Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 21789

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Guest Editor
International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture 980-0845, Japan
Interests: tsunami numerical modeling; tsunami generation mechanism; tsunami damage field survey; tsunami vulnerability; tsunami hazard and risk evaluation; disaster prevention education
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There have been great improvements in tsunami disaster risk reduction, especially after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These include improvements in tsunami warning and monitoring systems, coastal defence structures against tsunamis, evacuation policies and practices, education, and other social-study-related issues. The 2018 Sulawesi tsunami and the 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami were the deadliest tsunamis since the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These non-seismic tsunami events pointed out some remaining problems in the current understanding of tsunami generation, tsunami warning and monitoring systems, and reconstruction plans. Tsunami awareness is important for such extraordinary events, as promoted through World Tsunami Awareness Day, approved by the United Nations. The fourth volume of this Special Issue welcomes contributions from geosciences and non-geosciences specialists, in pure and applied tsunami science, as well as from engineers and sociologists working on tsunami risk reduction. This Special Issue aims to cover tsunami research globally, including all processes and aspects of tsunami disasters as well as their cascading effects and the impact of COVID-19 on tsunami countermeasures. Examples of the prospective topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources and their return periods;

2) Tsunami modelling techniques and their application;

3) Tsunami warning, monitoring, and observation;

4) Deterministic and probabilistic tsunami analyses as well as other statistical approaches;

5) Tsunami hazard and risk assessment at both micro and macro scales, as well as cascading effects;

6) Coastal defence structures against tsunamis;

7) Tsunami evacuation, policy making, and urban planning including the impact from COVID-19;

8) Tsunami-awareness-related topics such as applications, tools, and disaster education.

This Special Issue will be a platform for the results of interdisciplinary research on tsunamis, with the aim of achieving the goal of a world that is safer from tsunamis.

Dr. Anawat Suppasri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • tsunamis
  • interdisciplinary research
  • disaster risk reduction

