3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408). This special issue belongs to the section "Digital Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 46496

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Director of the Design, Manufacturing & Automations Laboratory, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Chania, Greece
Interests: CAD/CAM systems; reverse engineering; 3D modeling; rapid prototyping; 3D documentation of cultural heritage; additive manufacturing

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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in 3D modeling technology have found significant applications in the Cultural Heritage (CH) domain. Three-dimensional models for CH can be used for documentation, restoration, conservation, presentation and research purposes. The creation, management and exploitation of 3D models for CH include many multidisciplinary approaches, attracting the attention of many researchers in recent years.

Three-dimensional modeling methodologies for CH must find their way to keep up with novel technologies such as advanced photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning and multi sensor 3D data capturing. There are many challenges in 3D modeling for CH, including detailed documentation of complex 3D geometries; dealing with large-scale data and increased computational requirements; the usage of low-cost techniques for 3D data acquisition; 3D modeling for HBIM; dealing with archaeological uncertainty in virtual 3D reconstructions; automatic 3D modeling; enhancing texture rendering for cultural 3D assets; the effective implementation of 3D models in VR, AR, MR, gaming and storytelling applications and many others.

This Special Issue is dedicated to research facing these challenges, either through the development of new methodologies or the application of 3D CH models to specific cases. We hereby invite and encourage all experts in these fields to submit their contributions.

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Photogrammetry and laser scanning methodologies for 3D CH modeling;
  • Multi-sensor approaches to 3D data capturing for CH;
  • Enhanced rendering techniques for 3D CH assets;
  • Low-cost technologies for 3D data acquisition of CH assets;
  • 3D modeling and machine learning for HBIM;
  • Automatic or semi-automatic segmentation and classification for 3D CH models;
  • 3D modeling of CH monuments for structural or other FEM analysis;
  • 3D modeling of CH monuments for 3D GIS applications;
  • Algorithmic approaches for deconstructing and annotating 3D heritage data;
  • Dealing with archaeological uncertainty in virtual 3D reconstructions of CH assets;
  • Advanced techniques for 3D digital face reconstructions of historical persons;
  • 3D modeling for cultural VR, AR, MR applications;
  • 3D modeling for CH gaming, storytelling and other computer graphics applications;
  • Enhanced Web-based algorithms for 3D CH model presentations;
  • Information systems for managing and exploiting large-scale 3D CH data;
  • Evaluation of applications;
  • Human-computer interaction.

Dr. Emmanuel Maravelakis
Dr. Katerina Kabassi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2558 KiB  
Article
Straightforward Stereoscopic Techniques for Archaeometric Interpretation of Archeological Artifacts
by Dubravko Gajski, Robert Župan, Ivana Racetin and Ružica Krstić
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5066-5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070268 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Stereoscopic visualization plays a significant role in the detailed and accurate interpretation of various geometric features on the surface of archaeological artifacts, which can be challenging to perceive using conventional two-dimensional visualizations. Moreover, virtual 3D models can be shared with other archaeologists for [...] Read more.
Stereoscopic visualization plays a significant role in the detailed and accurate interpretation of various geometric features on the surface of archaeological artifacts, which can be challenging to perceive using conventional two-dimensional visualizations. Moreover, virtual 3D models can be shared with other archaeologists for interpretation and the exchange of opinions. The hardware requirements for rendering stereoscopic 3D models are often readily available on desktop computers, or require only a minimal investment for implementation. This article focuses on creating stereoscopic visualizations of a stylized dove-shaped cult vessel for a virtual museum project. The term “visualization” is defined, emphasizing its significance and everyday applications. The camerawork techniques and processes involved in stereoscopic image production, including anaglyph imaging and polarization, are described. Blender (community-driven project under the GNU General Public License (GPL), Blender Foundation is a member of Open Invention Network, Khronos, Linux Foundation and the Academy Software Foundation) and StereoPhoto Maker (Muttyan, Japan) are reviewed as they relate to the production process of stereoscopic visualizations using open-source software. A series of static stereoscopic visualizations, along with two dynamic stereoscopic examples, are created, one using the anaglyph process, and the other using polarization. Lastly, the article discusses the contribution of stereoscopic visualizations to the interpretation of archaeological artifacts and suggests the optimal parameters for creating stereoscopic visualizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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18 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Digitized 3D Models Published by Archaeological Museums
by Óscar Hernández-Muñoz
