Special Issue "Hydrology of Urban Catchments"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Luis Cea

Civil Engineering School, University of A Coruña, 15001 A Coruña, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Flood inundation modelling; Urban drainage modelling; Surface hydrology; Sediment transport; Uncertainty evaluation; CFD
Guest Editor
Dr. Jorge Leandro

Technische Universität München, 80333 München, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Urban hydrology; Urban resilience; Rainfall-runoff modelling; Flood inundation modelling; Flood forecasting; Calibration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban catchments are complex hydrological systems due to the close interaction between natural and anthropogenic processes characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability. At the same time, an efficient design and management of resilient and sustainable drainage systems requires a good knowledge of the hydrological processes involved in urban catchments. It is therefore imperative to develop new numerical tools able to represent those processes in order to accurate simulate, predict and mitigate future flood events.

The aim of this Special Issue is thus to publish recent advances and developments in the numerical simulation of floods, data acquisition, flood forecasting and characterization of hydrological processes in urban catchments.

We encourage the submission of original research, synthetic reviews or case study papers using both, numerical modelling or experimental techniques in order to study any of the following topics:

  • Rainfall runoff simulation in urban catchments
  • Sustainable drainage design and management in urban catchments
  • Flood forecasting in urban catchments
  • Characterisation of urban drainage structures as gullies, manholes, grates, storm water tanks, among others.
  • Urban resilience
  • Rainfall variability in urbanized environments
  • Characterisation of sediment and pollutant wash-off loads in urban drainage systems
  • Calibration, validation and uncertainty characterisation in urban drainage models

The accepted papers will be published as open access ensuring widespread availability.

