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Fitness and Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 35480

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Sciences and Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Setubal (IPS), Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal
Interests: exercise training; health; older people; sport physiology; aging; fitness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase of stress-related illness and mental health problems are major contributors that reduce life expectancy and increase morbidity. The effects of longevity induce health challenges, especially in activities that promote a physical well-being status. Staying active is widely promoted around the world; however, only a small percentage of people complete the recommended physical activity of 150 min/week. It is well known that physical inactivity produces a natural weakening of all physiological systems.

Being physically fit is vital to combat the adverse health effects of urbanization and stress. Nevertheless, before each proposal and evaluation of exercise training, a well-being approach that can be morphed into health promotion policies and a comprehensive and socially relevant research is necessary. New approaches need to be established that are better aligned with the needs of different ages and conditions, including policy makers and health/sport professionals.

This Special Issue will discuss the benefits of, and barriers to, exercise training and physical activity in different cohorts. Manuscripts are invited on the influence of fitness and health on exercise-related parameters, or the effect exercise has on special fitness conditions. Submissions from all disciplines will be considered, and experiments investigating exercise to attenuate aging and promote fitness are encouraged.

This new green health approach is characterized by advanced research methods, such as prospective longitudinal designs, random controlled trials, meta-analyses, innovative technologies (such as virtual reality, fMRI, eye-tracking, and cortisol measurements), and the application of these methods and technologies in “special needs” groups, including clinical populations, deprived communities, children, and older people. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high academic standard coupled with a practical focus on providing optimal fitness and health solutions.

Prof. Dr. Ana De Fátima Pereira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health
  • physical exercise
  • training
  • strength and aerobic performance
  • fitness
  • functional fitness
  • exercise physiology, genetics
  • psychology of sport
  • aging