Heritage 2023, 6(5), 3885-3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6050206 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Nowadays, many museums publish virtual versions of the artifacts they keep in their collections in different 3D model viewers available on the Internet. However, despite the wide experience that some of them have in this field, it is still possible to find many [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many museums publish virtual versions of the artifacts they keep in their collections in different 3D model viewers available on the Internet. However, despite the wide experience that some of them have in this field, it is still possible to find many virtual models that do not meet the desirable requirements for their publication on the Internet, especially regarding the optimization of the mesh and color textures needed for greater efficiency in the visualization and downloading of 3D objects. In this study, a sample of virtual models of objects belonging to multiple archaeological museums from different countries is analyzed. We considered multiple characteristics of the models, such as the number of polygons that compose them, the quality of the meshes, filter effects applied during post-processing, etc. The results of this research indicate that it is still necessary to make a greater effort to improve the training and digital skills of the professionals in charge of the digitization process in this area of cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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27 pages, 58084 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Aerial Reconnaissance in the Detection, Mapping and 3D Reconstruction Modelling of Crop-Marked Military Components of Bohemia’s Postmedieval and Early Industrial Landscape
by Martin Gojda
Heritage 2023, 6(4), 3514-3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6040187 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
From the 17th to the 19th century, a score of military events, campaigns and battles took place in the Czech lands, leaving numerous traces and distinctly changing the appearance of the cultural landscape in some regions. The results of long-term aerial-archeological surveys in [...] Read more.
From the 17th to the 19th century, a score of military events, campaigns and battles took place in the Czech lands, leaving numerous traces and distinctly changing the appearance of the cultural landscape in some regions. The results of long-term aerial-archeological surveys in the Czech lands have demonstrated that this detection method is advantageous in identifying buried sites built in the past in the context of military conflicts. Experience hitherto has made it possible to label archeological remote sensing as a collection of the potentially most effective methods for uncovering sites of field fortifications dated to the modern period and the beginning of the industrial era. This includes finds of both solitary sites and segments of strategically built fortification lines. This paper is an attempt to critically evaluate these hitherto recorded landmarks which have been discovered and documented via aerial prospection from the 1990s to the present. At the same time, this study reflects on the possibilities offered by the modern methods of remote sensing which have played a significant role in the discovery, mapping, documentation, digital terrain modelling, and the 3D virtual reconstructions of these sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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24 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
The Cataloging and Conservation of Digital Survey in Archaeology: A Photogrammetry Protocol in the Context of Digital Data Curation
by Vittorio Lauro and Vincenzo Lombardo
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 3113-3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030166 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
The technological advancement of software and hardware and the lowering of the prices of instrumentation has made photogrammetry the preferred instrument for surveying activities in archaeological projects. Consequently, archaeological datasets have been enriched with 3D models of archaeological finds and structures. Each project [...] Read more.
The technological advancement of software and hardware and the lowering of the prices of instrumentation has made photogrammetry the preferred instrument for surveying activities in archaeological projects. Consequently, archaeological datasets have been enriched with 3D models of archaeological finds and structures. Each project has developed its work pipeline for raw data acquisition and the elaboration of models and their archiving and dissemination. In most cases, the pipeline is the result of empirical experimentation and is designed to act within the specific context of the project. To date, we still lack a shared method for a photogrammetric survey that derives from the specific design and techniques/contexts. This paper aims at proposing an approach for a shared 3D survey workflow for photogrammetry in archaeology. The general approach relies on the digital data curation framework for cultural heritage and encompasses several specialized tasks. We describe the general functions and processes and how they can be implemented in a practical workflow. As a proof of concept, we show how a preliminary release of the workflow has been applied in the context of the BeArchaeo project, for the acquisition, processing, export, modeling, archiving, and indexing of 3D models, resulting from photogrammetric surveys. A long-term aim is a methodological approach for different endeavors of cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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35 pages, 17252 KiB  
Article
Change Detection between Retrospective and Contemporary 3D Models of the Omega House at the Athenian Agora
by Antigoni Panagiotopoulou, Colin Allan Bruce Wallace, Lemonia Ragia and Dorina Moullou
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1645-1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020088 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Archaeological monuments all over the world face problems of conservation and maintenance due to natural events and processes as well as human intervention, all of which lead to their alteration and deterioration. In particular, monuments and sites that have been excavated and left [...] Read more.
