Special Issue "Global Community Child Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Matthew Ellis Website E-Mail
School of Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, UK
Interests: Community-based interventions to reduce child mortality and improve well-being
Guest Editor
Dr. Puspa Raj Pant Website E-Mail
HAS - Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of England (UWE Bristol), Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Interests: Global Health; Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion; Child Health; Noncommunicable Diseases

Special Issue Information

In this Special Issue we propose to consider community-based interventions that impact on child health and well-being around the globe. In addition to rural community-based initiatives, given that most children now live in cities, we are also interested in urban initiatives. Although Sustainable Development Goal 3 is our primary focus, we are keen to hear about multi-sectoral interventions with a synergistic impact across the SDGs.

Dear Colleagues,

I have accepted the offer to Guest Edit a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  (where we have been publishing some of of our Nepal injury work) devoted to community child health initiatives. We invite contributions arising from child-focussed, community-based initiatives that may be multisectoral—especially urban-based intiatives.

Dr. Matthew Ellis
Dr. Puspa Raj Pant
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Community child health
  • Early years
  • Child development
  • Injuries
  • Sustainable cities

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Contamination of Children’s Toys in Rural Day Care Centres and Households in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162900 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: Young children exhibit a high susceptibility to several diarrhoea-causing bacterial microorganisms. In this study, the prevalence of fecal contamination on children’s toys was determined using total coliform and E. coli as bacterial fecal indicators. The prevalence of diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains were [...] Read more.
Background: Young children exhibit a high susceptibility to several diarrhoea-causing bacterial microorganisms. In this study, the prevalence of fecal contamination on children’s toys was determined using total coliform and E. coli as bacterial fecal indicators. The prevalence of diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains were used as an indication of the potential health risks. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out for 3 months in rural communities in the Vhembe district, Limpopo province of South Africa. Nonporous plastic toys (n = 137) used by children under 5 years of age in households and day care centres (DCCs) from rural villages were collected for assessment. New toys (n = 109) were provided to the households and DCCs and collected again after 4 weeks. Microbiological assessment was carried out using the Colilert® Quanti-Tray/2000 system. Diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains were identified using a published multiplex PCR protocol. Results: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the children in the households and DCCs were assessed. Statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between fecal contamination of the existing and introduced toys. All the existing and introduced toy samples, both from DCCs and households, tested positive for total coliform counts and 61 existing and introduced toy samples tested positive for E. coli counts. Diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains identified included EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC and EAEC. Conclusions: The results indicated that water, sanitation and hygiene conditions could be responsible in the contamination of children’s toys and the transmission of diarrhoea to young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Healthy Children and Patients with Hematological Cancers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152776 - 03 Aug 2019
Abstract
The aim was to assess the level of physical activity and the quality of life of children undergoing cancer treatment, during and after the completion of the treatment. Eighty-eight children aged 11–15 were enrolled. Three groups of children were assessed, i.e., children undergoing [...] Read more.
The aim was to assess the level of physical activity and the quality of life of children undergoing cancer treatment, during and after the completion of the treatment. Eighty-eight children aged 11–15 were enrolled. Three groups of children were assessed, i.e., children undergoing cancer treatment (n = 30), children after cancer treatment (n = 28), and healthy children (n = 30). The level of physical activity in children was assessed using the questions from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire. The assessment of children’s quality of life was conducted using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index. The chi-square test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in the results between the study groups in the case of both HBSC and KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaires. Children undergoing cancer treatment did not perform any physical activity of at least 60 min (in total) per day, during the week. Therefore, they did not meet the recommendations related to the appropriate level of daily physical activity (Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity; MVPA). Children after cancer treatment and healthy children significantly more frequently undertook physical activity. The quality of life of children with cancer is significantly lower and different from the quality of life of healthy children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors Associated with Feeding Children under 2 Years in Rural Malawi—A Formative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122146 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diarrhoeal disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the under-five population, particularly in low income settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. Despite significant progress in sanitation and water access, faecal-oral infections persist in these populations. Therefore, a better understanding [...] Read more.
