Special Issue "Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Alessandro Corsini
Website
Guest Editor
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Modena, Italy
Interests: engineering geology; landslides; mapping; site investigation; multi-methods monitoring; GIS and FE modeling; hazard and risk mitigation; Alps; Apennines
Dr. Lisa Borgatti
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental, and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: landslide risk mitigation; aquifers; numerical modelling; climate changes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific and technological advancements of the last few decades have made monitoring, modeling and mitigation (3Ms) increasingly important in landslide studies.

Never before have scientific and practitioner communities had access to such a large variety of powerful tools to monitor and model landslides at various scales. Nevertheless, a geoscientific understanding of slope processes is still crucial for an adequate interpretation of results of monitoring and modelling tools and for their exploitation in the assessment of structural (i.e., engineering works) and non-structural (i.e., land use planning and early warning) mitigation measures.

This Special Issue aims to collect relevant and original papers regarding both innovative methods and/or case studies in which the 3Ms are implemented in a synergic manner and with a central geoscientific perspective for the solution of practical landslide risk management problems in different mountain chains of the world.

Assoc. Prof. Alessandro Corsini
Assoc. Prof. Lisa Borgatti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Landslides
  • Mountain chains
  • Geosciences
  • Monitoring
  • Modelling Mitigation
  • Hazard and Risk management

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation
Geosciences 2019, 9(9), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9090365 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This editorial paper summarizes the contents of the papers included in the Special Issue “Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation”. The Special Issue provides an overview of methodological papers, as well as some innovative research carried out in the field and in the [...] Read more.
This editorial paper summarizes the contents of the papers included in the Special Issue “Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation”. The Special Issue provides an overview of methodological papers, as well as some innovative research carried out in the field and in the lab. Even if most papers adopted an integrated approach, sections representing the three research issues outlined in the title can be drawn: the first deals with monitoring, the second focuses on modeling, and the third is related to mitigation. Regardless of the section, the papers included in this special issue put forward methodological and practical implications that, more than likely, can stimulate further research efforts and support the stakeholders to gain better knowledge of landslide hazards in mountain environments, with an aim to tackle the urgent issue of sustainable development in times of global change that can affect landslide occurrences in mountain chains of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
A Preliminary Investigation on the Role of Brittle Fracture in the Kinematics of the 2014 San Leo Landslide
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060256 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The stability of high rock slopes is largely controlled by the location and orientation of geological features, such as faults, folds, joints, and bedding planes, which can induce structurally controlled slope instability. Under certain conditions, slope kinematics may vary with time, as propagation [...] Read more.
The stability of high rock slopes is largely controlled by the location and orientation of geological features, such as faults, folds, joints, and bedding planes, which can induce structurally controlled slope instability. Under certain conditions, slope kinematics may vary with time, as propagation of existing fractures due to brittle failure may allow development of fully persistent release surfaces. In this paper, the progressive accumulation of brittle damage that occurred prior to and during the 2014 San Leo landslide (northern Italy) is investigated using a synthetic rock mass (SRM) approach. Mapping of brittle fractures, rock bridge failures, and major structures is undertaken using terrestrial laser scanning, photogrammetry, and high-resolution photography. Numerical analyses are conducted to investigate the role of intact rock fracturing on the evolution of kinematic freedom using the two-dimensional Finite-discrete element method (FDEM) code Elfen, and the three-dimensional lattice-spring scheme code Slope Model. Numerical analyses show that the gradual erosion of clay-rich material below the base of the plateau drives the brittle propagation of fractures within the rock mass, until a fully persistent, subvertical rupture surface form, causing toppling of fault-bounded rock columns. This study clearly highlights the potential role of intact rock fracturing on the slope kinematics, and the interaction between intact rock strength, structural geology, and slope morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Composite Anchors for Slope Stabilisation: Monitoring of their In-Situ Behaviour with Optical Fibre
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050240 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Composite anchors are special passive sub-horizontal reinforcements recently developed for remediation of unstable slopes. They are composed of a hollow steel bar, installed by a self-drilling technique in the soil, coupled with tendons cemented in the inner hole to increase the global anchor [...] Read more.