Archaeological monuments all over the world face problems of conservation and maintenance due to natural events and processes as well as human intervention, all of which lead to their alteration and deterioration. In particular, monuments and sites that have been excavated and left exposed to the elements experience decay, which would have taken centuries prior to excavation, in just a few years when left unprotected. Thus, the necessity to detect and observe changes over time becomes paramount. Legacy data and, in particular, retrospective photogrammetric modeling, are vital tools in this process. In this work we compare two photogrammetric 3D models of the Omega House, in the Athenian Agora, to assess how much the site has changed between the time of its first excavation in 1972 and its current state. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) is utilized to perform Boolean operations. Additionally, distance and volume calculations are performed. The software CloudCompare was used for this work. Overall, the state of Omega House monument proves to have been preserved from 1972 to 2017, except for certain differences that are highlighted as follows: The central north part of the monument in the model 2017 presents increased volume per 7.86% in comparison with the model 1972. The northeast part of the monument in the 2017 model shows decreased volume per 5.11% when compared to the model 1972. Moreover, the calculated distances between the two models from 1972 and 2017 present the greatest values in the case of the southwest and northwest parts of the monument, ranging between −17 cm to 5 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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23 pages, 9295 KiB  
Article
A Scan-to-BIM Approach for the Management of Two Arab-Norman Churches in Palermo (Italy)
by Manuela Aricò, Mauro Lo Brutto and Antonino Maltese
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1622-1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020087 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
The paper shows the results of the research activities carried out by the Department of Engineering at the University of Palermo (Italy), which assessed the application of the Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) methodology through a Scan-to-BIM approach to two local churches belonging [...] Read more.
The paper shows the results of the research activities carried out by the Department of Engineering at the University of Palermo (Italy), which assessed the application of the Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM) methodology through a Scan-to-BIM approach to two local churches belonging to the medieval period. This project was motivated by a renewed interest from the city administrators towards the conservation of cultural heritage dating back to the Arab-Norman domination in Sicily since one of the two buildings was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 2015. The morpho-typological style of the churches has been acquired by high-detailed 3D surveys, which provided the base for two HBIM models suited to render the peculiarity of these buildings at their best. The BIM environment allowed both the geometrical representation of all the architectural elements and their further enrichment with the integration of non-geometric data and semantic signification through a knowledge-based workflow. This process led to a hierarchical organization of two high-accuracy digital replicas and to the creation of a database containing all of the architectural items typical of the Arab-Norman style, aimed to share the awareness of its conservation and to match all of the Cultural Heritage requirements. In the future, the features in this database can be shared with other specialists as reference objects for further studies on cultural heritage sites in the UNESCO list. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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26 pages, 11661 KiB  
Article
3D Survey with Apple LiDAR Sensor—Test and Assessment for Architectural and Cultural Heritage
by Giuseppina Vacca
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1476-1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020080 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4402
Abstract
The documentation and metric knowledge of architectural and cultural heritage is becoming an increasingly important need, especially concerning the state of degradation of some historical assets and the associated required interventions. In this context, the metric documentation of the investigated heritage becomes fundamental [...] Read more.
The documentation and metric knowledge of architectural and cultural heritage is becoming an increasingly important need, especially concerning the state of degradation of some historical assets and the associated required interventions. In this context, the metric documentation of the investigated heritage becomes fundamental for a complete knowledge of the asset in order to support architects and engineers in the restoration process. Recently, methods and geomatic instrumentation have been developed for the survey of cultural heritage aiming at optimizing costs and time. Apple has integrated into its devices a LiDAR sensor capable of providing a 3D model of spaces and objects. The present paper aims to investigate the potential of this sensor for the production of 3D models of cultural heritage assets in terms of accuracy and applicability. Consistently, four apps developed for the generation of point clouds for five case studies related to architectural-cultural heritage assets have been tested. We used Polycam, Sitescape, 3D Scanner and Scaninverse. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the Apple LiDAR sensor can be used for the creation of 3D models for applications and metric documentation of architectural and cultural heritage that are not particularly complex in form and texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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14 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
The Ontological Multiplicity of Digital Heritage Objects: 3D Modelling in the Cherish Project
by Sterling Mackinnon III
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 1397-1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020076 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Digital objects are now pervasively used across the heritage sciences, often as 3D models. However, the theoretical discussion of what these objects are, ontologically speaking, can be diverse, ranging, and inconclusive. This paper will focus on the Cherish Project, a European research initiative [...] Read more.
