Special Issue "Isotope Geochemistry"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Bastian Georg

Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9J 0G2, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Isotope geochemistry, Geology, Inorganic mass-spectrometry
Guest Editor
Dr. Karla Newman

Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9J 0G2, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Plasma source mass spectrometry, Gas-phase ion-molecule reaction chemistry, Instrumentation design and development, Single particle ICP-MS, Nanoscience

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue is intended to highlight the latest developments in isotope ratio analysis in geoscientific related fields. Over the past few decades, isotope analytics have seen tremendous technical advances. This has facilitated the measurement of isotopic fractionation of all multi-isotopic elements and opened up new applications of isotope ratio analysis in geochemical, environmental, biochemical, forensic and archeological science.

In this special issue on Isotope Geochemistry, we hope to initiate a discussion of the benefits of isotope analysis in general, the technical challenges of high precision isotope ratio measurements and the robustness of the statistical treatment of isotopic data, including the impact of statistical evaluation for the implications drawn from isotope data. While we welcome contributions covering unique and novel applications of isotope ratio analyses, we would like to encourage in particular submission of studies that:

  • unambiguously demonstrate an advantage of using isotope ratio analyses over elemental data
  • the technical challenges of high precision isotope ratio measurements (i.e.  analytically induced mass-independent isotope fractionation due to oxide and hydride formation, matrix effects, mass bias correction methods)
  • present new technical approaches for isotope ratio analyses, such as high resolution IRMS, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and collision-cell MC-ICP-MS
  • discuss and propose common statistical assessment of isotope ratio data
  • demonstrate the application of isotope data in applied and industrial research
  • emphasize the potential for isotope ratio analyses for inter-disciplinary research approaches
Dr. Bastian Georg
Dr. Karla Newman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Applied isotope geochemistry
  • Novel isotope analytics
  • Instrumentation development
  • Instrumental mass bias effects
  • Matrix effects
  • Isotope ratio data treatment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Climate on Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Values of Contemporary Greek Samples: Implications for Isotopic Studies of Human Remains from Neolithic to Late Bronze Age Greece
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050217
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper, we study δ15N enrichment as an indicator not only of marine protein diet, but also of climate change. The slope of the variation of δ15N with precipitation was calculated equal to 0.38/100 mm of precipitation for [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study δ15N enrichment as an indicator not only of marine protein diet, but also of climate change. The slope of the variation of δ15N with precipitation was calculated equal to 0.38/100 mm of precipitation for Greek plants, 0.38/100 mm of precipitation for herbivores, and 0.32/100 mm of precipitation for the Greek human population (hair samples). As a case study, the slope was used to re-evaluate the published mean δ15N human bone collagen values from the Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age for 22 archaeological sites. The results indicate that climate has a significant impact on the final δ15N values of plant and animal tissues. Furthermore, for the same sites, we investigated the intra-site diet patterns, while taking into account the environmental effect on the observed δ15N human bone collagen values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Establishment of a Greek Food Database for Palaeodiet Reconstruction: Case Study of Human and Fauna Remains from Neolithic to Late Bronze Age from Greece
Geosciences 2019, 9(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9040165
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the stable isotopic data of recovered Greek bones from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze period in order to examine dietary changes over time. As an isotopic baseline we use the published fauna data of the periods. The analysis revealed [...] Read more.
We review the stable isotopic data of recovered Greek bones from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze period in order to examine dietary changes over time. As an isotopic baseline we use the published fauna data of the periods. The analysis revealed a diet that included a significant proportion of foods based on C3 plants, and the bulk of the animal protein must have been provided by terrestrial mammals with a small but detectable proportion of marine protein for coastal and island populations. A more significant contribution of marine protein is observed for Bronze Age populations while the enrichment in both C and N isotopes is connected, for some areas, to the introduction of millet during the Bronze Age, and to freshwater consumption. An extensive database of Greek food sources is presented and compared to the fauna from the prehistoric periods (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age) of the literature. We propose that this database can be used in palaeodiet reconstruction studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Controls on Deuterium Excess across Asia
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070257
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Deuterium excess (d-excess) is a second-order stable isotope parameter measured in meteoric water to understand both the source of precipitation and the evolution of moisture during transport. However, the interpretation of d-excess patterns in precipitation is often ambiguous, as changes in moisture source [...] Read more.