Composite anchors are special passive sub-horizontal reinforcements recently developed for remediation of unstable slopes. They are composed of a hollow steel bar, installed by a self-drilling technique in the soil, coupled with tendons cemented in the inner hole to increase the global anchor tensile strength. The anchors are primarily intended to stabilise medium to deep landslides, both in soils or weathered rock masses. Among the valuable advantages of composite anchors are their low cost, ease of installation, and flexibility in execution, as testified by a rapid increase in their use in recent years. The bond strength at the soil-anchor interface is the main parameter for both the design of these reinforcements and the evaluation of their long-term effects for landslide stabilisation. After a brief description of the composite anchor technology, this paper presents a novel methodology for monitoring the strain and stress accumulated in the anchors over time when installed in an unstable slope. The new monitoring system is composed of a distributed fibre optic sensing system, exploiting the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique, to measure the strain exerted on the optical fibre cable embedded with the tendons inside the bar. The system permits an evaluation of the axial force distribution in the anchor and the soil-anchor interface actions with a spatial resolution of up to some millimetres. Therefore, it allows determination of the stabilising capability associated with the specific hydrogeological conditions of the site. Furthermore, upon an extensive validation, the system may become part of a standard practice to be applied in this type of intervention, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the anchor installation and its evolution over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Planning Landslide Countermeasure Works through Long Term Monitoring and Grey Box Modelling
Geosciences 2019, 9(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9040185 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The design of countermeasure works to mitigate landslide risk needs to deal with the multiple unknowns that are linked with soil properties, distribution and rheology. Most of the time, the degree of definition of all these elements is low. Through landslide monitoring, it [...] Read more.
The design of countermeasure works to mitigate landslide risk needs to deal with the multiple unknowns that are linked with soil properties, distribution and rheology. Most of the time, the degree of definition of all these elements is low. Through landslide monitoring, it is possible to acquire signals from the landslide that carry synthetic information about its dynamic. Thus, if it is possible to define a model that is able to link the landslide displacements with the triggering factors and to predict them consistently, that model may be used to evaluate the effect of a countermeasure work directly, bypassing the geomechanical uncertainty. In this paper, an example application of this approach is described. The displacements of a landslide located in North East Italy are connected with the water discharge of the small stream the crosses the landslide body. A countermeasure work that intercepts the discharge of the torrent is expected to reduce the landslide displacements of approximately 70%, with lower costs of construction and smaller impacts on the environment and landscape with respect of other types of structural mitigation works such as slope reprofiling and large retaining walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Bench-Scale Experiments on Effects of Pipe Flow and Entrapped Air in Soil Layer on Hillslope Landslides
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030138 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Soil pipes are commonly found in landslide scarps, and it has been suggested that build-up of pore water pressure due to clogged soil pipes influences landslide initiation. Several researchers have also suggested that entrapped air in the soil layer increases the pore water [...] Read more.
Soil pipes are commonly found in landslide scarps, and it has been suggested that build-up of pore water pressure due to clogged soil pipes influences landslide initiation. Several researchers have also suggested that entrapped air in the soil layer increases the pore water pressure. We carried out bench-scale model experiments to investigate the influence of soil pipes and entrapped air on the build-up of pore water pressure. We installed a water supply system consisting of an artificial rainfall simulator, and used a water supply tank to supply water to the model slope and artificial pipe. We used two types of artificial pipe: A straight pipe, and a confluence of three pipes. Furthermore, we placed a layer of silica sand on top of the model slope to investigate the effect of entrapped air in the soil layer on the build-up of pore water pressure. Silica sand is finer than the sand that we used for the bulk of the model slope. Our results indicate that, although artificial pipes decrease the pore water pressure when the amount of water supplied was smaller than the pipe drainage capacity, the pore water pressure increased when the water supply was too large for the artificial pipe to drain. In particular, the confluence of pipes increased the pore water pressure because the water supply exceeded the drainage capacity. The results also indicate that entrapped air increases the pore water pressure in the area with relatively low drainage capacity, too. Based on these results, we found that although soil pipes can drain a certain amount of water from a soil layer, they can also increase the pore water pressure, and destabilize slopes. Furthermore, entrapped air enhances the trend that the pore water pressure can increase in the area with relatively low drainage capacity, as pore water pressure increases when too much water is supplied, and the artificial pipe cannot drain all of it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphostructural, Meteorological and Seismic Factors Controlling Landslides in Weak Rocks: The Case Studies of Castelnuovo and Ponzano (North East Abruzzo, Central Italy)
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030122 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
We investigated the role of the morphostructural setting and seismic and meteorological factors in the development of landslides in the piedmont of the Abruzzo Apennines. In February 2017, following a heavy snow precipitation event and a moderate seismic sequence (at the end of [...] Read more.