Digital objects are now pervasively used across the heritage sciences, often as 3D models. However, the theoretical discussion of what these objects are, ontologically speaking, can be diverse, ranging, and inconclusive. This paper will focus on the Cherish Project, a European research initiative that used a range of methods—including drone-based photogrammetry and laser scanning— to create 3D models of coastal heritage landscapes that are at risk due to climate change. In specifically attending to the database storage schemes and software/platforms employed by Cherish, this paper explores how digital heritage objects can more broadly be discussed in terms of their ontological multiplicity, the multi-sitedness of their production and circulation, and their mobility across interfaces as they are formalised and circulated. In tracing these specific factors, this paper arrives at epistemological insights about how digital heritage objects factor into knowledge producing practices like Cherish, foregrounding critical questions about how these practices might be differently discussed, pursued, or imagined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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20 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Fragility Curves for Historical Structures with Degradation Factors Obtained from 3D Photogrammetry
by Luisa María Gil-Martín, Luisa Hdz.-Gil, Mohsen Kohrangi, Esperanza Menéndez and Enrique Hernández-Montes
Heritage 2022, 5(4), 3260-3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5040167 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
The influence of the effects of the degradation of materials on the seismic fragility of Cultural Heritage buildings in Granada (Spain) is investigated. The degradation of the material, which mainly happens at the lower levels of the façades, is obtained by using 3D [...] Read more.
The influence of the effects of the degradation of materials on the seismic fragility of Cultural Heritage buildings in Granada (Spain) is investigated. The degradation of the material, which mainly happens at the lower levels of the façades, is obtained by using 3D photogrammetry data. Fragility curves for three cultural heritage constructions in Granada are calculated by using FE nonlinear dynamic analyses for both non-deteriorated and deteriorated geometries. The Finite Elements (FE) models, based on the macro-modelling technique, are subjected to ground motions for the city of Granada, which were selected by considering Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) methodology with their probability of occurrence. The response of each model is analyzed for different seismic Intensity Measure (IM) levels, which, in this study, correspond to average pseudo-acceleration. The procedure is applied to three monuments in Granada that were built with two different constructions materials: calcarenite and rammed earth. The damage mechanisms considered are roof displacement or maximum compressive principal stress, depending on each case. The results show that the restoration works that have been carried out has prevented structural failures in the rammed earth construction studied, and that, during future seismic events, special attention must be paid to the level of compressive strengh reached in the Santa Pudia calcarenite used at the San Jerónimo monastery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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31 pages, 22004 KiB  
Article
The WAS Project—Waterscape Archaeology in Sicily at Isola delle Femmine (PA, Italy): Submerged and Emerged Heritage
by Giovanna Bucci
Heritage 2022, 5(3), 2773-2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030144 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2095
Abstract
The WAS—Waterscape Archaeology in Sicily—project is dedicated to underwater cultural heritage mapping, knowledge and awareness of the cultural heritage, dissemination, and analysis of the submerged environment concerning the coast. The prototype investigation site presented here is Isola delle Femmine (PA, Italy). This paper [...] Read more.
The WAS—Waterscape Archaeology in Sicily—project is dedicated to underwater cultural heritage mapping, knowledge and awareness of the cultural heritage, dissemination, and analysis of the submerged environment concerning the coast. The prototype investigation site presented here is Isola delle Femmine (PA, Italy). This paper highlights the archaeological discovery with a description of the main finds, across a multidisciplinary approach, carried out with low-cost technology, increasing sustainable diving, and underlining the relationship between submerged and open-air historical evidence. Our studies address the realization of new underwater archaeological itineraries connected to local history. This text provides a historical-archaeological introduction to understanding the context of the site and, with some geological notes, illustrates the phases of the research with a presentation of the main artifacts, with a focus on the methodology and the techniques of the surveys and the usefulness of underwater photogrammetry and 3D modeling with a particular focus on the tourism application in the diving centers. Our work has allowed for the creation of two new underwater archaeological itineraries of Sicily. The innovative aspects of our project are linked to a new holistic approach in the context of the scientific synergy between multiple disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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19 pages, 7140 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Accurate Production of 3D Point Cloud via Latest-Generation Sensors in the Field of Cultural Heritage: A Comparison between SLAM and Spherical Videogrammetry
by Massimiliano Pepe, Vincenzo Saverio Alfio, Domenica Costantino and Sorin Herban
Heritage 2022, 5(3), 1910-1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030099 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
The manuscript intends to describe different methodologies for the acquisition, data processing, and identification of strategies aimed at improving the quality of 3D point cloud production using latest-generation sensors in the field of cultural heritage surveying. The point clouds taken into consideration were [...] Read more.
