Special Issue "The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Digital Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vittorio Miele
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi L.go G. A. Brambilla 3 – 50134 Florence (I)
Interests: emergency radiology; abdominal radiology; thoracic imaging; diagnostic imaging in oncology; breast imaging
Prof. Roberto Grassi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, "Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli" P.za Luigi Miraglia 2 – 80138 Naples (I)
Interests: gastrointestinal radiology; emergency radiology; thoracic imaging; computed tomography; diagnostic imaging in oncology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In public health and disease prevention as well as in both therapeutic and palliative treatment, successful decisions depend on correct diagnoses. Today, the use of radiological imaging cannot be separated from medical diagnosis. The radiologist often plays a key role in patient screening, diagnosis, and follow-up. Technological innovations are opening up new diagnostic perspectives. Appropriate use of medical imaging requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Role of chest imaging in viral lung diseases;
  2. New frontiers: Role of the radiologist in pulmonary disease quantification;
  3. Lung cancer imaging: Screening result and nodule management;
  4. Current standards for emergency radiology in major trauma and clinical impact;
  5. The radiologist as gatekeeper in chest pain;
  6. Imaging of acute stroke: The teachable moment;
  7. Breast imaging timely diagnosis of disease;
  8. Magnetic resonance of the liver made simple;
  9. Pancreatic cancer detection and characterization: State-of-the-art imaging and new perspectives;
  10. The role of CT for Crohn’s disease in the era of magnetic resonance imaging;
  11. MR enterography: Clinical impact of imaging technology;
  12. The role of musculoskeletal imaging in the older athlete;
  13. Interventional radiology in the era of mini-invasive approaches;
  14. Patient safety in medical imaging: CT and MR exams;
  15. Universal access to advanced imaging and healthcare protection: UHC and diagnostic imaging.

Dr. Vittorio Miele
Prof. Roberto Grassi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • abdominal radiology
  • gastrointestinal radiology
  • emergency radiology
  • chest radiology
  • cardiovascular imaging

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Review of Breast Imaging for Timely Diagnosis of Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115509 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the cancer with the highest incidence in women in the world. In this last period, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused in many cases a drastic reduction of routine breast imaging activity due to the combination of various factors. The [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the cancer with the highest incidence in women in the world. In this last period, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused in many cases a drastic reduction of routine breast imaging activity due to the combination of various factors. The survival of BC is directly proportional to the earliness of diagnosis, and especially during this period, it is at least fundamental to remember that a diagnostic delay of even just three months could affect BC outcomes. In this article we will review the state of the art of breast imaging, starting from morphological imaging, i.e., mammography, tomosynthesis, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced mammography, and their most recent evolutions; and ending with functional images, i.e., magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhanced mammography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Article
Abbreviated MRI Protocol for the Assessment of Ablated Area in HCC Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073598 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Background: Liver Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (LI-RADS) Treatment Response Algorithm (TRA) was created to provide a standardized assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following loco regional therapy. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of standard MRI protocol versus abbreviated protocol [...] Read more.
Background: Liver Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (LI-RADS) Treatment Response Algorithm (TRA) was created to provide a standardized assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following loco regional therapy. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of standard MRI protocol versus abbreviated protocol (only T1-Weigthed fat suppressed (FS) sequences pre- and post-contrast phase) in the detection of ablated area according to LI-RADS Treatment Response (LR-TR) categories. Methods: From January 2015 to June 2020, we selected 64 patients with HCC, who underwent Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or Microwave ablation (MWA) treatment. According to inclusion criteria, 136 pathologically proven treated HCC (median 2, range 1–3 per patient; mean size 20.0 mm; range 15–30 mm) in 58 patients (26 women, 32 men; median age, 74 years; range, 62–83 years) comprised our study population. For each ablated area, abbreviated protocol, and standard Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies were independently and blindly assessed in random order within and between three expert radiologists. Each radiologist assessed the ablated area by using the following categories: “LR-TR Non-viable” = 1; “LR-TR Equivocal” = 2 and “LR-TR Viable” = 0. Results: According to the concordance between MRI and Contrast enhancement ultrasound (CEUS) among 136 treated HCCs, 115 lesions were assessed as non-viable or totally ablate and 21 as viable or partially ablate. The accuracy for standard MRI protocol and abbreviated MRI protocol for predicting pathologic tumor viability of a consensus reading was 98.6% (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 98.3%; positive predictive value = 91.3% and negative predictive value = 100%). No differences were found in sensitivity or specificity between standard MRI LR-TR viable and abbreviated MRI LR-TR viable categories (p value > 0.05 at McNemar test). Conclusion: The abbreviated dynamic protocol showed similar diagnostic accuracy to conventional MRI study in the assessment of treated HCCs, with a reduction of the acquisition study time of 30% respect to conventional MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Review