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

42 pages, 18399 KiB  
Article
Earthquake-Induced Tsunamis in Western Greece (Ionian Sea and Western and Southern Peloponnese): Use of Tsunami Quantities, Impact and ITIS-2012 Intensities for Highlighting Susceptible Areas
by Spyridon Mavroulis, Marilia Gogou and Efthymios Lekkas
Geosciences 2023, 13(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13020028 - 25 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2413
Abstract
Taking into account recent studies on the tsunamigenic potential of strike-slip faults, it is concluded that there is a need to reassess their near-source tsunami hazard and risk. One of the areas which needs reassessment is Western Greece, especially the Ionian Islands and [...] Read more.
Taking into account recent studies on the tsunamigenic potential of strike-slip faults, it is concluded that there is a need to reassess their near-source tsunami hazard and risk. One of the areas which needs reassessment is Western Greece, especially the Ionian Islands and the western coastal Peloponnese, where major seismogenic strike-slip structures occur. In this context, an extensive review of the available literature is conducted, including not only earthquake and tsunami catalogues but also tsunamis’ imprints on the stratigraphic record. It is concluded that the Ionian Islands and the western Peloponnese have a rich history of tsunamis since 6000 BC, revealing that they are subjected to high tsunami hazard. In addition to the teletsunami effects of distant earthquakes, there are also local tsunamis with smaller physical quantities and slighter coastal impact that are attributed mainly to local offshore faults and earthquake-triggered landslides. The fact that no destructive local tsunamis have been detected so far does not exclude the possibility of future triggering. In order to identify areas susceptible to future tsunami impact, we extract tsunami quantities and coastal impact data from available sources and we apply the Integrated Tsunami Intensity Scale 2012 (ITIS-2012) for all the events with available and adequate information. The highly susceptible areas comprise straits, funnel-shaped bays and extensive coastal areas exposed to major strike-slip seismogenic sources in the Ionian Sea and the western Hellenic Trench. Based on the aforementioned information, the inclusion of the Ionian Sea in the tsunamigenic zones of Greece is strongly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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14 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Application of Non-Reflective Boundary Conditions in Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Free-Surface Flow Problems
by Andrey Kozelkov, Andrey Kurkin, Dmitry Utkin, Elena Tyatyushkina, Vadim Kurulin and Dmitry Strelets
Geosciences 2022, 12(11), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12110427 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
This paper considers the issue of using non-reflective boundaries for surface wave simulations within the framework of three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. We distinguish a wave damping approach among the known implementations of non-reflective boundary conditions in surface wave simulations. The approach employs a sponge [...] Read more.
This paper considers the issue of using non-reflective boundaries for surface wave simulations within the framework of three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. We distinguish a wave damping approach among the known implementations of non-reflective boundary conditions in surface wave simulations. The approach employs a sponge boundary layer to dampen incident waves. In this paper, we describe implementations of this approach on unstructured meshes. We also present the calibration of free parameters, the values of which control wave damping efficiency and the amplitude of reflected waves. Comparison of the results obtained at different types of distribution for the free parameter was conducted. The implemented wave damping approach was tested by simulating a solitary wave propagating in a water tank. We demonstrate the use of damping non-reflective boundary conditions for the case of a wave traveling across the surface of a real body of water near Sakhalin Island while considering its bathymetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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11 pages, 3065 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Investigation Applied to Scattering Water Waves by Rectangular Submerged Obstacles/and Submarine Trenches
by Mohammed Loukili, Denys Dutykh, Sandrine Pincemin, Kamila Kotrasova and Nizar Abcha
Geosciences 2022, 12(10), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12100379 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
A simple analytical model is presented in this work to investigate reflection coefficients due to the interactions of waves with rectangular submerged obstacles/and submarine trenches. Our intention in this work is to present a simple analytical model to simulate and study water-wave scattering [...] Read more.
A simple analytical model is presented in this work to investigate reflection coefficients due to the interactions of waves with rectangular submerged obstacles/and submarine trenches. Our intention in this work is to present a simple analytical model to simulate and study water-wave scattering by evaluating reflection coefficients. Further, our challenge is to present an analytical model that can easily investigate simultaneously the effects of rectangular submerged obstacles/and submarine trenches on wave scattering. Furthermore, reflection coefficients are investigated for different immersion ratios and relative lengths simultaneously for submarine trenches/and rectangular submerged obstacles. In addition, to ensure the validity of the presented model, our results are well compared with those of the literature. Finally, a comparison of reflection coefficients associated with the interactions of waves with rectangular submerged obstacles/and submarine trenches are presented to investigate the most efficient breakwater, and to highlight the importance of the presented model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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27 pages, 5425 KiB  
Article
Effect of Orientation and Vegetation over the Embankment Crest for Energy Reduction at Downstream
by Kannangara D. C. R. Dissanayaka, Norio Tanaka and Md. Kamrul Hasan
Geosciences 2022, 12(10), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12100354 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Coastal embankments often collapse due to the tremendous destructive energy of an overtopping tsunami flow due to a deep scour by nappe flow. Hence, to clarify the nappe flow formation condition due to the overtopping, a series of tests were carried out within [...] Read more.
Coastal embankments often collapse due to the tremendous destructive energy of an overtopping tsunami flow due to a deep scour by nappe flow. Hence, to clarify the nappe flow formation condition due to the overtopping, a series of tests were carried out within a laboratory flume with immobile settings by lowering the downstream surface angle of an embankment model while keeping the upstream surface slope constant (1:1) with five non-dimensional overtopping depths and six different crest conditions. The conditions imposed on the embankment crest in the flow direction were without vegetation; horizontal crest, (−)4% descending crest slope, (+)4% ascending crest slope, and adding vegetation model with three different densities across the horizontal crest to improve resistance to the flow. The increased resistance provided by the vegetation models were categorized based on the spacing ratio between cylinders to diameter: sparse, intermediate, and dense. Increased vegetation density above the crest results in a significant reduction of flow energy by approximately 30–50% at the downstream brink edge and 40–60% at the downstream plunge basin. In contrast, the maximum energy reduction was found to be by the dense vegetation model. Additionally, owing to the steep slope of the water surface profile and the increasing vegetation density, the impinging jet’s impact point moved closer to the toe of an embankment. This implies that vegetation covers a smaller area while increasing density to mitigate the destructive intensity of flood/tsunami movement. Meanwhile, the descending crest scenario results in a faster nappe flow formation. In contrast, the ascending crest scenario delays the nappe formation while reducing the downstream slope angle. It maintains the sub-critical flow at the crest, except near the downstream brink edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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19 pages, 9375 KiB  