The manuscript intends to describe different methodologies for the acquisition, data processing, and identification of strategies aimed at improving the quality of 3D point cloud production using latest-generation sensors in the field of cultural heritage surveying. The point clouds taken into consideration were acquired by passive and active sensors on the Buziaș site, an important historical and architectural structure in Romania. In particular, a spherical camera (Ricoh Theta Z1) was used in order to obtain a video; subsequently, starting from the video, more datasets were extracted and processed in a photogrammetric software based on Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo algorithms. In addition, a Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) sensor (ZEB Revo RT) was used in order to generate a point cloud. The different point clouds produced were compared with the data obtained through a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) survey. Statistical analyses were carried out to check and validate the results obtained from the comparison between the different techniques and data acquisition methods. The statistical analysis showed that the model obtained with the GeoSLAM was metrically more accurate and detailed than the point cloud generated by the videogrammetric processing highlighted in this study. The paper also analyzes the performance of the three different sensors used, including parameters such as acquisition (timing and ease of use), processing (timing and ease of use), results (accuracy, resolution, and chromatic quality), and costs (instrumental and operator). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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22 pages, 4479 KiB  
Article
To Replicate, or Not to Replicate? The Creation, Use, and Dissemination of 3D Models of Human Remains: A Case Study from Portugal
by Francisca Alves-Cardoso and Vanessa Campanacho
Heritage 2022, 5(3), 1637-1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5030085 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Advancements in digital technology have conquered a place in cultural heritage. The widespread use of three-dimensional scanners in bioanthropology have increased the production of 3D digital replicas of human bones that are freely distributed online. However, ethical considerations about such 3D models have [...] Read more.
Advancements in digital technology have conquered a place in cultural heritage. The widespread use of three-dimensional scanners in bioanthropology have increased the production of 3D digital replicas of human bones that are freely distributed online. However, ethical considerations about such 3D models have not reached Portuguese society, making it impossible to assess their societal impact and people’s perception of how these models are created and used. Therefore, Portuguese residents were asked to take part in an online survey. The ratio of male to female participants was 0.5:1 in 312 contributors. The age ranged between 18 and 69 years. The majority had a higher education degree. Only 43% had seen a 3D model, and 43% considered the 3D replicas the same as real bone. Also, 87% would be willing to allow their skeleton and family members to be digitalized after death, and 64% advocated the controlled dissemination of replicas through registration and login and context description association (84%). Overall, the results suggest agreement in disseminating 3D digital replicas of human bones. On a final note, the limited number of participants may be interpreted as a lack of interest in the topic or, more importantly, a low self-assessment of their opinion on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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15 pages, 9838 KiB  
Article
3D Reconstruction & Modeling of the Traditional Greek Trechadiri: “Aghia Varvara”
by Andreas Arapakopoulos, Orestis Liaskos, Sofia Mitsigkola, Georgios Papatzanakis, Sofia Peppa, Georgios Remoundos, Alexandros Ginnis, Christos Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Mazis, Odysseas Tsilikidis and Yannis Yighourtakis
Heritage 2022, 5(2), 1295-1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5020067 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3663
Abstract
3D modeling techniques have grown increasingly prevalent in a variety of disciplines, including cultural heritage and ship design. The methodology used in the 3D reconstruction of a traditional Greek boat with the Trechadiri hull type named “Aghia Varvara” is presented in this study. [...] Read more.
3D modeling techniques have grown increasingly prevalent in a variety of disciplines, including cultural heritage and ship design. The methodology used in the 3D reconstruction of a traditional Greek boat with the Trechadiri hull type named “Aghia Varvara” is presented in this study. The original boat was built in 1925 and is characterized as a modern cultural heritage monument by the Greek Ministry of Culture. The digital reconstruction of the boat is explained in detail, including 3D laser scanning and computer aided geometric design (CAGD), as well as the description of the 3D printing process. The boat’s 3D digital model has been used for the enrichment of the NAVS Project’s digital library, demonstrating the unique geometrical, typological, and cultural characteristics of Greek traditional shipbuilding, a living craft which listed on Greece’s National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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15 pages, 3603 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Study of the Mesolithic Skeleton in Theopetra Cave, Greece: From the Skeleton Analysis to 3D Face Reconstruction
by Manolis J. Papagrigorakis, Emmanuel Maravelakis, Nina Kyparissi-Apostolika, Eleni Stravopodi, Antonios Konstantaras, Orestis Apostolikas, Panagiotis Toulas, Constantin Potagas, Theodoros Papapolychroniou, Michael Mastoris, Philippos N. Synodinos, Antonis A. Kousoulis, Manolis G. Tsilivakos, Peny Tsakanikou and George P. Chrousos
Heritage 2022, 5(2), 881-895; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5020049 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4838
Abstract
Skeletal evidence dating back to the Mesolithic period is scarce and should be studied under a multidisciplinary perspective. The primary objective of the study was to carefully assess the skeleton of a young woman from this era, named “Avgi,” to compile its bioarchaeological [...] Read more.
