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Green Development and Carbon Neutralization

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 63551

Special Issue Editor

School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Interests: land use/land cover change (LUCC); carbon sink; carbon source; carbon emissions; input-output; tele-coupling; Ecosystem Service Value (ESV)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming has caused a series of damage to the ecological and anthropogenic environments. Many countries have promised to reduce carbon emissions, with the ultimate goal of reaching carbon neutralization. Additionally, there is a growing realization, at national and international levels, that we should increase carbon sink and reduce carbon emissions from various aspects, such as industry, transportation, agriculture, urban land use, green construction, terrestrial ecosystem carbon, blue carbon, etc. Studies on carbon neutralization have begun to spring up, and although some studies have attempted to examine the potential contribution of a single aspect to carbon neutralization, most have focused on theoretical routes and strategies. There are still many issues that need to be solved and research to be explored. This Special Issue therefore encourages studies on this hot topic. 

Studies are welcomed including but not limited to the following themes:

  • The contribution of certain industries to carbon neutralization;
  • Diagnosing problems that lead to carbon emissions increasing or carbon sink loss;
  • Evaluation of regional carbon neutralization statutes, especially for spatial checking in high resolution;
  • Technology and strategies that can help to reach carbon neutralization;
  • The tele-coupling influence on regional carbon budget;
  • Scenario simulation for future predication;
  • Pathway exploration to reach carbon neutralization

Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high academic standard coupled with a practical focus on providing optimal carbon neutralization solutions.

Dr. Xiaowei Chuai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • terrestrial ecosystems
  • carbon sink
  • carbon source
  • carbon emissions
  • carbon neutralization
  • green development
  • blue carbon
  • sustainable development
  • land use
  • low carbon economy

Published Papers (34 papers)

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27 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Research on the Effect of Digital Economy on Carbon Emissions under the Background of “Double Carbon”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 4931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064931 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
(1) Background: In light of the global economy’s digitalization and the “double carbon” target constraint, the digital economy is essential to fostering scientific and technological innovation, green growth, and lowering energy emissions. (2) Methods: This paper measures the digital economic index and carbon [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In light of the global economy’s digitalization and the “double carbon” target constraint, the digital economy is essential to fostering scientific and technological innovation, green growth, and lowering energy emissions. (2) Methods: This paper measures the digital economic index and carbon emission intensity and analyzes their characteristics in spatial and temporal dimensions using 282 Chinese urban panel data by improving various statistical methods of panel data, such as the entropy method, fixed effect model, multi-period DID model, moderating effect model and intermediary effect model. This paper examines the extent and mechanism of the digital economy’s impact on urban carbon emissions. (3) Results: During the sample period, the overall trend of the digital economy in China was one of constant growth, showing an unbalanced distribution pattern of “high in the eastern regions, lower in the central regions and lowest in the western regions” in the spatial dimension. Carbon emissions can be significantly decreased by the digital economy, which has a dynamic effect and an inverted U-shaped trend in its influence. The digital economy plays a significant role in reducing carbon emissions through the rational layout of industrial structures. The transmission mechanisms for the digital economy’s goal of reducing carbon emissions include environmental regulation and green technology innovation. (4) Conclusion: The research findings provide a reference for multiple decision makers to better formulate carbon emission policies and realize carbon emission decrease in the digital economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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25 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Carbon Emission Projections and Reduction Potential of Resource-Dependent Urban Agglomerations from the Perspective of Multiple Scenarios—A Case Study of Hu-Bao-O-Yu Urban Agglomeration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054250 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The Hu-Bao-O-Yu urban agglomeration is an important energy exporting and high-end chemical base in China, and is an important source of carbon emissions in China. The early achievement of peak carbon emissions in this region is particularly crucial to achieving the national carbon [...] Read more.
The Hu-Bao-O-Yu urban agglomeration is an important energy exporting and high-end chemical base in China, and is an important source of carbon emissions in China. The early achievement of peak carbon emissions in this region is particularly crucial to achieving the national carbon emission reduction targets. However, there is a lack of multi-factor system dynamics analysis of resource-dependent urban agglomerations in Northwest China, as most studies have focused on single or static aspects of developed urban agglomerations. This paper analyses the relationship between carbon emissions and their influencing factors, constructs a carbon emission system dynamics model for the Hu-Bao-O-Yu urban agglomeration, and sets up different single regulation and comprehensive regulation scenarios to simulate and predict the carbon peak time, peak value, and emission reduction potential of each city and urban agglomeration under different scenarios. The results show that: (1) Hohhot and Baotou are expected to reach peak carbon by 2033 and 2031 respectively, under the baseline scenario, while other regions and the urban agglomeration will not be able to reach peak carbon by 2035. (2) Under single regulation scenarios, the effect of factors other than the energy consumption varies across cities, but the energy consumption and environmental protection input are the main factors affecting carbon emissions in the urban agglomeration. (3) A combination of the economic growth, industrial structure, energy policy, environmental protection, and technology investment is the best measure to achieve carbon peaking and enhance the carbon emission reduction in each region as soon as possible. In the future, we need to coordinate the economic development, energy structure optimisation and transformation, low-carbon transformation of industry, strengthen research on carbon sequestration technology, and further increase the investment in environmental protection to make the Hu-Bao-O-Yu urban agglomeration a resource-saving urban agglomeration with an optimal emission reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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13 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Hebei’s Manufacturing Industry in the Global Value Chain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042933 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
In order to tackle increasingly serious environmental problems, China has been promoting the development of a green economy and guiding the green transformation of various regions and industries through environmental regulation in recent years. By participating in international trade, Hebei Province has been [...] Read more.
In order to tackle increasingly serious environmental problems, China has been promoting the development of a green economy and guiding the green transformation of various regions and industries through environmental regulation in recent years. By participating in international trade, Hebei Province has been embedded in the global value chain. However, Hebei’s involvement in the high-energy-consuming and polluting manufacturing sector and its lower position in the global value chain have led to serious environmental issues. In practice, the government has promulgated environmental regulations to restrict economic activities of enterprises. What role does environmental regulation play in Hebei’s manufacturing industry’s participation in the global value chain? In order to explore the impact of environmental regulation on Hebei’s manufacturing industry in the global value chain, this paper constructs a fixed-effect econometric model based on the panel data of the embedding level of the value chain of 12 manufacturing sectors in Hebei Province. The research results show that: first, the R & D capacity of the manufacturing industry in Hebei Province still needs to be improved. Second, environmental regulation has promoted the global value chain position of Hebei’s 12 manufacturing sectors. Third, environmental regulation will show obvious heterogeneity to manufacturing industries with different capital intensities and different pollution levels. The impact of environmental regulation on the manufacturing industry with different intensities is different. Therefore, the government should formulate targeted environmental regulation to promote the position of Hebei’s manufacturing industry in the global value chain, such as further improving environmental regulation and increasing the intensity of environmental regulation and increasing the investment of human capital, and cultivating innovative talents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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18 pages, 3210 KiB  
Article
Research on the Carbon Credit Exchange Strategy for Scrap Vehicles Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032686 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
In this article, we construct a game model that uses government regulators and scrap vehicle owners as the main parties to investigate the carbon credit exchange strategy of scrap vehicles using evolutionary game theory. The results were validated using Matlab simulation analysis to [...] Read more.