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
Impact of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Balance, Quality of Life and Physical Activity Level of Older Women
by Luis Leitão, Gabriela R. O. Venturini, Ricardo Pace Junior, Estêvão Rios Monteiro, Luiz Guilherme Telles, Gleisson Araújo, Jefferson Novaes, Carlos Tavares, Sílvio Marques-Neto and Mauro Mazini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811765 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Background: Physical activity (PA) and physical fitness are key factors for quality of life (QoL) for older women. The aging process promotes the decrease in some capacities such as strength, which affect the activities of daily life. This loss of strength leads to [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity (PA) and physical fitness are key factors for quality of life (QoL) for older women. The aging process promotes the decrease in some capacities such as strength, which affect the activities of daily life. This loss of strength leads to a reduction in balance and an increased risk of falls as well as a sedentary lifestyle. Resistance Training (RT) is an effective method to improve balance and strength but different RT protocols can promote different responses. Power training has a higher impact on the performance of activities of daily life. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze if different RT protocols promote individual responses in balance, QoL and PA levels of older women and which are more effective for the older women. Methods: Ninety-four older women were divided into four RT groups (relative strength endurance training, SET; Traditional strength training, TRT; absolute strength training, AST; power training, PWT) and one control group (CG). Each RT group performed a specific protocol for 16 weeks. At baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks, we assessed balance through the Berg balance scale; PA levels with a modified Baecke questionnaire and QoL with World Health Organization Quality of Life—BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life—OLD module (WHOQOL-OLD). Results: Balance improved after 16 weeks (baseline vs. 16 weeks; p < 0.05) without differences between all RT groups. PWT (2.82%) and TRT (3.48%) improved balance in the first 8 weeks (baseline vs. 8 weeks; p < 0.05). PA levels increased in PWT, TRT and AST after 16 weeks (baseline vs. 16 weeks; p < 0.05). Conclusion: All RT protocols improved PA levels and QoL after 16 weeks of training. For the improvement of balance, QoL and PA, older women can be subjected to PWT, AST and SET, and not be restricted to TRT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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9 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Multicomponent Exercise Program for Improvement of Functional Capacity and Lipidic Profile of Older Women with High Cholesterol and High Triglycerides
by Luis Leitão, Moacir Marocolo, Hiago L. R. de Souza, Rhai André Arriel, João Guilherme Vieira, Mauro Mazini, Teresa Figueiredo, Hugo Louro and Ana Pereira
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010731 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Background: Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, the negative effects of aging, physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases of older women. Exercise is considered fundamental for the treatment and prevention due to the [...] Read more.
Background: Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, the negative effects of aging, physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases of older women. Exercise is considered fundamental for the treatment and prevention due to the benefits in the health of this population, but detraining periods after exercise can reverse them. Multicomponent exercise (ME) is a combined method of aerobic and resistance training that can improve the lipidic profile of older women with high cholesterol and triglycerides. Methods: Seventeen older women (EG: 65.3 ± 4.7 years, 1.52 ± 4.12 m) followed a supervised ME program of nine months and three months of detraining (DT), and fifteen older women (CG: 66.4 ± 5.2 years, 1.54 ± 5.58 cm) continued their daily routine, without exercise. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), blood glucose (GL) and functional capacity (FC) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the program and after three months of DT. Results: ME program improved (p < 0.05) lipidic profile: GL (−15.6%), TC (−15.3%), TG (−19.3%) and FC: agility (−13.3%), lower body strength (27.78%), upper body strength (26.3%), cardiorespiratory capacity (11.2%), lower body flexibility (66.67%) and upper body flexibility (85.72%). DT declined the lipidic profile and FC (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Lipidic profile and functional capacity can be improved with nine months of ME. Besides the negative effects of DT, three months were not enough to reverse the benefits of exercise in older women with high values of TG and TC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
13 pages, 362 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Explosive Force of the Elite Level Football-Tennis Players through Plyometric and Specific Exercises
by Anamaria Gherghel, Dana Badau, Adela Badau, Liviu Moraru, Gabriel Marian Manolache, Bogdan Marian Oancea, Corina Tifrea, Virgil Tudor and Raluca Maria Costache
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158228 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4055
Abstract
The aim of the research was to implement an athletic program to improve the explosive force in order to optimize physical fitness at the level of elite football-tennis players and evaluate the progress made through specific tests using the Opto Jump. The research [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to implement an athletic program to improve the explosive force in order to optimize physical fitness at the level of elite football-tennis players and evaluate the progress made through specific tests using the Opto Jump. The research included 10 elite European and world-class players, on whom an experimental program was applied in order to improve the explosive force of the limbs in conditions of speed, endurance, and dynamic balance. Study tests: five vertical jumps on the spot, on the left/right leg; five back and forth jumps on the left/right leg; five left/right side jumps on the left/right leg; vertical jumps on both legs 60 s; BFS vertical jumps. For each test, the following parameters specific to the explosive force were statistically analyzed: contact time (s); flight time (s); jump height (cm), jump power (w/kg); RSI—Reactive Strength Index, defined as Height (m/s). In the study, the average value of the parameters specific to the jumps performed in each test was taken into account. During the study, the tests were performed and processed on the Opto Jump device and software. In all tests of the experiment monitored through Opto Jump, significant progress was made in the final test compared to the initial one, which demonstrates the efficiency of the physical training program implemented for the development of explosive force, with an impact on the sports performance of elite players. The most relevant results obtained for the left leg regarding the improvement of the explosive force of the lower limbs materialized in the jump height parameter was in the test of five vertical jumps on one leg on the spot, and for the right leg in the tests of: five back and forth jumps and five left/right side jumps. The most significant advances in the study were in the tests, in descending order of their weight: 60 s vertical jumps on both legs; five back-and-forth jumps and five left/right side jumps, five vertical jumps on one leg standing, and BFS vertical jumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
9 pages, 1001 KiB  
Article
Physical and Physiological Predictors of FRAN CrossFit® WOD Athlete’s Performance
by Luis Leitão, Marcelo Dias, Yuri Campos, João Guilherme Vieira, Leandro Sant’Ana, Luiz Guilherme Telles, Carlos Tavares, Mauro Mazini, Jefferson Novaes and Jeferson Vianna
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084070 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3666
Abstract
CrossFit® training is one of the fastest-growing fitness activities in the world due to its varied functional movement and competition experience. The performance is present in almost every workout of the day (WOD); however, there is a lack of knowledge in the [...] Read more.
CrossFit® training is one of the fastest-growing fitness activities in the world due to its varied functional movement and competition experience. The performance is present in almost every workout of the day (WOD); however, there is a lack of knowledge in the science that did not allow us to fully understand the performance determinants of CrossFit WOD’s like we do for other individual or team sports. The purpose of this study was to analyze the physical and physiological variables of recreational trained CrossFit athletes during one of the most famous WOD, FRAN, and to identify which variables best determine performance. Methods: Fifteen CrossFit practitioners performed, alone on separate days, 1RM and a maximum of repetitions of pull-ups test, 1RM and a maximum of repetitions of thrusters with 95 lb/43.2 kg, FRAN CrossFit WOD, and 2K Row test. Results: Blood lactate concentrate, HRmax, HRav, and RPE achieved higher values for 2K Row and maximum repetitions of thrusters. Maximum repetition of thrusters and pull-ups, 1RM of thrusters, and 2K Row resulted in moderate to strong correlation with FRAN performance (r = −0.78; r = −0.58; r = −0.67; r = 0.63, respectively). Conclusions and practical applications: FRAN performance was strongly related to maximal and endurance strength training of thrusters, which should be prioritized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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14 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
Weekly Variations in the Workload of Turkish National Youth Wrestlers: A Season of Complete Preparation
by Hadi Nobari, Rui Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Zeki Akyildiz, Luca Paolo Ardigò and Jorge Pérez-Gómez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073832 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2508
Abstract
The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the weekly acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), and strain (wTS) across the preparation season (PS), and (2) to analyze the variations of wAW, wCW, wACWR, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the weekly acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), and strain (wTS) across the preparation season (PS), and (2) to analyze the variations of wAW, wCW, wACWR, wTM, and training strain (wTS) between periods of PS (early-, mid-, and end). Ten elite young wrestlers were monitored daily during the 32 weeks of the season. Internal loads were monitored using session rating of perceived exertion, and weekly workload measures of wACWR, wTM, and wTS were also calculated. Results revealed that the greatest differences were found between early- and mid-PS for wAW (p = 0.004, g = 0.34), wCW (p = 0.002, g = 0.90), wTM (p = 0.005, g = 0.39), and wTS (p = 0.009, g = −1.1), respectively. The wACWR showed significant differences between early- and end-PS (p ≤ 0.001, g = −0.30). We concluded that wAW, wCW, and wTM are slightly lower during the first weeks of the PS. The wTM remained relatively high during the entire season, while wAW and wCW remained balanced throughout the PS. The greatest workload changes seem to happen from the early to mid-PS season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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Review