Deuterium excess (d-excess) is a second-order stable isotope parameter measured in meteoric water to understand both the source of precipitation and the evolution of moisture during transport. However, the interpretation of d-excess patterns in precipitation is often ambiguous, as changes in moisture source and processes during vapor transport both affect d-excess in non-unique ways. This is particularly true in Asia where continental moisture travels a long distance across diverse environments from unique moisture sources before falling as precipitation. Here, I analyzed published d-excess records from meteoric water throughout Asia to better characterize what influences d-excess values. I conclude that, (1) an increase in d-excess values with elevation up the windward side of mountain ranges and a marked decrease in d-excess into their rain shadows are primarily related to subcloud evaporation as opposed to moisture source mixing; (2) high d-excess values (>10‰) associated with the eastern Mediterranean Sea are lowered across much of Central Asia by the addition of other moisture sources, both oceanic and recycled continental; (3) subcloud evaporation of raindrops is lowering d-excess values of precipitation (<10‰) throughout the relatively arid Tarim Basin, China; and (4) temporal changes in d-excess values of alpine glaciers do reflect spatio-temporal changes in moisture source, as these samples experience minimal variation in subcloud evaporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Pb Isotope Mapping of Paleoproterozoic Gneisses in the SW Grenville Province: Evidence for a Cryptic Continental Suture
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070247
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 1 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
New whole-rock lead (Pb) isotope analyses are presented in this study for granitoid orthogneisses from the Southwest Grenville Province in Ontario and Western Quebec. These data are used to test the location of a cryptic Archean-Proterozoic suture proposed on the basis of neodymium [...] Read more.
New whole-rock lead (Pb) isotope analyses are presented in this study for granitoid orthogneisses from the Southwest Grenville Province in Ontario and Western Quebec. These data are used to test the location of a cryptic Archean-Proterozoic suture proposed on the basis of neodymium (Nd) isotope mapping. Immediately south of the inferred suture boundary, Pb isotope results show a crustal component derived solely from a juvenile Paleoproterozoic mantle source. These data are distinctly different from the reworked Archean craton to the northwest and strongly support the boundary derived from Nd isotope data. Pb signatures in the Paleoproterozoic crust suggest a southerly increase in magmatic reworking due to intensive plutonism during the late Paleoproterozoic and early Mesoproterozoic periods. The accretion of a juvenile arc to the Archean margin during the Penokean event (ca. 1.85 Ga) would have triggered subduction-zone reversal and the development of a long-lived ensialic arc on the composite margin. This was expressed as a 1.75 Ga Killarnian magmatic event and subsequent early Mesoproterozoic magmatism. This tectonic model for the Southwest Grenville Province shows that its crustal evolution is consistent with the Paleoproterozoic Makkovik-Ketilidian Orogen of Labrador and Southern Greenland. Hence, the application of whole-rock Pb isotope data in conjunction with Nd model ages provides data useful for mapping the extent of crustal terranes of differing age, which is essential for modeling the tectonic evolution of complex ancient accretionary orogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Isotopic Composition of Spring Water in Greece: Spring Waters Isoscapes
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070238
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews stable isotopic data concerning spring water in Greece in addition to new measurements (59); their spatial variations are investigated in order to provide basic information and identify the locally significant parameters that affect stable isotopic distributions. The area of interest [...] Read more.
This paper reviews stable isotopic data concerning spring water in Greece in addition to new measurements (59); their spatial variations are investigated in order to provide basic information and identify the locally significant parameters that affect stable isotopic distributions. The area of interest was partitioned into eight sections according to geographical location and climatic characteristics. Local spring water lines (LSWLs) are more or less consistent throughout the country. High-resolution isoscape maps of spring freshwater (Cl < 200 ppm; and T < 25 °C) for both δ18O and δ2H were generated, revealing several interesting features such as the effect of Pindos ridge, a strong climatic signal in southern Greece and indications of seawater intrusion in flat coastal areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Legacy Lead from Past Mining Activity and Gasoline Additives: Evidence from Lead Isotopes and Trace Element Geochemical Studies in the White River Basin, Southern Ozark Region, USA
Geosciences 2018, 8(6), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8060189
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
PDF Full-text (8254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lead isotope compositions and Pb, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations in stream sediment leachates in the White River Basin, southern Ozark Region, have been determined to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb and to assess the metal loads that are transported [...] Read more.
Lead isotope compositions and Pb, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations in stream sediment leachates in the White River Basin, southern Ozark Region, have been determined to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb and to assess the metal loads that are transported by streams draining the Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb mines in the Northern Arkansas district. The samples that were collected downstream of and closest to the mines have trace element concentrations well above those in soils from Arkansas. The trace element concentrations are lower in samples that were collected upstream of the mines. Most of the analyzed samples have trace metal concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Sediment Quality Guidelines Threshold Effects Level. The Pb isotope values of the downstream samples and the MVT ores are similar, suggesting a similar Pb source. The Pb isotope values of the upstream samples are similar to those that were defined by soils from the Ozark Plateau, suggesting that Pb from historic mining does not dominate upstream sediments. However, a linear regression line through the leachate data indicates that mixing between two end-members represented by leaded gasoline and ores could generate the Pb isotope ratios that were noticed in the upstream leachates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry)
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Graphical abstract

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