In this article, we construct a game model that uses government regulators and scrap vehicle owners as the main parties to investigate the carbon credit exchange strategy of scrap vehicles using evolutionary game theory. The results were validated using Matlab simulation analysis to reveal the dynamic evolution process of the strategy of both sides of the game. A sensitivity analysis of the key parameters was conducted to explore the influence of each parameter on the evolution process and the stabilization trends. The study shows that (1) The time for the game system to reach a steady state is inversely related to the size of the initial willingness of the parties to cooperate. (2) In the mixed steady-state scenario, when the overall return differential between the positive and negative regulatory verification by government departments is positive, the steady state is participation and positive scrapping. (3) When the probability of the government verifying and being successful in verifying the punishment of the owner’s negative scrapping behavior increases, both parties of the game will eventually choose the strategy of participation and positive scrapping. When the cost of the government participation strategy and the cost of the government verification strategy increase, both sides of the game will eventually choose the strategy combination of no participation and positive scrapping. (4) When the owner’s reward for cooperating with the strategy, the owner’s cost of scrapping the vehicle, and the benefits of the owner’s negative cooperation strategy change, they will not change the strategy stability results but will affect the time it takes for the game system to reach a stable state. This study has theoretical implications for government policies in the scrapping industry and how to guide vehicle owners to actively scrap their vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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19 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Effects of Carbon Tax on Urban Carbon Emission Reduction: Evidence in China Environmental Governance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032289 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Carbon tax is an important economic instrument in achieving the goal of carbon emission reduction and sustainable development. This paper investigates the effects of carbon tax on carbon emission reduction in China. First, a non-competitive input–output table for Carbon Emissions of 28 sectors [...] Read more.
Carbon tax is an important economic instrument in achieving the goal of carbon emission reduction and sustainable development. This paper investigates the effects of carbon tax on carbon emission reduction in China. First, a non-competitive input–output table for Carbon Emissions of 28 sectors in China after Carbon Tax was established, based on the “2018 China Non-competitive Input–Output Table (42 Sectors)” and the carbon emission data of sectors provided by China Carbon Emission Accounts and Datasets (CEADs). Then, an input–output price model was established to study the changes on product price, GDP, employment, and carbon dioxide emissions of 28 sectors after carbon taxing ranged from 10 to 200. When the carbon tax rate reaches 200 yuan/ton, the inflation rate will be 5.907%, the total GDP will be decreased to 1.910%, the total labor force will be decreased to 1.744%, and the total carbon emission reduction rate will be increased to 8.171%. Results showed that with the increases in carbon tax, the inflation rate was increased, the rate of carbon emission reduction was increased, and the negative effects on GDP and employment were also increased. Suggestions on policy making, such as combination of carbon taxing and carbon trading, dynamic adjustment mechanism, tax neutrality, and forcing active carbon reduction, were proposed to minimize the adverse effect of levying carbon tax. The results from this paper would provide a reference for the policy making on carbon management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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20 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
Forecasting Carbon Price Using Double Shrinkage Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021503 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 944
Abstract
It is commonly recognized that setting a reasonable carbon price can promote the healthy development of a carbon trading market, so it is especially important to improve the accuracy of carbon price forecasting. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a hybrid carbon [...] Read more.
It is commonly recognized that setting a reasonable carbon price can promote the healthy development of a carbon trading market, so it is especially important to improve the accuracy of carbon price forecasting. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a hybrid carbon price prediction model based on so-called double shrinkage methods, which combines factor screening, dimensionality reduction, and model prediction. In order to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model, this paper takes data from the Guangdong carbon trading market for empirical analysis. The sample interval is from 5 August 2013 to 25 March 2022. Based on the results of the empirical analysis, several main findings can be summarized. First, the double shrinkage methods proposed in this paper yield more accurate prediction results than various alternative models based on the direct application of factor screening methods or dimensionality reduction methods, when comparing R2, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and root absolute error (RAE). Second, LSTM-based double shrinkage methods have superior prediction performance compared to LR-based double shrinkage methods. Third, these findings are robust with the use of normalized data, different data frequencies, different carbon trading markets, and different dataset divisions. This study provides new ideas for carbon price prediction, which might have a theoretical and practical contributions to complex and non-linear time series analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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27 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
Research on Theoretical Mechanism and Promotion Path of Digital Economy Driving China’s Green Development under “Double Carbon” Background
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010437 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
(1) Background: Under the background of building a new pattern of “double cycle” development, the green meaning of the digital economy is highly valued. The innovative feature of the digital economy is forming a new economic growth pole, and gradually becomes the driving [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Under the background of building a new pattern of “double cycle” development, the green meaning of the digital economy is highly valued. The innovative feature of the digital economy is forming a new economic growth pole, and gradually becomes the driving force for China’s economic restructuring and green development; (2) methods: this paper empirically tests whether the digital economy can promote green development by using various econometric models based on panel dataset with 30 provinces from 2011 to 2019 in mainland China and measuring the development level of the digital economy and the greening index; (3) results: it is found that the digital economy can directly boost green development in greening degree of economic growth, resources and environment-carrying potential, and government policy support. The digital economy’s influence on green development has an inverted U-shaped trend; environmental control is an effective regulatory variable with a substitution effect on green development. With an obvious regional heterogeneity, the digital economy promotes green development; the digital economy can greatly affect green growth through technical innovation through mechanism analysis. The robustness test supports the above conclusion; (4) conclusions: the findings provide a foundation for multi-party policymakers to effectively formulate and implement policies for the digital economy that encourage green growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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20 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
The Goal of Carbon Peaking, Carbon Emissions, and the Economic Effects of China’s Energy Planning Policy: Analysis Using a CGE Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010165 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
This study focuses on the effects of China’s carbon peaking policy, investigating how to balance nonfossil energy consumption and coal consumption to achieve China’s carbon peaking policy goal. The research applies the recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model to simulate the impact of [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the effects of China’s carbon peaking policy, investigating how to balance nonfossil energy consumption and coal consumption to achieve China’s carbon peaking policy goal. The research applies the recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model to simulate the impact of China’s energy planning policies using five scenarios to analyze the carbon emissions and economic effects of China’s energy planning policy from the perspectives of energy use, carbon emissions, the macroeconomy, and institutional income. The simulation results indicate that to achieve the goal of carbon peaking by 2030, the annual installed capacity of nonfossil energy must reach 112.29 gigawatts, and average annual coal consumption in the China 15th Five-Year Plan and 16th Five-Year Plan should be reduced by 20 million and 40 million tons, respectively, which will result in the proportion of nonfossil energy in primary energy consumption reaching about 25%. Limiting coal consumption will slow economic growth, whereas increasing the installed capacity of nonfossil energy will stimulate economic growth. The combined policies will have a significant impact on reducing carbon emissions and achieving the carbon peaking goal and will also offset the adverse effects of such policies on the macroeconomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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20 pages, 2481 KiB  
Article
Driving Effect of Decoupling Provincial Industrial Economic Growth and Industrial Carbon Emissions in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010145 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
China is facing the dual challenges of fostering economic growth and mounting an effective response to climate change, so it is vital to continue promoting industrial carbon emission reduction. This paper uses panel data from 1998 to 2019 to measure the industrial carbon [...] Read more.