Article
Hazard and Risk-Based Tsunami Early Warning Algorithms for Ocean Bottom Sensor S-Net System in Tohoku, Japan, Using Sequential Multiple Linear Regression
by Yao Li and Katsuichiro Goda
Geosciences 2022, 12(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12090350 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
This study presents robust algorithms for tsunami early warning using synthetic tsunami wave data at ocean bottom sensor (OBS) arrays with sequential multiple linear regression. The study focuses on the Tohoku region of Japan, where an S-net OBS system (150 pressure sensors) has [...] Read more.
This study presents robust algorithms for tsunami early warning using synthetic tsunami wave data at ocean bottom sensor (OBS) arrays with sequential multiple linear regression. The study focuses on the Tohoku region of Japan, where an S-net OBS system (150 pressure sensors) has been deployed. To calibrate the tsunami early warning system using realistic tsunami wave profiles at the S-net stations, 4000 stochastic tsunami simulations are employed. Forecasting models are built using multiple linear regression together with sequential feature selection based on Akaike Information Criterion and knee-point method to identify sensors that improve the accuracy most significantly. The study considers tsunami wave amplitude at a nearshore location and regional tsunami loss for buildings to develop hazard-based and risk-based tsunami warning algorithms. The models identify an optimal configuration of OBS stations and waiting time for issuing tsunami warnings. The model performance is compared against a base model, which only uses the earthquake magnitude and epicenter location. The result indicates that estimating the tsunami amplitude and loss via S-net improves accuracy. For the hazard-based forecasting, adding six sensors from the S-net improves the accuracy of the estimation most significantly with an optimal waiting time of 3 min. For the risk-based forecasting, a longer waiting time between 5 and 10 min is suitable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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18 pages, 14135 KiB  
Article
New Data of the 1755 Earthquake and Tsunami in Lisbon, Portugal
by Angela Santos and Delminda Rijo
Geosciences 2022, 12(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12080286 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4044
Abstract
In spite of the significant number of studies focused on the 1755 earthquake and tsunami, there are still many unknowns regarding this event in Lisbon, Portugal. Thus, in this research the authors compiled historical documents, including some that had never been analyzed, complemented [...] Read more.
In spite of the significant number of studies focused on the 1755 earthquake and tsunami, there are still many unknowns regarding this event in Lisbon, Portugal. Thus, in this research the authors compiled historical documents, including some that had never been analyzed, complemented with a field survey and tsunami numerical modeling at the historical civil parish of Santo Estevão, Lisbon. It was possible to identify 13 buildings, including three religious buildings and five palaces. Furthermore, the new data showed that contradicting the general idea, the earthquake caused significant damage to the selected territory because the number of households decreased by 52%. The number of residents decreased to about 51%, and in 1756, 1041 residents were still living in 297 temporary shelters. There were more than 44 dead and 1122 residents were unaccounted for. The fire did not hit the area, and the tsunami numerical model results were validated by the historical accounts and cartography, which indicate that the coastal area of the studied area was not significantly inundated by the tsunami. The consultation of historical documents that had never been analyzed by contemporary researchers provides a breakthrough in the knowledge of the event since it allowed a very detailed analysis of the disaster impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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17 pages, 4781 KiB  
Article
Tsunamis Generated and Amplified by Atmospheric Pressure Waves Due to an Eruption over Seabed Topography
by Taro Kakinuma
Geosciences 2022, 12(6), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12060232 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
Numerical simulations were generated using a nonlinear shallow-water model of velocity potential to study the fundamental processes of tsunami generation and amplification by atmospheric pressure waves. When an atmospheric pressure wave catches up with an existing tsunami that is propagating as a free [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations were generated using a nonlinear shallow-water model of velocity potential to study the fundamental processes of tsunami generation and amplification by atmospheric pressure waves. When an atmospheric pressure wave catches up with an existing tsunami that is propagating as a free wave over an abrupt change in water depth, the amplified tsunami propagates in the shallower water. An existing tsunami propagating as a free wave over a sloping seabed is also amplified by being passed by atmospheric pressure waves. When atmospheric pressure waves travel over an abrupt change in water depth, the water surface profile of tsunamis in the shallower water depends on both the interval of the atmospheric pressure waves and the phase of the tsunami-generation process over the change in water depth. Moreover, when atmospheric pressure waves travel over an abrupt change in water depth, the tsunami amplitude in the shallower water increases, as the water depth of the shallower area is decreased and the Proudman resonance is further reduced. When an atmospheric pressure wave train with positive pressure travels over a sloping seabed, the amplification of tsunami crests propagating as free waves is controlled by leaving the forced water waves following the atmospheric pressure waves. Conversely, the amplitudes of tsunami troughs propagating as free waves increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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17 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Cascadia Subduction Zone Residents’ Tsunami Evacuation Expectations
by Michael K. Lindell, Carla S. Prater and Donald H. House
Geosciences 2022, 12(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12050189 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
The U.S. Pacific Northwest coast must be prepared to evacuate immediately after a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. This requires coastal residents to understand the tsunami threat, have accurate expectations about warning sources, engage in preimpact evacuation preparedness actions, and plan (and practice) their [...] Read more.
The U.S. Pacific Northwest coast must be prepared to evacuate immediately after a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. This requires coastal residents to understand the tsunami threat, have accurate expectations about warning sources, engage in preimpact evacuation preparedness actions, and plan (and practice) their evacuation logistics, including an appropriate transportation mode, evacuation route, and destination. A survey of 221 residents in three communities identified areas in which many coastal residents have reached adequate levels of preparedness. Moreover, residents who are not adequately prepared are willing to improve their performance in most of the areas in which they fall short. However, many respondents expect to engage in time-consuming evacuation preparations before evacuating. Additionally, their estimates of evacuation travel time might be inaccurate because only 28–52% had practiced their evacuation routes. These results indicate that more coastal residents should prepare grab-and-go kits to speed their departure, as well as practice evacuation preparation and evacuation travel to test the accuracy of these evacuation time estimates. Overall, these results, together with recommendations for overcoming them, can guide CSZ emergency managers in methods of improving hazard awareness and education programs. In addition, these data can guide transportation engineers’ evacuation analyses and evacuation plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 4)
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