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29 pages, 2106 KiB  
Review
The Effects of High-Speed Resistance Training on Health Outcomes in Independent Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Alexandre Duarte Martins, Orlando Fernandes, Ana Pereira, Rafael Oliveira, Franco David Alderete Goñi, Nilton João Chantre Leite and João Paulo Brito
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095390 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
Human ageing involves several physiological impairments—in particular, a decrease in sensorimotor function and changes in the nervous system reduce muscle strength, power, balance, and functional capacity performance. Preventive strategies are essential to ensure the quality of life of the elderly. High-speed resistance training [...] Read more.
Human ageing involves several physiological impairments—in particular, a decrease in sensorimotor function and changes in the nervous system reduce muscle strength, power, balance, and functional capacity performance. Preventive strategies are essential to ensure the quality of life of the elderly. High-speed resistance training (HSRT) may be an effective approach to muscle power development in this population, with significant short-term effects on neural adaptations and muscle power production. Therefore, the present study intends to analyze and systematize the studies focused on HSRT interventions and their effects on health outcomes in independent older adults. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scielo) were used for the purposes of searching randomized controlled trials that measured at least one key outcome measure focusing on velocity-based training and health outcomes in older adults on 7 March 2022 and identified 1950 studies. At the end of the process, fourteen studies were included in this systematic review and ten studies were included in the quantitative analysis. The main results showed that HSRT interventions would improve health measures, mostly cognitive function (large effects, p = 0.001, SMD = 0.94), neuromuscular function (moderate effects, p = 0.003, SMD = 0.70), and physical function (moderate effects, p = 0.04, SMD = 0.55 and p = 0.009, SMD = −0.59). Additionally, the results suggested that interventions with ten weeks or more, performed three times a week, provide significant improvements in neuromuscular function. In this sense, HSRT is effective for improving overall health outcomes in older adults. Future studies should include proper follow-ups (e.g., minimum six months) to assess the durability of HSRT intervention effects on all health-related variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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32 pages, 920 KiB  
Review
Barriers to, and Facilitators of, Exercising in Fitness Centres among Adults with and without Physical Disabilities: A Scoping Review
by Helene Nikolajsen, Louise Fleng Sandal, Carsten Bogh Juhl, Jens Troelsen and Birgit Juul-Kristensen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147341 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5940
Abstract
Fitness centres are an obvious arena for performing physical activity for the general population but representation of adults with physical disabilities (AwPD) is lacking. To increase possibilities for AwPD to exercise in fitness centres together with adults without physical disabilities (AwoPD), the aim [...] Read more.
Fitness centres are an obvious arena for performing physical activity for the general population but representation of adults with physical disabilities (AwPD) is lacking. To increase possibilities for AwPD to exercise in fitness centres together with adults without physical disabilities (AwoPD), the aim of this study was to identify, synthesise, and compare barriers to, and facilitators of, exercising in fitness centres for each group. A scoping review was conducted and data extraction of the barriers and facilitators was performed independently by two researchers on six categories of contextual factors based on the framework of Di Blasi: (1) The fitness centre setting; (2) The fitness centre user characteristics; (3) The fitness instructor/staff characteristics; (4) The fitness centre user–instructor/management relationship; and (5) The fitness/exercise characteristics. An extra category, (6) Other relationships, was added. The PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews was used for reporting. Of the 102 included papers, only 26 (25%) of the papers were on AwPD, which focused mainly on physical barriers (category 1: inaccessible settings). In contrast, the remaining 76 papers involving AwoPD focused primarily on facilitators (category 2: motivational factors and exercising effects). In categories 3–6, the two groups had similar results, as both groups preferred skilled instructors, a welcoming and comfortable fitness centre environment, an ability to exercise at their preferred type and level, and good social connections. Since most data were based on AwoPD, more studies on actual experiences from AwPD are needed, to reveal the facilitators/motivational factors for fitness centre use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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14 pages, 2376 KiB  
Review
Zumba®, Fat Mass and Maximum Oxygen Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Manuel Chavarrias, Santos Villafaina, Ana Myriam Lavín-Pérez, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Eugenio Merellano-Navarro and Jorge Pérez-Gómez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010105 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3927
Abstract
Background and objectives: Obesity or overweight is associated with many health risk factors and preventable mortality. Even people with normal weight and without history of obesity or overweight should avoid weight gain to reduce health risks factors. In this regard Latin aerobic dances [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Obesity or overweight is associated with many health risk factors and preventable mortality. Even people with normal weight and without history of obesity or overweight should avoid weight gain to reduce health risks factors. In this regard Latin aerobic dances involved in Zumba® practice make this modality motivating for people. Apart from weight loss and VO2peak benefits, Zumba practice is also interesting by the increase in adherence which can also avoid weight regain. The aim was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of any randomized intervention of Zumba® practice on total fat mass (%) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak), besides establishing directions for the clinical practice. Evidence acquisition: Two systematic searches were conducted in two electronic databases following the PRISMA guidelines. The eligibility criteria were (a) outcomes: body mass or VO2peak data including mean and standard deviation (SD) before and after Zumba® intervention, (b) study design: randomized controlled trial (RCT) and (c) language: English. GRADE guidelines were used to assess the quality of evidence. A meta-analysis was performed to determine mean differences. Nine and four studies were selected for fat mass percentage and VO2peak in the systematic review, respectively. However, only eight studies for fat mass percentage and three for VO2peak could be included in the meta-analysis. Evidence synthesis: The overall standardized mean difference for fat mass was −0.25 with a 95% CI from −0.67 to 0.16 with a p-value of 0.69, with large heterogeneity. On the other hand, the overall effect size for VO2peak was 0.53 (95% CI from 0.04 to 1.02 with a p-value of 0.03) with large heterogeneity. Conclusions: Based on the evidence, we cannot conclude that Zumba® is effective at reducing body mass but it may improve VO2peak. However, the limited number of studies that met the inclusion criteria makes it too early to reach a definite conclusion, so more research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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Other