China is facing the dual challenges of fostering economic growth and mounting an effective response to climate change, so it is vital to continue promoting industrial carbon emission reduction. This paper uses panel data from 1998 to 2019 to measure the industrial carbon emissions of 30 provinces in China. The Tapio decoupling and IPAT (Impact = Population × Affluence × Technology)-based decoupling models are used to analyze each province’s velocity and quantity decoupling index for industrial carbon emissions. The fixed effect model analyzes the influencing factors for carbon decoupling. The results show that the industrial carbon emissions of various provinces in China are increasing yearly, but there are significant differences among provinces. The carbon decoupling of the industrial economy in most provinces is weak, and the quantitative decoupling index is better than the velocity decoupling index. The cleanliness of energy, balance, and labor productivity significantly affect the velocity decoupling index. The cleanliness of energy, the industry’s structure, and the population significantly affect the quantity decoupling index. Based on empirical results, the study puts forward some policies to promote the efficient carbon decoupling of the industrial economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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18 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
Study on the Impact of Environmental Tax on Industrial Green Transformation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416749 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
Tax revenue is one of the essential means through which the government controls the macro-economy and plays a vital role in promoting environmental protection and sustainable development. This study takes Chinese panel data from 2004 to 2020 as sample observations, uses the SBM-GML [...] Read more.
Tax revenue is one of the essential means through which the government controls the macro-economy and plays a vital role in promoting environmental protection and sustainable development. This study takes Chinese panel data from 2004 to 2020 as sample observations, uses the SBM-GML index method to measure industrial green total factor productivity, and then uses econometric methods such as the two-way fixed effects model and instrumental variable method to analyze the impact of an environmental tax on industrial green transformation. It is found that the generalized environmental tax represented by vehicle and vessel tax, resource tax, and urban land use tax has a significant positive effect on industrial green transformation. After a series of robustness tests and the exclusion of endogeneity, this conclusion remains valid. The research shows that credit governance, the agglomeration of producer service, and their co-agglomeration with manufacturing are important adjustment mechanisms. Among them, credit management is special and compulsory, greatly restricting the environmental pollution behavior of industrial enterprises, and encourages enterprises to make green investments and to actively improve production processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
25 pages, 8079 KiB  
Article
The Spatial-Temporal Transition and Influencing Factors of Green and Low-Carbon Utilization Efficiency of Urban Land in China under the Goal of Carbon Neutralization
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316149 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Urban-land development and utilization is one of the main sources of carbon emissions. Improving the green and low-carbon utilization efficiency of urban land (GLUEUL) under the goal of carbon neutrality is crucial to the low-carbon transition and green development of China’s economy. Combining [...] Read more.
Urban-land development and utilization is one of the main sources of carbon emissions. Improving the green and low-carbon utilization efficiency of urban land (GLUEUL) under the goal of carbon neutrality is crucial to the low-carbon transition and green development of China’s economy. Combining the concept of green and low-carbon development in urban land use, carbon emissions and industrial-pollution emissions are incorporated into the unexpected outputs of the GLUEUL evaluation system. The super-efficient slacks-based measure (SBM) model, Exploratory Spatial-Temporal Data Analysis (ESTDA) method and Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression (GTWR) model were used to analyze the spatial-temporal transition and the influencing factors of GLUEUL in 282 cities in China from 2005 to 2020. The result shows that: (1) From 2005 to 2020, the green and low-carbon land-utilization efficiency of Chinese cities shows an increasing temporal-evolution trend, but the gap between cities is gradually widening. (2) From the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), regions with the highest GLUEUL have strong dynamics and instability, while cities at the lowest level have a relatively stable spatial structure. On the whole, the local-spatial-transfer direction of GLUEUL of each city is stable, with certain path-dependent characteristics. (3) There are differences in the degree of influence and direction of action of different factors on GLUEUL. The economic development level, industrial-structure upgrading, financial support, wealth level, and green-technology-innovation ability have positive effects on overall GLUEUL, with industrial-structure upgrading promoting GLUEUL the most, while urban population size, foreign-investment scale, and financial-development level play a negative role. This study can provide some empirical and theoretical references for the improvement of GLUEUL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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22 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Tourism and Green Development: Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Effects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315907 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Clarifying the relationship between tourism and green development is conducive to promoting the harmonious coexistence of tourism industry benefits and economic and environmental systems. The externalities of tourism on economies and the environment have sparked numerous fascinating academic research debates; however, few studies [...] Read more.
Clarifying the relationship between tourism and green development is conducive to promoting the harmonious coexistence of tourism industry benefits and economic and environmental systems. The externalities of tourism on economies and the environment have sparked numerous fascinating academic research debates; however, few studies have considered the impact of tourism on green development that balances economic growth and environmental protection. This study selects the green development efficiency measured by the super-efficient SBM model with undesired output as a proxy indicator of green development and adopts the panel data regression model and dynamic panel threshold regression model to investigate the linear impact and non-linear characteristics of tourism on the green development efficiency for 284 cities in mainland China at the prefecture level and above. The main findings are as follows: (1) Although China’s green development efficiency showed an upward trend during the study period, the overall level was not high. (2) Tourism has significantly promoted the improvement of China’s green development efficiency, indicating that tourism has become an effective driver of China’s economic green transformation. (3) This type of positive promotion of green development by tourism has a non-linear threshold characteristic, which means that, with the continuous improvement of the development level of the tourism industry, after crossing a specific threshold value and entering a higher level of development, the tourism industry will have an increasing marginal impact on the green development efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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13 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
The Behavior-Driven Mechanism of Consumer Participation in “Carbon Neutrality”: Based on the Promotion of Replacing Coal with Biomass Briquette Fuel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215133 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
“replacing coal with biomass briquette fuel” can effectively reduce carbon emissions. This study takes this as an example to discuss consumers’ “willingness to consume (WTC)”, “willingness to spend (WTS)” and related influencing factors to find the behavior-driven mechanism of consumer participation in “carbon [...] Read more.