Dr. Luis Cea
Dr. Jorge Leandro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban drainage
  • Storm water
  • Flood forecasting
  • Rainfall runoff transformation
  • Urban resilience
  • Wash-off loads
  • Drainage modelling
  • Calibration/Validation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle GIS Framework for Spatiotemporal Mapping of Urban Flooding
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020077
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
This research aims to develop a framework using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to perform modeling and mapping of flood spatiotemporal variation in urban micro-watersheds. The GIS-framework includes a workflow of several methods and processes including delineation of urban watershed, generation of runoff [...] Read more.
This research aims to develop a framework using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to perform modeling and mapping of flood spatiotemporal variation in urban micro-watersheds. The GIS-framework includes a workflow of several methods and processes including delineation of urban watershed, generation of runoff hydrographs, and time series mapping of inundation depths and flood extent. This framework is tested in areas previously known to have experienced flooding at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas main campus, including Black Parking Lot (Blacklot) and East Mall. Calibration is performed by varying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution, rainfall temporal resolution, and clogging factor whereas validation is performed using flood information from news reports and photographs. The testing at the Blacklot site resulted in calibration at 5 m DEM resolution and clogging factor of 0.83. The flood model resulted in an error of 24% between the estimated (26 inches/66 cm) and actual (34 inches/86.36 cm) flood depths. The estimated flood extents are consistent with the reported conditions and observed watermarks in the area. The flood beginning time estimated from the model is also consistent with the news reports. The testing at East Mall site also shows consistent results. The GIS framework provides spatiotemporal maps of flood inundation for visualization of flood dynamics. This research provides insight into flood modeling and mapping for a storm drain inlet-based watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle Framework for Offline Flood Inundation Forecasts for Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Models
Geosciences 2018, 8(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8090346
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a new methodology for hydrodynamic-based flood forecast that focuses on scenario generation and database queries to select appropriate flood inundation maps in real-time. In operational flood forecasting, only discharges are forecasted at specific gauges using hydrological models. Hydrodynamic models, which [...] Read more.
The paper presents a new methodology for hydrodynamic-based flood forecast that focuses on scenario generation and database queries to select appropriate flood inundation maps in real-time. In operational flood forecasting, only discharges are forecasted at specific gauges using hydrological models. Hydrodynamic models, which are required to produce inundation maps, are computationally expensive, hence not feasible for real-time inundation forecasting. In this study, we have used a substantial number of pre-calculated inundation maps that are stored in a database and a methodology to extract the most likely maps in real-time. The method uses real-time discharge forecast at upstream gauge as an input and compares it with the pre-recorded scenarios. The results show satisfactory agreements between offline inundation maps that are retrieved from a pre-recorded database and online maps, which are hindcasted using historical events. Furthermore, this allows an efficient early warning system, thanks to the fast run-time of the proposed offline selection of inundation maps. The framework is validated in the city of Kulmbach in Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle Ensemble Radar-Based Rainfall Forecasts for Urban Hydrological Applications
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080297
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Radar rainfall forecasting is of major importance to predict flows in the sewer system to enhance early flood warning systems in urban areas. In this context, reducing radar rainfall estimation uncertainties can improve rainfall forecasts. This study utilises an ensemble generator that assesses [...] Read more.
Radar rainfall forecasting is of major importance to predict flows in the sewer system to enhance early flood warning systems in urban areas. In this context, reducing radar rainfall estimation uncertainties can improve rainfall forecasts. This study utilises an ensemble generator that assesses radar rainfall uncertainties based on historical rain gauge data as ground truth. The ensemble generator is used to produce probabilistic radar rainfall forecasts (radar ensembles). The radar rainfall forecast ensembles are compared against a stochastic ensemble generator. The rainfall forecasts are used to predict sewer flows in a small urban area in the north of England using an Infoworks CS model. Uncertainties in radar rainfall forecasts are assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the results showed that the radar ensembles overperform the stochastic ensemble generator in the first hour of the forecasts. The forecast predictability is however rapidly lost after 30 min lead-time. This implies that knowledge of the statistical properties of the radar rainfall errors can help to produce more meaningful radar rainfall forecast ensembles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a New Simulation Tool Coupling a 2D Finite Volume Overland Flow Model and a Drainage Network Model
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080288
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Numerical simulation of mixed flows combining free surface and pressurized flows is a practical tool to prevent possible flood situations in urban environments. When dealing with intense storm events, the limited capacity of the drainage network conduits can cause undesirable flooding situations. Computational [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation of mixed flows combining free surface and pressurized flows is a practical tool to prevent possible flood situations in urban environments. When dealing with intense storm events, the limited capacity of the drainage network conduits can cause undesirable flooding situations. Computational simulation of the involved processes can lead to better management of the drainage network of urban areas. In particular, it is interesting to simultaneuously calculate the possible pressurization of the pipe network and the surface water dynamics in case of overflow. In this work, the coupling of two models is presented. The surface flow model is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations with which it is possible to solve the overland water dynamics as well as the transformation of rainfall into runoff through different submodels of infiltration. The underground drainage system assumes mostly free surface flow that can be pressurized in specific situations. The pipe network is modeled by means of one-dimensional sections coupled with the surface model in specific regions of the domain, such as drains or sewers. The numerical techniques considered for the resolution of both mathematical models are based on finite volume schemes with a first-order upwind discretization. The coupling of the models is verified using laboratory experimental data. Furthermore, the potential usefulness of the approach is demonstrated using real flooding data in a urban environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle Flood Risk Mapping Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis: A Greater Toronto Area Case Study
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080275
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Given the increase in flood events in recent years, accurate flood risk assessment is an important component of flood mitigation in urban areas. This research aims to develop updated and accurate flood risk maps in the Don River Watershed within the Great Toronto [...] Read more.
Given the increase in flood events in recent years, accurate flood risk assessment is an important component of flood mitigation in urban areas. This research aims to develop updated and accurate flood risk maps in the Don River Watershed within the Great Toronto Area (GTA). The risk maps use geographical information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analysis along with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process methods to define and quantify the optimal selection of weights for the criteria that contribute to flood risk. The flood hazard maps were generated for four scenarios, each with different criteria (S1, S2, S3, and S4). The base case scenario (S1) is the most accurate, since it takes into account the floodplain map developed by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It also considers distance to streams (DS), height above nearest drainage (HAND), slope (S), and the Curve Number (CN). S2 only considers DS, HAND, and CN, whereas S3 considers effective precipitation (EP), DS, HAND, and S. Lastly, S4 considers total precipitation (TP), DS, HAND, S, and CN. In addition to the flood hazard, the social and economic vulnerability was included to determine the total flood vulnerability in the watershed under three scenarios; the first one giving a higher importance to the social vulnerability, the second one giving equal importance to both social and economic vulnerability, and the third one giving more importance to the economic vulnerability. The results for each of the four flood scenarios show that the flood risk generated for S2 is the most similar to the base case (S1), followed by S3 and S4. The inclusion of social and economic vulnerability highlights the impacts of floods that are typically ignored in practice. It will allow watershed managers to make more informed decisions for flood mitigation and protection. The most important outcome of this research is that by only using the digital elevation model, the census data, the streams, land use, and soil type layers, it is possible to obtain a reliable flood risk map (S2) using a simplified method as compared to more complex flood risk methods that use hydraulic and hydrological models to generate flood hazard maps (as was the case for S1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a General Protocol to Enhance the Hydrological Analysis Techniques for Urban Catchments in Ireland
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070252
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
The hydrological analysis of urban catchments is a critical consideration for all major civil engineering projects. The purpose of this article is to develop a general protocol to enhance the established techniques for estimating runoff from Irish urban catchments. The chosen case study [...] Read more.
The hydrological analysis of urban catchments is a critical consideration for all major civil engineering projects. The purpose of this article is to develop a general protocol to enhance the established techniques for estimating runoff from Irish urban catchments. The chosen case study is the Rye Water catchment, which is covering two significant urban centres, Maynooth and Leixlip. The findings were compared with the flow data available on the Office of Public Works (OPW) website, to verify the reliability of the proposed approach. The study showed that the methodology described in this paper is applicable to Irish catchments and the protocol, with minor improvements can be adopted in Ireland to support designers in their approach to extreme rainfall events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note Technical Note on the Dynamic Changes in Kalman Gain when Updating Hydrodynamic Urban Drainage Models
Geosciences 2018, 8(11), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8110416
Received: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
To prevent online models diverging from reality they need to be updated to current conditions using observations and data assimilation techniques. A way of doing this for distributed hydrodynamic urban drainage models is to use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), but this requires [...] Read more.
To prevent online models diverging from reality they need to be updated to current conditions using observations and data assimilation techniques. A way of doing this for distributed hydrodynamic urban drainage models is to use the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), but this requires running an ensemble of models online, which is computationally demanding. This can be circumvented by calculating the Kalman gain, which is the governing matrix of the updating, offline if the gain is approximately constant in time. Here, we show in a synthetic experiment that the Kalman gain can vary by several orders of magnitude in a non-uniform and time-dynamic manner during surcharge conditions caused by backwater when updating a hydrodynamic model of a simple sewer system with the EnKF. This implies that constant gain updating is not suitable for distributed hydrodynamic urban drainage models and that the full EnKF is in fact required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology of Urban Catchments)
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