Skeletal evidence dating back to the Mesolithic period is scarce and should be studied under a multidisciplinary perspective. The primary objective of the study was to carefully assess the skeleton of a young woman from this era, named “Avgi,” to compile its bioarchaeological profile, analyze its paleopathology and dental pathology, and deploy a 3D reconstruction and modeling method in order to reveal her face. Both demographic and pathological information were drawn from macroscopically observing the bones, long bone X-rays, skull CT and X-rays, 3D modeling and printing of the skull, and panoramic dental X-rays. The Manchester method was used for the 3D facial reconstruction. On analysis, we determined that Avgi was a female adolescent, aged around 17–19 years at death, and likely suffering from iron deficiency anemia and Class III dental malocclusion. Notably, Harris lines and a hair-on-end pattern were identified in the long bones and skull radiographs, respectively. Various less significant skeletal lesions reflected potential minor pathologies. Our findings suggest that multidisciplinary collaborative approaches should be followed in the modern study of lesser-known past eras. Multiple scientific perspectives, as well as social structures, geographical aspects, settlements, population movements, and social networks should all be taken into account when assessing lifestyle characteristics and paleopathological signs in skeletal remains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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14 pages, 9586 KiB  
Article
3D Digital Technologies for the Elaboration of a Replica of a Dermatological Didactic Model Belonging to the Olavide Museum from the Original Mould
by Óscar Hernández-Muñoz, David Aranda Gabrielli, Amaya Maruri Palacín, Emanuel Sterp Moga and Alicia Sánchez-Ortiz
Heritage 2022, 5(2), 702-715; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5020039 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
The Olavide Museum in Madrid, which was founded in the 19th century, preserves one of the most important collections in the world of three-dimensional dermatological models made of polychrome beeswax. These models have been used for the training of numerous generations of dermatologists [...] Read more.
The Olavide Museum in Madrid, which was founded in the 19th century, preserves one of the most important collections in the world of three-dimensional dermatological models made of polychrome beeswax. These models have been used for the training of numerous generations of dermatologists in Spain. Unfortunately, many of the figures were preserved in precarious conditions during the time that the museum was closed in the middle of the 20th century, and some could not be found after its reopening. In this paper, we show a method for the recovery of a missing model of which only the original plaster cast remains. For this purpose, we use the combination of a structured light scanner and 3D printing, together with traditional techniques, to reproduce a copy of the original cast, in order to prevent its deterioration during the wax casting. As a result of this study, a highly realistic figure was obtained, which represented, in great detail, the small superficial reliefs of the skin lesions, as well as their colour. The conclusion of this research is that it is possible to recreate, with precision, a didactic model in beeswax from its mould, without the need to use the mould in the process, which avoids any risk of deterioration in the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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Review

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20 pages, 6464 KiB  
Review
Digital Heritage, the Possibilities of Information Visualisation through Extended Reality Tools
by Štefan Mudička and Roman Kapica
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 112-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010006 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
Many researchers in the field of cultural heritage point to the justification of the use of extended reality to present digital heritage. Research studies, but mainly user reactions, have responded to experiences with extended reality with a positive response. Technological research in the [...] Read more.
Many researchers in the field of cultural heritage point to the justification of the use of extended reality to present digital heritage. Research studies, but mainly user reactions, have responded to experiences with extended reality with a positive response. Technological research in the field of extended reality is advancing rapidly. In this review, we will cover the current possibilities and trends of extended reality. Specifically, we will focus on the application in creating interactive multimedia exhibitions in museums and galleries and presenting 3D digital heritage. We believe the practical examples shown will be an inspiration for application developers, content creators, and exhibition curators. Awareness of the possibilities and limits of the current state of technological progress is an essential requirement for utilisation of the full potential of extended reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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