“replacing coal with biomass briquette fuel” can effectively reduce carbon emissions. This study takes this as an example to discuss consumers’ “willingness to consume (WTC)”, “willingness to spend (WTS)” and related influencing factors to find the behavior-driven mechanism of consumer participation in “carbon neutrality”. Through the survey and analysis, the results show that 81.64% of the respondents support to consume Biomass Briquette Fuel (BBF) to replace coal. The annual WTS is 157.78 CNY per capita. The factors, such as the education, the relevant government policy support cognition, the level of cognition of health concepts, ecological environmental protection and resource regeneration, have a significant positive impact on the promotion in rural areas. Finally, we put forward corresponding policy recommendations. It provides a reference for motivating consumers to participate in “carbon neutrality” and promoting rural energy transformation to achieve the goal of “carbon neutrality”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
20 pages, 7241 KiB  
Article
Identification of Socio-Economic Impacts as the Main Drivers of Carbon Stocks in China’s Tropical Rainforests: Implications for REDD+
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214891 - 12 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Active incentives or compensation measures plus conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (denoted together as “REDD+”) should be adopted in developing countries to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation. Identification and analysis of [...] Read more.
Active incentives or compensation measures plus conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (denoted together as “REDD+”) should be adopted in developing countries to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation. Identification and analysis of the driving forces behind carbon stocks are crucial for the implementation of REDD+. In this study, the principal component model and the stepwise linear regression model were used to analyze the social and economic driving forces of stocks in three important types of forest change: deforestation, forestland transformation, and forest degradation in China’s tropical rainforests of Xishuangbanna, based on the combination of satellite imagery and the normalized difference vegetation index. The findings show that there are different key driving forces that lead to carbon stock changes in the forest land conversion of Xishuangbanna. In particular, the agricultural development level is the main cause of emissions from deforestation, whereas poor performance of protection policies is the main cause of emissions from forest degradation. In contrast, the rural economic development interventions are significantly positive for emissions from forestland transformation. It is crucial to pay attention to distinguishing the driving forces behind carbon stock changes from forest degradation, deforestation, and transformation for optimizing REDD+ implementation and ensuring the effectiveness of REDD+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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20 pages, 1741 KiB  
Article
Does the Urban Agglomeration Policy Reduce Energy Intensity? Evidence from China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214764 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
With the expansion of the scale of China’s economy and the acceleration of urbanization, energy consumption is increasing, and environmental degradation and other problems have arisen. In order to solve such prominent problems, China proposed the “carbon peak” and “carbon neutral” targets in [...] Read more.
With the expansion of the scale of China’s economy and the acceleration of urbanization, energy consumption is increasing, and environmental degradation and other problems have arisen. In order to solve such prominent problems, China proposed the “carbon peak” and “carbon neutral” targets in 2020. Although there are research conclusions about the impact of urbanization on energy intensity (EI), conclusions about the impact of the urban agglomeration policy (UAP) on EI are still unclear. Therefore, the article studies the impact of the urban agglomeration policy on EI in 279 prefecture-level cities by constructing a Difference-In-Differences (DID) model and mediating effect model. The results show that UAP has a significant effect on reducing EI, but their effects are different with the impact of urban heterogeneity, and the urban agglomeration policy of “Core” cities is less effective than those of “Edge” cities. From the perspective of the influencing mechanism, UAP takes green innovation capability as the intermediary variable to influence EI. The placebo test, PSM-DID regression, counterfactual test, and instrumental variable method all reflect the robustness of the research conclusions. Based on this, the paper puts forward some suggestions for urban agglomeration planning and green technology innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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24 pages, 2356 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Determinants of the Digital Inclusive Financial Support Efficiency for Marine Carbon Sink Fisheries: Evidence from China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113971 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
The development of digital inclusive finance has greatly improved the feasibility of financial inclusion. Therefore, in the context of the constrained financing of marine carbon sink fisheries, we try to investigate whether digital inclusive finance exhibits a supportive effect on marine carbon sink [...] Read more.
The development of digital inclusive finance has greatly improved the feasibility of financial inclusion. Therefore, in the context of the constrained financing of marine carbon sink fisheries, we try to investigate whether digital inclusive finance exhibits a supportive effect on marine carbon sink fisheries and thus enhances the capacity of marine carbon sinks. Specifically, this paper empirically calculates the grey correlation between the development of digital inclusive finance and marine carbon sinks based on data in nine coastal provinces of China from 2011 to 2019. The empirical results show that the grey relational coefficients between the above two in China are more than 0.5, revealing a significant positive correlation. Then, on this basis, we estimate the digital inclusive financial support efficiency (DIFSE) for marine carbon sink fisheries by applying the Super-EBM model. In addition, the determinants affecting the DIFSE for marine carbon sink fisheries selected based on the grounded theory are explored through the Tobit model. The conclusions are as follows. First, there are time-varying characteristics and regional heterogeneity in DIFSE. Generally, the effect of China’s digital inclusive financial support for marine carbon sink fisheries is expanding year by year. Among them, the DIFSE in the northern marine economic circle is currently the highest, followed by that in the south and east. Second, the input of productive factors, promotion of fishery skill, development of fishery technology, and Internet coverage will significantly increase the value of DIFSE, while output structure, income level, fishery disasters, and marine pollution will have significant negative effects on DIFSE. These empirical results can help policymakers better understand the contribution of digital inclusive finance to marine carbon sink fisheries and provide them with valuable information for the formulation of supportive policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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18 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Non-Linear Impact of Digital Technology Innovation on Carbon Emissions in the Transportation Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912432 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Transportation is an important part of social and economic development and is also a typical high-energy and high-emissions industry. Achieving low-carbon development in the transportation industry is a much-needed requirement and the only way to achieve high-quality development. Therefore, based on the relevant [...] Read more.
Transportation is an important part of social and economic development and is also a typical high-energy and high-emissions industry. Achieving low-carbon development in the transportation industry is a much-needed requirement and the only way to achieve high-quality development. Therefore, based on the relevant data of 30 provinces in China from 2010 to 2018, this research uses the static panel model, panel threshold model and spatial Durbin model to conduct an empirical study on the impact and mechanism of digital innovation on carbon emissions in the transportation industry, and draws the following conclusions. (1) Carbon emissions in the transportation industry have dynamic and continuous adjustment characteristics. (2) There is a significant inverted U-shape non-linear relationship between the level of digital innovation and carbon emissions in the industry. In regions with a low level of digital innovation, the application of digital technology increases carbon emissions in this industry, but as the level of digital innovation continues to increase its application suppresses carbon emissions, showing an effect of carbon emission reduction. (3) The impact of digital innovation on carbon emissions in the transportation industry has a spatial spillover effect, and its level in one province significantly impacts carbon emissions in other provinces’ transportation industry through the spatial spillover effect. Therefore, it is recommended to further strengthen the exchange and cooperation of digital innovation in the transportation industry between regions, improve the scale of digitalization in this industry, and accelerate its green transformation through digital innovation, thus promoting the green, low-carbon, and sustainable development of China’s economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
31 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
Environmental Regulation Promotes Eco-Efficiency through Industrial Transfer: Evidence from the Yangtze River Economic Belt in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610127 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
How does environmental regulation affect ecological efficiency? What is the role of industrial transfer in the mechanism of action? Relations and interactions between the three determine economic quality when ecological performance is concerned. Empirical studies in this paper are based on samples from [...] Read more.