We investigated the role of the morphostructural setting and seismic and meteorological factors in the development of landslides in the piedmont of the Abruzzo Apennines. In February 2017, following a heavy snow precipitation event and a moderate seismic sequence (at the end of the Central Italy 2016–2017 seismic crisis), several landslides affected the NE-Abruzzo chain and piedmont area. This work is focused on the Ponzano landslide (Civitella del Tronto, Teramo) and the Castelnuovo landslide (Campli, Teramo) in the NE Abruzzo hilly piedmont. These landslides consist of: (1) a large translational slide-complex landslide, affecting the Miocene–Pliocene sandstone clay bedrock sequence of the piedmont hilly sector; and (2) a complex (topple/fall-slide) landslide, which occurred along a high and steep scarp on conglomerate rocks pertaining to terraced alluvial fan deposits of the Pleistocene superficial deposits. Both of the landslides are typical of the Abruzzo hilly piedmont and both of them largely affected houses and villages located on top of the scarp or within the slope. The landslides were studied by means of field geological and geomorphological mapping, borehole investigations, geostructural analysis and photogeological analysis. For the Ponzano landslide, a detail pre-post-landslide air photo interpretation allowed for defining the deformation pattern occurred on the slope. For the Castelnuovo landslide, the triggering factors and the stability of the slope were evaluated with FLAC3D numerical modelling, in pre- and post-landslide conditions. Through this integrated analysis, the triggering factors, the landslide mechanism and the stability conditions of the landslides and the characterization of two main types of landslides affecting the piedmont hilly area of the Abruzzo region were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Micro-Scale Landforms of Landslides Using Precise Digital Elevation Models
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030117 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
An active gully-related landslide system is located in a deep valley under forest canopy cover. Generally, point clouds from forested areas have a lack of data connectivity, and optical parameters of scanning cameras lead to different densities of point clouds. Data noise or [...] Read more.
An active gully-related landslide system is located in a deep valley under forest canopy cover. Generally, point clouds from forested areas have a lack of data connectivity, and optical parameters of scanning cameras lead to different densities of point clouds. Data noise or systematic errors (missing data) make the automatic identification of landforms under tree canopy problematic or impossible. We processed, analyzed, and interpreted data from a large-scale landslide survey, which were acquired by the light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology, remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), and close-range photogrammetry (CRP) using the ‘Structure-from-Motion’ (SfM) method. LAStools is a highly efficient Geographic Information System (GIS) tool for point clouds pre-processing and creating precise digital elevation models (DEMs). The main landslide body and its landforms indicating the landslide activity were detected and delineated in DEM-derivatives. Identification of micro-scale landforms in precise DEMs at large scales allow the monitoring and the assessment of these active parts of landslides that are invisible in digital terrain models at smaller scales (obtained from aerial LiDAR or from RPAS) due to insufficient data density or the presence of many data gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Slope Stability Considering the Preservation of the General Patrimonial Cemetery of Guayaquil, Ecuador
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030103 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Inefficient blasting techniques and poor closure management of the old quarry that existed during the 1970s in the area of the actual General Patrimonial Cemetery of Guayaquil resulted in an almost vertical slope of approximately 50 m in height and an intense induced [...] Read more.