Diarrhoeal disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the under-five population, particularly in low income settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. Despite significant progress in sanitation and water access, faecal-oral infections persist in these populations. Therefore, a better understanding of these transmission pathways, and how potential risk factors can be reduced within low income contexts is needed. This study, conducted in Southern Malawi from June to October 2017, used a mixed methods approach to collect data from household surveys (n = 323), checklists (n = 31), structured observations (n = 80), and microbiological food samples (n = 20). Results showed that food prepared for immediate consumption (primarily porridge for children) posed a low health risk. Poor hygiene practices increased the risk of contamination from shared family meals. Faecal and Staphylococcal bacteria were associated with poor hand hygiene and unhygienic eating conditions. Leftover food storage and inadequate pre-consumption heating increased the risk of contamination. Improvements in food hygiene and hand hygiene practices at critical points could reduce the risk of diarrhoeal disease for children under 2 years but must consider the contextual structural barriers to improved practice like access to handwashing facilities, soap, food and water storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle
International Comparison of the Levels and Potential Correlates of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Three-to-Four-Year-Old Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111929 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) patterns track from childhood through to adulthood. The study aimed to determine the levels and correlates of sedentary time (ST), total PA (TPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in preschool-aged children. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 1052 children aged three-to-four-years-old from [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) patterns track from childhood through to adulthood. The study aimed to determine the levels and correlates of sedentary time (ST), total PA (TPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in preschool-aged children. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 1052 children aged three-to-four-years-old from six studies included in the International Children’s Accelerometry Database. Multilevel linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, season, minutes of wear time, and study clustering effects were used to estimate associations between age, gender, country, season, ethnicity, parental education, day of the week, time of sunrise, time of sunset, and hours of daylight and the daily minutes spent in ST, TPA, and MVPA. Across the UK, Switzerland, Belgium, and the USA, children in our analysis sample spent 490 min in ST per day and 30.0% and 21.2% of children did not engage in recommended daily TPA (≥180 min) and MVPA (≥60 min) guidelines. There was evidence for an association between all 10 potential correlates analyzed and at least one of the outcome variables; average daily minutes spent in ST, TPA and/or MVPA. These correlates can inform the design of public health interventions internationally to decrease ST and increase PA in preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Awareness and Factors Associated with Health Care Worker’s Knowledge on Rubella Infection: A Study after the Introduction of Rubella Vaccine in Tanzania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101676 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
Background Congenital rubella syndrome is a global health problem. The incidence is much higher in Africa and Southeast Asia than the rest of the world, especially in countries where universal rubella vaccination has not been implemented. Healthcare worker’s knowledge on rubella infection and [...] Read more.
Background Congenital rubella syndrome is a global health problem. The incidence is much higher in Africa and Southeast Asia than the rest of the world, especially in countries where universal rubella vaccination has not been implemented. Healthcare worker’s knowledge on rubella infection and the rubella vaccine is of utmost importance in achieving and maintaining vaccination coverage targets. This study aimed to assess health care workers knowledge on rubella infection in Kilimanjaro Tanzania, after the introduction of a rubella vaccination. Methods This was a health facility-based cross sectional study. It was conducted in three districts of the Kilimanjaro region between August and October 2016. The study involved eligible health care workers in selected health facilities. An interview guide was used for collecting information by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with rubella knowledge among healthcare workers. Results A total of 126 health care workers were interviewed. An acceptable level of knowledge was considered if all five questions about rubella were correctly answered. Only 26.4% (n = 31) answered all questions correctly. In multivariate analysis education level and working department were predictors of rubella knowledge; health care workers with an advanced diploma had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 7.7 (95% Confidence interval; CI: 1.4, 41.0), those with a university degree (AOR: 10; 95% CI: 2.4; 42.5) and health care workers in the outpatient department (AOR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.04; 0.29). Conclusions Our study confirmed that health care worker’s knowledge on rubella infection was low in the areas where rubella vaccination had been introduced. We recommend continuous education and supportive supervision post vaccine introduction in order to increase healthcare worker’s knowledge on rubella infection, congenital rubella syndrome and prevention through sustained high vaccination coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of OM-85 Given during Two Consecutive Years to Children with a History of Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections: A Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061065 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In otherwise healthy infants and young children, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common. Clinical data have shown that OM-85 could prevent respiratory recurrences in children. However, further studies are needed to explore the true importance of OM-85 in clinical practice. In addition, [...] Read more.