How does environmental regulation affect ecological efficiency? What is the role of industrial transfer in the mechanism of action? Relations and interactions between the three determine economic quality when ecological performance is concerned. Empirical studies in this paper are based on samples from the Yangtze River economic belt in China, which contributes nearly half of China’s GDP. By measuring environmental regulation, industrial transfer, and ecological efficiency, data and indexes are prepared for investigating the driving mechanism of environmental regulation and illustrating of the role of industrial transfer. By applying the Markov process to model industrial transfer between regions, the dynamic of transfer is simulated and facilitates further study on the effects of industrial transfer. Finally, this paper concludes that by targeting on the improvement of ecological efficiency, environmental regulation releases its utility through industrial transfer. The highlights include three aspects. Theoretically, it illustrates the driving mechanism of improving the eco-efficiency by environmental regulation. Technically, it pioneers a methodology for describing the regional industrial transfer by modeling it with a Markov process. Practically, the conclusion supplies insights into the inherent law of sustainable development for policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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19 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Green Total-Factor Energy Efficiency of Construction Industry and Its Driving Factors: Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity of Yangtze River Economic Belt in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 9972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169972 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
With the proposal of the “carbon peak, carbon neutral“ goal, energy efficiency has become one of the key means to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction at this stage. The construction industry, as a cornerstone of China’s economy, is characterized by serious overcapacity, [...] Read more.
With the proposal of the “carbon peak, carbon neutral“ goal, energy efficiency has become one of the key means to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction at this stage. The construction industry, as a cornerstone of China’s economy, is characterized by serious overcapacity, energy waste, and pollution. As a result, academic research on its energy efficiency is gaining traction. This paper employed the Super-EBM model considering undesirable output to evaluate the green total-factor energy efficiency of the construction industry (CIGTFEE) in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) from 2003 to 2018. The spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and spatial heterogeneity of CIGTFEE were analyzed in detail through geospatial analysis. Finally, the driving factors of CIGTFEE were analyzed through a spatial econometric model. The results indicated that, during the sample research period, the CIGTFEE showed a holistic growth trend with volatility. By region, the downstream CIGTFEE grew sharply until 2006 and then remained fairly stable, while the midstream conformed to the “M” trend and the upstream region showed an inverted u-shaped trend; From the perspective of spatial differentiation, the CIGTFEE in YREB shows a significant spatial agglomeration situation, while the spatial agglomeration degree weakened. It existed a ladder-shaped change trend, with the regional average CIGTFEE from high to low levels as follows: Downstream, Midstream, and Upstream, and showed an obvious polarization in the upstream and downstream. From the analysis of the driving factors, CIGTFEE is significantly promoted by economic growth, energy structure, and human capital and suppressed by urbanization level, yet the impact of technological progress and the level of technology and equipment is not significant. In summary, province-specific policies based on spatial and temporal heterogeneity were proposed to improve the CIGTFEE of YREB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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20 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
Does the National Credit Demonstration Policy Affect Urban Green Economy Efficiency? Evidence from the Yangtze River Delta Region of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 9926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169926 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
A more scientific green economy efficiency indicator is constructed based on OH (2010), and a multiperiod spatial DID model is used to examine the impact of national credit demonstration policies on urban green economy efficiency in a sample of cities above the prefecture [...] Read more.
A more scientific green economy efficiency indicator is constructed based on OH (2010), and a multiperiod spatial DID model is used to examine the impact of national credit demonstration policies on urban green economy efficiency in a sample of cities above the prefecture level in the Yangtze River Delta. The study confirms the following: (1) The national credit demonstration policy makes a significant contribution to the green economic efficiency of cities, and it is conducive to strengthening awareness of the rule of law in the market to regulate market order. (2) The demand for credit regulation in coastal areas has increased under the new development pattern, and the national credit demonstration policy has effectively enhanced green economy efficiency through institutional supply. (3) Under the national credit demonstration policy, the subprovincial level and above can mobilise more resources for policy refinement and support, reducing transaction costs and improving the efficiency of the green economy. (4) The impact of the national credit demonstration policy on the efficiency of Zhejiang’s green economy is more obvious; but, under the overall framework of the Yangtze River Delta, the policy has a more prominent role in promoting green economy efficiency in other provinces. Policy insights are as follows: (1) Different cities have different degrees of impact on the efficiency of the green economy from the national credit demonstration policy, and they should implement differentiated measures based on regional heterogeneity; (2) regulating the use of administrative resources and avoiding undue administrative intervention are important prerequisites for promoting regional integration to enhance the efficiency of the green economy; and (3) strengthening interprovincial credit policy synergies can help to alleviate administrative distortions of policy implementation and enhance the efficiency of the regional green economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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13 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Let the Farmers Embrace “Carbon Neutrality”: Taking the Centralized Biogas as an Example
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159677 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
The promotion of rural centrally produced biogas (CPB) is an effective carbon neutrality development solution in rural areas. How to better encourage farmers to adopt such products is an important part of the sustainable development of a project. For this reason, focus is [...] Read more.
The promotion of rural centrally produced biogas (CPB) is an effective carbon neutrality development solution in rural areas. How to better encourage farmers to adopt such products is an important part of the sustainable development of a project. For this reason, focus is needed on the “willingness to embrace (WTE)” and “Willingness to motivate (WTM)” of rural residents for CPB projects and their influencing factors. We chose to conduct questionnaire surveys in rural areas of the Hebei and Shandong provinces of China, using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The results show that 85% of the respondents support CPB. Compared with urban gas, the subsidy demand of rural residents for CPB is 56.78%. The influencing factors of the residents’ WTE are affected by the number of children in the family, whether the village cadres are installed in the family, solar water heaters installed in the family, knowledge and attitudes towards environmental protection, and the embracing of daily energy habits. The influencing factors on the residents’ WTM are age, education level, ownership of arable land, knowledge of environmental protection, etc. Therefore, we propose policy recommendations. First, we must fully understand the willingness and demands of farmers, adopt a reasonable compensation response mechanism, and scientifically calculate financial inputs. The second step is to guide farmers through multi-channel publicity. Third, we aim to improve project operation efficiency, reduce operating costs, and minimize the government’s financial burden on the basis of ensuring that farmers’ demands are considered in a coordinated manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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19 pages, 1671 KiB  
Article
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction through Technological Innovation: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Provinces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159543 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Energy consumption and industrial activities are the primary sources of carbon emissions. As the “world’s factory” and the largest carbon emitter, China has been emphasizing the core role of technological innovation in promoting industrial structure upgrades (ISU) and energy efficiency (EE) to reduce [...] Read more.