Inefficient blasting techniques and poor closure management of the old quarry that existed during the 1970s in the area of the actual General Patrimonial Cemetery of Guayaquil resulted in an almost vertical slope of approximately 50 m in height and an intense induced fracturing that weakened the rock mass. This led to the loss of stability and increased material detachment, which damaged the infrastructure of the graveyard representing a risk to visitors and workers. The aim of this research is to evaluate the slope stability through a geotechnical analysis that allows decision-making to recover and preserve the safety of the area. In this work, we used structural measurements and observations made in the field, as well as a three-dimensional model of the slant generated by photographs taken by a drone. Slope Mass Rating (SMR) and Chinese Slope Mass Rating (CSMR) rankings were used to evaluate stability, susceptibility to rockfall was determined using a theoretical–practical procedure, and the safety factor was calculated using the Morgenstern–Price method. The analysis of the geomechanical classifications yielded a low stability value of the slope, which was in accordance with the high susceptibility to rockfall and with the low safety factor. Based on these results, we recommend the application of systematic bolt and shotcrete for stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Gigapixel Photogrammetry for the Understanding of Landslide Processes in Alpine Terrain
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020099 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The work in this paper illustrates an experimental application for geosciences by coupling new and low cost photogrammetric techniques: Gigapixel and Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Gigapixel photography is a digital image composed of billions of pixels (≥1000 megapixels) obtained from a conventional Digital single-lens reflex [...] Read more.
The work in this paper illustrates an experimental application for geosciences by coupling new and low cost photogrammetric techniques: Gigapixel and Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Gigapixel photography is a digital image composed of billions of pixels (≥1000 megapixels) obtained from a conventional Digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR), whereas the SfM technique obtains three-dimensional (3D) information from two-dimensional (2D) image sequences. The field test was carried out at the Ingelsberg slope (Bad Hofgastein, Austria), which hosts one of the most dangerous landslides in the Salzburg Land. The stereographic analysis carried out on the preliminary 3D model, integrated with Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (GBInSAR) data, allowed us to obtain the main fractures and discontinuities of the unstable rock mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of a Large Landslide Problem under Water Level Fluctuation—Model Calibration and Verification
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020089 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In past centuries, reservoir landslides have been always a threat that brought a big loss in lives and properties. The phenomena that have decisive influence on the landslide instability are quite complex and the importance of each of them for the stability of [...] Read more.
In past centuries, reservoir landslides have been always a threat that brought a big loss in lives and properties. The phenomena that have decisive influence on the landslide instability are quite complex and the importance of each of them for the stability of a particular landslide differs. Therefore, it is extremely important to distinguish between the effects that different phenomena have and to identify those that dominate the behaviour of the studied landslide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the behaviour under the river level fluctuation of a large landslide in China, namely the Huangtupo landslide. A 2D numerical model of a selected part of the Huangtupo landslide is created and a series of fully coupled hydro-mechanical simulations have been conducted to investigate the landslide behaviour under different influencing factors (e.g., mechanical incidents, water head, soil water permeability, etc.). Furthermore, both local and global sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the importance of these influencing factors and to select the most influential model parameters. Thereafter, back analysis is employed to calibrate the model against real field data. Finally, the capability of the calibrated model is evaluated and the results show that it can simulate appropriately the long-term behaviour of the landslide after the river level reaches its maximal level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Random Sequence of Debris Flows on Torrential Fan Formation
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020064 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Debris flows with different magnitudes can have a large impact on debris fan characteristics such as height or slope. Moreover, knowledge about the impact of random sequences of debris flows of different magnitudes on debris fan properties is sparse in the literature and [...] Read more.