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Review
Imaging of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 8895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18178895 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs) represent the second most common pancreatic tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying clinical expression and biological behavior, from indolent to aggressive ones. PanNENs can be functioning or non-functioning in accordance with their ability or not [...] Read more.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs) represent the second most common pancreatic tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying clinical expression and biological behavior, from indolent to aggressive ones. PanNENs can be functioning or non-functioning in accordance with their ability or not to produce metabolically active hormones. They are histopathologically classified according to the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Although the final diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor relies on histologic examination of biopsy or surgical specimens, both morphologic and functional imaging are crucial for patient care. Morphologic imaging with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for initial evaluation and staging of disease, as well as surveillance and therapy monitoring. Functional imaging techniques with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used for functional and metabolic assessment that is helpful for therapy management and post-therapeutic re-staging. This article reviews the morphological and functional imaging modalities now available and the imaging features of panNENs. Finally, future imaging challenges, such as radiomics analysis, are illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Review
The Radiologist as a Gatekeeper in Chest Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126677 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Chest pain is a symptom that can be found in life-threatening conditions such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Those patients requiring invasive coronary angiography treatment or surgery should be identified. Often the clinical setting and laboratory tests are not sufficient to rule out [...] Read more.
Chest pain is a symptom that can be found in life-threatening conditions such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Those patients requiring invasive coronary angiography treatment or surgery should be identified. Often the clinical setting and laboratory tests are not sufficient to rule out a coronary or aortic syndrome. Cardiac radiological imaging has evolved in recent years both in magnetic resonance (MR) and in computed tomography (CT). CT, in particular, due to its temporal and spatial resolution, the quickness of the examination, and the availability of scanners, is suitable for the evaluation of these patients. In particular, the latest-generation CT scanners allow the exclusion of diagnoses such as coronary artery disease and aortic pathology, thereby reducing the patient’s stay in hospital and safely selecting patients by distinguishing those who do not need further treatment from those who will need more- or less-invasive therapies. CT additionally reduces costs by improving long-term patient outcome. The limitations related to patient characteristics and those related to radiation exposure are weakening with the improvement of CT technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Review
Role of Chest Imaging in Viral Lung Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126434 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The infection caused by novel beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. However, in the last 20 years, this has not been the only viral infection to cause respiratory tract infections leading to hundreds of [...] Read more.
The infection caused by novel beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. However, in the last 20 years, this has not been the only viral infection to cause respiratory tract infections leading to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, referring in particular to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza H1N1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Although in this pandemic period SARS-CoV-2 infection should be the first diagnosis to exclude, many other viruses can cause pulmonary manifestations and have to be recognized. Through the description of the main radiological patterns, radiologists can suggest the diagnosis of viral pneumonia, also combining information from clinical and laboratory data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Other

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Case Report
Occupational Brachial Artery Injury by a Foreign Body with Subsequent Soft Tissue Hematoma Superinfection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126400 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Vascular injuries constitute a significant problem worldwide. Nearly 90% of arterial injuries concern the vessels in the limbs, of which the arteries of the lower limbs are most often damaged in military operations, while in other cases (mainly road accidents), the vessels of [...] Read more.
Vascular injuries constitute a significant problem worldwide. Nearly 90% of arterial injuries concern the vessels in the limbs, of which the arteries of the lower limbs are most often damaged in military operations, while in other cases (mainly road accidents), the vessels of the upper limbs are damaged more often. In this report, the authors present a case of occupational brachial artery injury by a foreign body with subsequent soft tissue hematoma superinfection. The presented case emphasizes the importance of computed tomography angiography as a precise diagnostic tool facilitating the planning of a surgical procedure in patients with an occupational upper limb injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review about Imaging and Histopathological Findings for Detecting and Evaluating Electroporation Based Treatments Response
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115592 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Background: Imaging methods and the most appropriate criteria to be used for detecting and evaluating response to oncological treatments depend on the pathology and anatomical site to be treated and on the treatment to be performed. This document provides a general overview of [...] Read more.
Background: Imaging methods and the most appropriate criteria to be used for detecting and evaluating response to oncological treatments depend on the pathology and anatomical site to be treated and on the treatment to be performed. This document provides a general overview of the main imaging and histopathological findings of electroporation-based treatments (Electrochemotherapy—ECT and Irreversible electroporation—IRE) compared to thermal approach, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), in deep-seated cancers with a particular attention to pancreatic and liver cancer. Methods: Numerous electronic datasets were examined: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The research covered the years from January 1990 to April 2021. All titles and abstracts were analyzed. The inclusion criteria were the following: studies that report imaging or histopathological findings after ablative thermal and not thermal loco-regional treatments (ECT, IRE, RFA) in deep-seated cancers including pancreatic and liver cancer and articles published in the English language. Exclusion criteria were unavailability of full text and congress abstracts or posters and different topic respect to inclusion criteria. Results: 558 potentially relevant references through electronic searches were identified. A total of 38 articles met the inclusion criteria: 20 studies report imaging findings after RFA or ECT or IRE in pancreatic and liver cancer; 17 studies report histopathological findings after RFA or ECT or IRE; 1 study reports both imaging and histopathological findings after RFA or ECT or IRE. Conclusions: Imaging features are related to the type of therapy administrated, to the timing of re-assessment post therapy and to the imaging technique being used to observe the effects. Histological findings after both ECT and IRE show that the treated area becomes necrotic and encapsulated in fibrous tissue, suggesting that the size of the treated lesion cannot be measured as an endpoint to detect response. Moreover, histology frequently reported signs of apoptosis and reduced vital tissue, implying that imaging criteria, which take into account the viability and not the size of the lesion, are more appropriate to evaluate response to treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
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