Energy consumption and industrial activities are the primary sources of carbon emissions. As the “world’s factory” and the largest carbon emitter, China has been emphasizing the core role of technological innovation in promoting industrial structure upgrades (ISU) and energy efficiency (EE) to reduce carbon emissions from industrial production and energy consumption. This study investigated the mechanism (through ISU and EE) and spillover effect of technological innovation on carbon emission reduction using the panel dataset of 30 Chinese provinces from 2008 to 2019 and spatial econometrics models. The study concluded that (1) technological innovation had a negative direct effect on provincial carbon emissions, while it also showed a spatial spillover effect on neighboring provinces; (2) technological innovation had an indirect effect on provincial carbon emissions reduction through the mediation of energy efficiency improvement, while the mediation effect of industrial structure upgrading is not yet significant; and (3) the effect of technological innovation on carbon emission reduction showed heterogeneity in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. This study provided empirical and theoretical references to decision-makers in China and other developing countries in promoting technological and carbon control policies. More specifically, direct technology investment and indirect investment in industrial structure upgrades and energy efficiency could help with regional carbon emissions reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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18 pages, 360 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Digital Economy on the Efficiency of Green Financial Investment in China’s Provinces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148884 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
The global digital operation of finance has accelerated, and the transformation and upgrading of the financial industry has been fully empowered by digital technology, which has promoted the development of traditional financial industry toward green finance. Accelerating the pace of China’s entry into [...] Read more.
The global digital operation of finance has accelerated, and the transformation and upgrading of the financial industry has been fully empowered by digital technology, which has promoted the development of traditional financial industry toward green finance. Accelerating the pace of China’s entry into the digital economy era has given the green financial industry new opportunities in its digital transformation. Therefore, the research reported in this paper selects provincial panel data and discusses the impact efficiency of the digital economy on green financial investment in China by static panel OLS and the threshold model method, and constructs a threshold model with regional industry scale and green financial audit as threshold variables. These steps are used to analyze the nonlinear characteristics of digital economy and green financial efficiency. The results show that the digital economy can improve the overall efficiency of China’s green finance, and there are two threshold effects with regional industry scale as the threshold variable and one threshold effect with green financial audit support as the threshold variable. The results show that the development of a digital economy improved the investment efficiency of green finance in all provinces of China. In addition, through our research, we found that the application of the digital economy in green finance can reduce the imbalance of regional economic development. China should also strengthen the supervision of green auditing to promote the development of new green financial formats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
19 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
The Coupling and Coordinated Development of Green Builds and Financial Development in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148685 - 17 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
As a labor-intensive industry with a strong industrial driving force and high-technology integration, green buildings offer some comparative advantages. Driven by the concept of green development, green buildings are ushering in a period of opportunity for integrated development among multiple fields. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
As a labor-intensive industry with a strong industrial driving force and high-technology integration, green buildings offer some comparative advantages. Driven by the concept of green development, green buildings are ushering in a period of opportunity for integrated development among multiple fields. Therefore, this research will select the panel data of the financial industry and the green buildings industry in 2014 and 2018, respectively, in 31 provinces in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and, through the method of factor analysis, will innovatively construct a financial industry development index and a green building Development Index for each province in China. Through the coupling coordination model, it studies the development level of the financial industry and green buildings in various provinces, in order to deeply explore the path and mechanism of coordinated development between the two. The results show that the financial industry and green buildings in the eastern coastal areas have a high level of coupling, and the coupling and coordinated development have a greater degree of correlation. The potential for coupling and coordination in Central China is developing for the better, while volatility in the Northeast and Northwest regions is relatively large. From the time dimension angle, the degree of coupling and coordination between green buildings and the financial industry in China is generally low, and in the transitional stage, from the brink of unbalanced development to a primary stage of coordinated development. Accordingly, this paper proposes that local government should pay attention to the coordination relationship between green buildings and financial industry development and formulate a coordination mechanism between their growth according to local conditions, so as to promote the correct interactive advancement of the two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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17 pages, 1656 KiB  
Article
Does Globalization Cause Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Pakistan? A Promise to Enlighten the Value of Environmental Quality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148678 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Global environmental issues such as environmental degradation, climate change, and global warming have posed a threat to the global economy, including Pakistan. The primary source of these problems is greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are the result of human activity. The objective of [...] Read more.
Global environmental issues such as environmental degradation, climate change, and global warming have posed a threat to the global economy, including Pakistan. The primary source of these problems is greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are the result of human activity. The objective of the study was to investigate the symmetric and asymmetric relationship between globalization and greenhouse gas emissions in Pakistan. The ARDL modern econometric techniques of the time series model were used. Firstly, the stationarity test favors the use of the ARDL model in this study. The BDS test result confirmed that the ARDL model has a non-linearity issue. As a result, the ARDL approach was used to test both the symmetric and asymmetric effect. The results of the asymmetric ARDL model are more robust and reliable than those of the symmetric ARDL model. According to the results of the symmetric ARDL, economic, social, and political globalization have a positive relationship with greenhouse gas emissions in both the short and long run. Furthermore, the long-run results of the asymmetric ARDL model show that positive and negative shocks of economic and political globalization have positive and negative shock effects on greenhouse gas emissions. In the long run, however, the positive shock of social globalization has a negative relationship with greenhouse gas emissions. According to the results of impulse response functions, economic globalization has a significantly more relationship with greenhouse gas emissions than social and political globalization. A policy should be developed that allows only the positive effects of globalization while prohibiting the negative effects of globalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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15 pages, 4290 KiB  
Article
Carbon Sink Cost and Influence Factors Analysis in a National Afforestation Project under Different Investment Modes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137738 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Afforestation projects are the main source of carbon sink. Measurement and impact analysis of carbon sink costs will help accelerate the marketization of forestry carbon sink. Considering the opportunity cost of land use and the carbon release cost of wood products, this study [...] Read more.