Debris flows with different magnitudes can have a large impact on debris fan characteristics such as height or slope. Moreover, knowledge about the impact of random sequences of debris flows of different magnitudes on debris fan properties is sparse in the literature and can be improved using numerical simulations of debris fan formation. Therefore, in this paper we present the results of numerical simulations wherein we investigated the impact of a random sequence of debris flows on torrential fan formation, where the total volume of transported debris was kept constant, but different rheological properties were used. Overall, 62 debris flow events with different magnitudes from 100 m3 to 20,000 m3 were selected, and the total volume was approximately 225,000 m3. The sequence of these debris flows was randomly generated, and selected debris fan characteristics after the 62 events were compared. For modeling purposes, we applied the Rapid Mass Movement Simulations (RAMMS) software and its debris flow module (RAMMS-DF). The modeling was carried out using (a) real fan topography from an alpine environment (i.e., an actual debris fan in north-west (NW) Slovenia formed by the Suhelj torrent) and (b) an artificial surface with a constant slope. Several RAMMS model parameters were tested. The simulation results confirm that the random sequence of debris flow events has only some minor effects on the fan formation (e.g., slope, maximum height), even when changing debris flow rheological properties in a wide range. After the 62 events, independent of the selected sequence of debris flows, the final fan characteristics were not significantly different from each other. Mann–Whitney (MW) tests and t-tests were used for this purpose, and the selected significance level was 0.05. Moreover, this conclusion applies for artificial and real terrain and for a wide range of tested RAMMS model rheological parameters. Further testing of the RAMMS-DF model in real situations is proposed in order to better understand its applicability and limitations under real conditions for debris flow hazard assessment or the planning of mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Investigation on the Progressive Failure of Unsaturated Granular Slopes
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020063 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Slope failure is a complex process which depends on several factors concerning nature and properties of soil, slope morphology and structure, past stress history, groundwater regime, boundary conditions, and their changes. As a consequence, the mechanism of slope failure is typically characterized by [...] Read more.
Slope failure is a complex process which depends on several factors concerning nature and properties of soil, slope morphology and structure, past stress history, groundwater regime, boundary conditions, and their changes. As a consequence, the mechanism of slope failure is typically characterized by the development of a highly non-uniform strain field, which does not allow an easy prediction of the failure conditions. Usually, the process which will bring the slope to final collapse starts with local soil failure, which then leads to formation and propagation of a shear zone, and finally to general slope failure. This mechanical process is called progressive failure. However, in spite of the progresses in the knowledge of the slope behavior, a complete framework about the progressive failure is still missing; in particular, information about the response of granular unsaturated sloping soils is very poor. This paper reports the results of a couple of small-scale experiments on slopes reconstituted with unsaturated pyroclastic soils and subjected to continuous rainfall. The use of miniaturized sensors and optical fibers provided useful data to read some aspects of the mechanics of failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative Monitoring Tools and Early Warning Systems for Risk Management: A Case Study
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020062 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
During recent years, the availability of innovative monitoring instrumentation has been a fundamental component in the development of efficient and reliable early warning systems (EWS). In fact, the potential to achieve high sampling frequencies, together with automatic data transmission and elaboration are key [...] Read more.
During recent years, the availability of innovative monitoring instrumentation has been a fundamental component in the development of efficient and reliable early warning systems (EWS). In fact, the potential to achieve high sampling frequencies, together with automatic data transmission and elaboration are key features for a near-real time approach. This paper presents a case study located in Central Italy, where the realization of an important state route required a series of preliminary surveys. The monitoring system installed on site included manual inclinometers, automatic modular underground monitoring system (MUMS) inclinometers, piezometers, and geognostic surveys. In particular, data recorded by innovative instrumentation allowed for the detection of major slope displacements that ultimately led to the landslide collapse. The implementation of advanced tools, featuring remote and automatic procedures for data sampling and elaboration, played a key role in the critical event identification and prediction. In fact, thanks to displacement data recorded by the MUMS inclinometer, it was possible to forecast the slope failure that was later confirmed during the following site inspection. Additionally, a numerical analysis was performed to better understand the mechanical behavior of the slope, back-analyze the monitored event, and to assess the stability conditions of the area of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Geotechnical Properties of Two Pyroclastic Deposits Involved in Catastrophic Flowslides for Implementation in Early Warning Systems
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010024 - 31 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Air-fall pyroclastic deposits on steep slopes in Campania (Southern Italy) are periodically subjected to rainfall-induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect built-up areas, early warning systems (EWSs) have been implemented which are essentially based on pluviometric thresholds or models unable [...] Read more.