In otherwise healthy infants and young children, respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common. Clinical data have shown that OM-85 could prevent respiratory recurrences in children. However, further studies are needed to explore the true importance of OM-85 in clinical practice. In addition, an unsolved problem is the efficacy of OM-85 when it is administered for two consecutive years. Moreover, another open question is the safety of OM-85 when co-administered with the influenza vaccine. In order to solve these unanswered issues, 200 children aged three to six years with a history of recurrent RTIs, defined as at least six documented episodes of acute RTI in a single year, who had received OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®; OM Pharma, a Vifor Pharma Group Company, Geneva, Switzerland) for two consecutive years (3.5 mg once a day for 10 days for 3 months of each year) were selected and matched based on age, sex, and period of evaluation with children with recurrent RTIs who did not receive OM-85. In the group of children treated with OM-85, the number of patients who did not experience any new episode of RTI, as well as the number of RTIs, wheezing episodes, medical visits, and prescribed antibiotic courses, were significantly lower than that in the group not treated with OM-85. The results were similar in the first and second year of OM-85 administration. A minority of patients showed mild adverse events, and the safety profile was overall good, including in the 49 children who received the influenza vaccination within one month from the beginning of the first cycle of OM-85. Our data suggest that OM-85 can effectively and safely reduce the risk of new infective episodes in children with recurrent RTIs and that a second yearly course of lysate administration can be useful to maintain protection, particularly when the diagnosis of recurrent RTIs is made in younger children for whom it is likely that definitive maturation of the immune system still requires a long time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
Open AccessArticle
Urinary Pesticide Levels in Children and Adolescents Residing in Two Agricultural Communities in Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040562 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The use of pesticides in agricultural activities has increased significantly during the last decades. Several studies have reported the health damage that results from exposure to pesticides. In Mexico, hundreds of communities depend economically on agricultural activities. The participation of minors in this [...] Read more.
The use of pesticides in agricultural activities has increased significantly during the last decades. Several studies have reported the health damage that results from exposure to pesticides. In Mexico, hundreds of communities depend economically on agricultural activities. The participation of minors in this type of activity and their exposure to pesticides represents a potential public health problem. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which urine samples (first-morning urine) were taken from children under 15 years of age in both communities. A total of 281 urine samples obtained in both communities were processed for the determination of pesticides with high-performance liquid chromatography together with tandem mass spectrometry. In 100% of the samples, at least two pesticides of the 17 reported in the total samples were detected. The presence of malathion, metoxuron, and glyphosate was remarkable in more than 70% of the cases. Substantial differences were detected regarding the other compounds. It is necessary to carry out long-term studies to determine the damage to health resulting from this constant exposure and to inform the health authorities about the problem in order to implement preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Multidimensional Physical Activity Intervention on Body Mass Index, Skinfolds and Fitness in South African Children: Results from a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020232 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children’s health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial [...] Read more.
Obesity-related conditions impose a considerable and growing burden on low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa. We aimed to assess the effect of twice a 10-week multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention on children’s health in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was implemented from February 2015 to May 2016 in grade 4 classes in eight disadvantaged primary schools. Interventions consisted of physical education lessons, moving-to-music classes, in-class activity breaks and school infrastructure enhancement to promote physical activity. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness. Explanatory variables were socioeconomic status, self-reported physical activity, stunting, anaemia and parasite infections. Complete data were available from 746 children. A significantly lower increase in the mean BMI Z-score (estimate of difference in mean change: −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.24 to −0.09; p < 0.001) and reduced increase in the mean skinfold thickness (difference in mean change: −1.06; 95% CI: −1.83 to −0.29; p = 0.007) was observed in intervention schools. No significant group difference occurred in the mean change of cardiorespiratory fitness (p > 0.05). These findings show that a multidimensional, school-based physical activity intervention can reduce the increase in specific cardiovascular risk factors. However, a longer and more intensive intervention might be necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Community Child Health)
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