Afforestation projects are the main source of carbon sink. Measurement and impact analysis of carbon sink costs will help accelerate the marketization of forestry carbon sink. Considering the opportunity cost of land use and the carbon release cost of wood products, this study proposed a forestry carbon sink cost model under the Public–Private Partnership (PPP) and the direct (DI) investment mode based on the classic carbon sink model. Then, the proposed models were applied to a real-world afforestation project, the 20-year national afforestation project (NAP) in Laohekou City, Hubei Province, China. With the help of the input–output forestry carbon sink cost–benefit analysis framework, the dynamic analysis of factors such as rotation period, timber price, discount rate and yield rate for forestry is carried out. Results show that: (1) with the increasing of rotation period, wood market price, and wood yield rate, the carbon sink cost of Laohekou NAP gradually decreases, while the discount rate has the opposite trend; (2) the DI mode is more feasible than the PPP model at the present condition. The PPP mode is more feasible than the DI mode only when the wood price is lower than 73.18% of the current price, the yield rate is lower than 0.485, and the discount rate is higher than 6.77%. (3) When choosing tree species for NAP, the carbon sink capacity, wood market price, maturity time, and planting cost should be synthetically considered. The proposed model and the obtained results can not only support local governments and forestry carbon sink enterprises to make tradeoffs between PPP and DI mode, but also provide them with useful information for reducing carbon sink costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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17 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
How Does Perceived Neighborhood Environment Affect Commuting Mode Choice and Commuting CO2 Emissions? An Empirical Study of Nanjing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137649 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Exploring the impacts of perceived neighborhood environment on commuting behavior and travel-related CO2 emissions helps policymakers formulate regional low-carbon transport policies. Most studies have examined the impact of the objective measures of built environment on travel behavior and related CO2 emissions, [...] Read more.
Exploring the impacts of perceived neighborhood environment on commuting behavior and travel-related CO2 emissions helps policymakers formulate regional low-carbon transport policies. Most studies have examined the impact of the objective measures of built environment on travel behavior and related CO2 emissions, and few studies have focused on perceived neighborhood environment. This study develops a structural equation model and uses data from a self-administered survey of urban full-time employees in Nanjing, China to examine the direct and indirect effects of perceived neighborhood environment on commuting mode choice and commuting CO2 emissions. The study shows that perceived service facilities has a significant direct effect on commuting mode and a significant indirect effect on commuting CO2 through the mediating effect of commuting mode choice. While socio-demographic variables such as gender have a significant direct impact on commuting mode and commuting CO2 emissions, they have an indirect impact on commuting mode and commuting CO2 emissions through the intermediate variables (such as car ownership, perceived neighborhood environment and commuting distance). The conclusions of this study show that the potential of commuting CO2 emissions reduction in China is enormous, and that policy interventions on commuting would help developing countries such as China achieve the goals of low-carbon transport and sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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17 pages, 5484 KiB  
Article
Study on the Optimization of Territory Spatial “Urban–Agricultural–Ecological” Pattern Based on the Improvement of “Production–Living–Ecological” Function under Carbon Constraint
by , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106149 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
The spatial layout of the “Production–Living–Ecological” (PLE) function and the spatial optimization of the “Urban–Agricultural–Ecological” (UAE) pattern are the key points and difficulties in territorial space planning. This paper analyzes their spatial concepts and holds that PLE space is a functional space, while [...] Read more.
The spatial layout of the “Production–Living–Ecological” (PLE) function and the spatial optimization of the “Urban–Agricultural–Ecological” (UAE) pattern are the key points and difficulties in territorial space planning. This paper analyzes their spatial concepts and holds that PLE space is a functional space, while UAE space belongs to a regional space. The optimization of the UAE pattern should be guided by the improvement of the PLE function. Therefore, taking Hefei City, China, as an example, this paper analyzes the evolution of the present UAE pattern, evaluates the PLE function under carbon constraint and then determines the improvement direction of the PLE function and finally simulates the future UAE pattern of territory space. The conclusions are as follows: ① From 2011 to 2019, the urban space increased incrementally, while the agricultural space and ecological space decreased continuously, and the urban space expansion squeezed the agricultural and ecological spaces greatly; ② The PLE functions of four districts in the main city are higher than that of five other counties. After the carbon constraint conditions are included, the PLE functions of the main city were reduced due to the relatively strong capacity of carbon source, while the counties’ increased due to a stronger carbon sink capacity; ③ According to the normalized revealed comparative advantage (NRCA) index, it was determined that the functional improvement direction of each district and county are Yaohai District and Shushan District have comprehensive function as a priority, Luyang District and Baohe District give priority to living–ecological function, Changfeng County, Feidong County, Feixi County and Chaohu County give priority to production–ecological function, and Lujiang County gives priority to ecological function; ④ The simulation results show that 2025 is an important node for the evolution of the UAE pattern. The urban spatial expansion during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period will still bring great pressure on agriculture and ecological spaces, and then, the UAE pattern will continue to be optimized and balanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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22 pages, 2769 KiB  
Article
Exploring Knowledge Domain and Emerging Trends in Climate Change and Environmental Audit: A Scientometric Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074142 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
Environmental audit is inevitably linked to climate change, one immediate target of the auditors is likely to be climate control, and the warming of the Earth and the consequent climatic changes affect us all. What is the link between environmental audit and climate [...] Read more.
Environmental audit is inevitably linked to climate change, one immediate target of the auditors is likely to be climate control, and the warming of the Earth and the consequent climatic changes affect us all. What is the link between environmental audit and climate change? What ties together some of these themes between environmental audit and climate change? The interaction between climate change and environmental audit has been one of the most challenging. In this paper, a scientometric analysis of 84 academic publications between 2013 and 2021 related to climate change and environmental audit is presented to characterize the knowledge domain by using the CiteSpace visualization software. First, we present the number of publications, the number of citations, research categories, and journals published through Web of Science database. Secondly, we analyze countries, authors, and journals with outstanding contributions through network analysis. Finally, we use keyword analysis and apply three types of knowledge mapping to our research, cluster view, timeline view, and time zone view, revealing the focus and future directions. We identify the most important topic in the field of climate change and environment audit as represented on the basis of existing literature data which include the Carbon Emissions, Social Capital, Energy Audit, Corporate Governance, Diffusion of Innovation Environmental Management System, and Audit Committee. The results show that climate change and environmental audit publications grew slowly, but the research are widely cited by scholars. Published journals are relatively scattered, but the cited journals are the world’s top journals, and most research countries are developed countries. The most productive authors and institutions in this subject area are in UK, Australia, USA, Spain, and Netherlands. There are no leading figures, but the content of their research can be divided into six clusters. Future research content involving city, policy, dynamics, information, biodiversity, conservation and clustering social capital, diffusion of innovation environmental management, and audit committee are the directions for future research. It is worth noting that cities, policies, and adaptability are closely linked to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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16 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
A Roadmap toward Achieving Sustainable Environment: Evaluating the Impact of Technological Innovation and Globalization on Load Capacity Factor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063288 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3103
Abstract
Technological innovations have been a matter of contention, and their environmental consequences remain unresolved. Moreover, studies have extensively evaluated environmental challenges using metrics such as nitrogen oxide emissions, sulfur dioxide, carbon emissions, and ecological footprint. The environment has the supply and demand aspect, [...] Read more.