Air-fall pyroclastic deposits on steep slopes in Campania (Southern Italy) are periodically subjected to rainfall-induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect built-up areas, early warning systems (EWSs) have been implemented which are essentially based on pluviometric thresholds or models unable to accurately monitor the physical phenomena responsible for flowslide generation in pyroclastic deposits. Over the last 20 years, landslides with no evolution in flows occurred in this area and the alarms generated by existing EWSs in the cases of rainfall were both false and highly costly, thus eroding public trust in EWSs. To improve existing EWSs, two complex models for pyroclastic soils (Cervinara and Sarno) are proposed in this paper. These two models allow correct simulation of the physical processes, such as saturation increase due to rainwater infiltration and mechanical degradation as far as undrained instability, which govern postfailure evolution. The paper concludes with the presentation of a framework proposal to be used in defining a soil database, as well as a framework for flowslide generation forecast to be used for implementation within EWSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Detectability of Repeated Airborne Laser Scanning for Mountain Landslide Monitoring
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120469 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Multi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys have become a prime consideration for detecting landslide movements and evaluating landslide risk in mountain areas. The minimum elevation change (or detectability) that can be detected by repeated ALS surveys has become a critical threshold for landslide [...] Read more.
Multi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys have become a prime consideration for detecting landslide movements and evaluating landslide risk in mountain areas. The minimum elevation change (or detectability) that can be detected by repeated ALS surveys has become a critical threshold for landslide researchers and engineers to decide if ALS is a capable tool for detecting targeted landslides and arranging the minimum time span between two scans if ALS is a choice. The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston conducted three repeated ALS surveys at the Slumgullion landslide site in Colorado, U.S. over one week in July of 2015. These repeated ALS surveys provide valuable datasets for evaluating the vertical detectability of multi-temporal ALS surveys in a typical mountain area. According to this study, the difference of digital elevation models (DDEM) derived from ALS has the ability of detecting a minimum elevation change of 5 cm over flatter and moderately rugged terrain areas (slope < 20 degrees) and a minimum of a 10-cm elevation change over rugged terrain areas (20 degrees < slope < 40 degrees). However, the DDEM values over highly rugged terrain areas (slope > 40 degrees), such as cliff and landslide scarps, should be interpolated with caution. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) surveys were also performed at the middle portion of the landslide area for assessing the accuracy of ALS datasets. The accuracy of ALS varies from approximately one decimeter (~10 cm) to one foot (~30 cm) depending on the roughness of terrain surface and vegetation coverage (point density). The detectability and accuracy estimates of ALS measurements obtained from the case study could be used as a reference for estimating the performance of modern ALS in mountain areas with similar topography and vegetation coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between InSAR Coseismic Deformation and Earthquake-Induced Landslides Associated with the 2017 Mw 3.9 Ischia (Italy) Earthquake
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080303 - 12 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
We investigated the contribution of earthquake-induced surface movements to the ground displacements detected through Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, after the Mw 3.9 Ischia earthquake on 21 August 2017. A permanent displacement approach, based on the limit equilibrium method, allowed estimation [...] Read more.
We investigated the contribution of earthquake-induced surface movements to the ground displacements detected through Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, after the Mw 3.9 Ischia earthquake on 21 August 2017. A permanent displacement approach, based on the limit equilibrium method, allowed estimation of the spatial extent of the earthquake-induced landslides and the associated probability of failure. The proposed procedure identified critical areas potentially affected by slope movements partially overlapping the coseismic ground displacement retrieved by InSAR data. Therefore, the observed ground displacement field is the combination of both fault slip and surficial sliding caused by the seismic shaking. These findings highlight the need to perform preliminary calculations to account for the non-tectonic contributions to ground displacements before any estimation of the earthquake source geometry and kinematics. Such information is fundamental to avoid both the incorrect definition of the source geometry and the possible overestimation of the coseismic slip over the causative fault. Moreover, knowledge of the areas potentially affected by slope movements could contribute to better management of a seismic emergency, especially in areas exposed to high seismic and hydrogeological risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Landslides: Monitoring, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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