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14 pages, 1798 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage after Strength Exercise: A Systematic Review
by Cristina Canals-Garzón, Rafael Guisado-Barrilao, Darío Martínez-García, Ignacio Jesús Chirosa-Ríos, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga and Isabel María Guisado-Requena
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031803 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4377
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of antioxidant consumption on markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage after performing a muscle strength exercise. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements were followed. [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of antioxidant consumption on markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage after performing a muscle strength exercise. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements were followed. Four databases were used: Scopus, PubMed, WOS and SportDiscus. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: A total of 1709 articles were retrieved and following duplicate removal and application of exclusion criteria seven articles were reviewed. Supplementation with pomegranate juice alleviates oxidative stress, taurine reduces muscle damage, melatonin protects the skeletal muscles, blueberries decrease oxidation and oats mitigate muscle damage. Conclusions: Acute administration of antioxidants immediately before or during an exercise session can have beneficial effects, such as delay of fatigue and a reduction in the recovery period. Administration of antioxidant susbtances may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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16 pages, 1861 KiB  
Systematic Review
Reliability of Isokinetic Hip Flexor and Extensor Strength Measurements in Healthy Subjects and Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Guido Contreras-Díaz, Luis Javier Chirosa-Ríos, Ignacio Chirosa-Ríos, Leonardo Intelangelo, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga and Darío Martinez-Garcia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111326 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Background: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the reliability of isokinetic measurements of hip strength in flexion and extension in healthy subjects and athletes. Methods: The databases used were Web of Science, SCOPUS, Medline and PubMed. R was [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the reliability of isokinetic measurements of hip strength in flexion and extension in healthy subjects and athletes. Methods: The databases used were Web of Science, SCOPUS, Medline and PubMed. R was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Hip flexion shows moderate reliability in the supine position (ICC = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.46–0.99) and good reliability in the standing position (ICC = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.54–1.04). Hip extension shows excellent reliability in the supine position (ICC = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85–0.96) and moderate reliability in the standing position (ICC = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.48–0.96). Flexion of 120°/s and 180°/s showed excellent reliability (ICC = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85–1.00), (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92–1.01). The 60°/s and 120°/s extension showed good reliability (ICC = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98), (ICC = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99). The 180°/s extension presented excellent reliability (ICC = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82–1.03). Conclusions: The standing position shows good reliability for hip flexion and the supine position shows excellent reliability for hip extension, both movements have excellent reliability at velocities between 120°/s to 180°/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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