Technological innovations have been a matter of contention, and their environmental consequences remain unresolved. Moreover, studies have extensively evaluated environmental challenges using metrics such as nitrogen oxide emissions, sulfur dioxide, carbon emissions, and ecological footprint. The environment has the supply and demand aspect, which is not a component of any of these indicators. By measuring biocapacity and ecological footprint, the load capacity factor follows a certain ecological threshold, allowing for a thorough study on environmental deterioration. With the reduction in load capacity factor, the environmental deterioration increases. In the context of the environment, the interaction between technological innovation and load capacity covers the demand and supply side of the environment. In light of this, employing the dataset ranging from 1980 to 2017 for the case of South Africa, the bound cointegration test in conjunction with the critical value of Kripfganz and Schneider showed cointegration in the model. The study also employed the ARDL, whose outcome revealed that nonrenewable energy usage and economic growth contribute to environmental deterioration, whereas technological innovation and globalization improve the quality of the environment. This study validated the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve for South Africa, as the short-term coefficient value was lower than the long-term elasticity. Furthermore, using the frequency-domain causality test revealed that globalization and economic growth predict load capacity in the long term, and nonrenewable energy predicts load capacity factors in the long and medium term. In addition, technological innovation predicts load capacity factors in the short and long term. Based on the findings, we propose that policymakers should focus their efforts on increasing funding for the research and development of green technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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14 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
Soil Organic Carbon Distribution and Its Response to Soil Erosion Based on EEM-PARAFAC and Stable Carbon Isotope, a Field Study in the Rocky Desertification Control of South China Karst
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063210 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Ecological restoration plays an important role in enhancing carbon sequestration ability in karst areas, and soil organic matter is one of the main carbon reservoirs in karst key zones. The serious soil erosion in karst areas leads to the loss of soil organic [...] Read more.
Ecological restoration plays an important role in enhancing carbon sequestration ability in karst areas, and soil organic matter is one of the main carbon reservoirs in karst key zones. The serious soil erosion in karst areas leads to the loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the distribution characteristics of SOM and its response mechanism to soil erosion in the process of rocky desertification control have rarely been reported. In this study, soil samples of five restoration types (abandoned land, AL; grassland, GL; peanut cultivated land, PCL; Zanthoxylum bungeanum land, ZBL; forest, FS) were collected in typical karst rocky desertification drainage, south China. By measuring soil organic carbon (SOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and δ13Csoc values and combining with spectral tools, the distribution and isotopic composition of soil shallow organic carbon in definitized karst drainage was definitized and the response of DOM spectral characteristics to soil erosion was explored. The results showed that three kinds of fluorescence components were detected by fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), C1 and C2 were humus-like, and C2 was protein-like. Abandoned could be a more suitable control measure for enhancing SOC quality in the karst regions of south China. The variation trend of SOC content, δ13Csoc values, spectral indexes, and the distribution of fluorescence components from the midstream to downstream of the drainage indicated the soil redistribution. This study provides basic scientific data for karst rocky desertification control and for enhancing the soil carbon sequestration ability of karst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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25 pages, 26861 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Green Technology Innovation on Carbon Emissions in the Context of Carbon Neutrality in China: Evidence from Spatial Spillover and Nonlinear Effect Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020730 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 4361
Abstract
The Paris agreement is a unified arrangement for the global response to climate change and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its long-term goal is to hold the global average temperature rise well below 2 °C. China is committed to achieving carbon [...] Read more.
The Paris agreement is a unified arrangement for the global response to climate change and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its long-term goal is to hold the global average temperature rise well below 2 °C. China is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 through various measures, one of which is green technology innovation (GTI). This paper aims to analyze the levels of GTI in 30 provinces in mainland China between 2001 and 2019. It uses the spatial econometric models and panel threshold models along with the slack based measure (SBM) and Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML) index to analyze the spatial spillover and nonlinear effects of GTI on regional carbon emissions. The results show that GTI achieves growth every year, but the innovation efficiency was low. China’s total carbon dioxide emissions were increasing at a marginal rate, but the carbon emission intensity was declining year by year. Carbon emissions were spatially correlated and show significant positive agglomeration characteristics. The spatial spillover of GTI plays an important role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In the underdeveloped regions in China, this emission reduction effect was even more significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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23 pages, 12608 KiB  
Article
Does Industrial Transfer Change the Spatial Structure of CO2 Emissions?—Evidence from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010322 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
As an important cause of global warming, CO2 emissions have become a research hotspot in recent years. Industrial transfer impacts regional CO2 emissions and is related to the low-carbon development of regional industries. Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH region) as an [...] Read more.
As an important cause of global warming, CO2 emissions have become a research hotspot in recent years. Industrial transfer impacts regional CO2 emissions and is related to the low-carbon development of regional industries. Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH region) as an example, this study analysed industrial transfer’s direct and indirect impacts on CO2 emissions based on a mediating model and two-way fixed effect panel regression. The results obtained indicate that industrial transfer-in has promoted CO2 emissions to a small extent, and the positive impact of industrial transfer-in on CO2 emissions wanes over time. Industrial transfer affects CO2 emissions by acting on the economic level, on population size, and on urbanisation level, but the indirect effect is weaker than the direct effect. Industrial transfer does not lead to technological upgrading, but the latter is an effective means of carbon emission reduction. Industrial transfer-in has shown a positive effect on CO2 emissions for most cities, but there are exceptions, such as Cangzhou. In the future, the BTH region should maintain coordinated development among cities and improve the cooperative innovation mechanism for energy conservation and emission reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 2202 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Review of Hot and Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies from Environmental and Economic Perspectives: Towards a Sustainable Asphalt Pavement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214863 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3754
Abstract
The environmental concerns of global warming and energy consumption are among the most severe issues and challenges facing human beings worldwide. Due to the relatively higher predicted temperatures (150–180 °C), the latest research on pavement energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) [...] Read more.
The environmental concerns of global warming and energy consumption are among the most severe issues and challenges facing human beings worldwide. Due to the relatively higher predicted temperatures (150–180 °C), the latest research on pavement energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission assessment mentioned contributing to higher environmental burdens such as air pollution and global warming. However, warm-mix asphalt (WMA) was introduced by pavement researchers and the road construction industry instead of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) to reduce these environmental problems. This study aims to provide a comparative overview of WMA and HMA from environmental and economic perspectives in order to highlight the challenges, motivations, and research gaps in using WMA technology compared to HMA. It was discovered that the lower production temperature of WMA could significantly reduce the emissions of gases and fumes and thus reduce global warming. The lower production temperature also provides a healthy work environment and reduces exposure to fumes. Replacing HMA with WMA can reduce production costs because of the 20–75% lower energy consumption in WMA production. It was also released that the reduction in energy consumption is dependent on the fuel type, energy source, material heat capacity, moisture content, and production temperature. Other benefits of using WMA are enhanced asphalt mixture workability and compaction because the additives in WMA reduce asphalt binder viscosity. It also allows for the incorporation of more waste materials, such as reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). However, future studies are recommended on the possibility of using renewable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective materials such as biomaterials as an alternative to conventional WMA-additives for more sustainable and green asphalt pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Development and Carbon Neutralization)
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