz Rambaud, S. A Causal Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth. Evidence from Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132367

AMA Style

Martín Cervantes PA, Rueda López N, Cruz Rambaud S. A Causal Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth. Evidence from Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(13):2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martín Cervantes, Pedro A., Nuria Rueda López, and Salvador Cruz Rambaud. 2019. "A Causal Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth. Evidence from Spain" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 13: 2367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132367

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop