Special Issue "Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Astrid Holzheid

Institute of Geosciences, Mineralogy Dept., University of Kiel, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: experimental petrology; high temperature geochemistry; physico-chemical interactions: rock-mineral-fluid-melt; differentiation, mixing and mingling of planetary magmas; geomaterials
Guest Editor
Dr. Juan Diego Rodriguez-Blanco

Department of Geology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: geochemistry; crystallisation; mineralogy; carbonates; rare-earths; synchrotron; biomineralisation; geology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intention of this Special Issue of Geosciences is to provide an overview regarding the broad field of melt–fluid–rock interactions in geoscience.

Reactions between melts, fluids, and rocks tremendously influence the geodynamics, petrology, and geochemistry of not only the Earth, but of all terrestrial planets at all scales during the early and still ongoing evolution of the Earth and other terrestrial planets.

As examples, (1) Habitability of the Earth and other terrestrial planets would have been hampered or even impossible without aqueous alteration of the surface and subsurface. (2) Fluids trigger melt generation and strongly affect element mobility. In addition, fluids enhance mass transport and reaction kinetics. (3) Fluid–rock interactions control the petrophysical properties, rheology, and chemical composition of rocks, and thus impact both magmatic and metamorphic processes and dynamics, and subsequent evolution, including metasomatism and crustal deformation. (4) Melt-fluid-rock interactions are seeds of the formation of economic mineral deposits, and thus resources. (5) In an environmental context, fluid–rock interactions are responsible for the release and/or confinement, as well as the sequestration of toxic elements and heavy metals or toxic metalloids that may eventually become pollutants in soils and groundwater.

This Special Issue aims to cover—without being limited to—the above-mentioned areas of influential melt–fluid–rock interactions in the Earth and other terrestrial planets with contributions of cosmochemistry, mineralogy, petrology and petrophysics, geochemistry, and economic geology.

It is recommended that authors approach the Guest Editor at an early stage about possible submissions in order to verify the appropriateness of their potential contributions.

If appropriate, an abstract will be requested, and the corresponding author required to submit the full manuscript online by the deadline of 6 July 2018.

Prof. Astrid Holzheid
Dr. Juan Diego Rodriguez-Blanco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aqueous alteration
  • hydrothermal alteration
  • fluid-triggered element mobility
  • fluid-triggered magma evolution
  • metamorphism and metasomatism
  • mineral deposits
  • confinement of toxic elements

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Organization of Bone Mineral: The Role of Mineral–Water Interactions
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120466
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
The mechanism (s) that drive the organization of bone mineral throughout the bone extracellular matrix remain unclear. The long-standing theory implicates the organic matrix, namely specific non-collagenous proteins and/or collagen fibrils, while a recent theory proposes a self-assembly mechanism. Applying a combination of [...] Read more.
The mechanism (s) that drive the organization of bone mineral throughout the bone extracellular matrix remain unclear. The long-standing theory implicates the organic matrix, namely specific non-collagenous proteins and/or collagen fibrils, while a recent theory proposes a self-assembly mechanism. Applying a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in wet and dry conditions to bone-like hydroxyapatite nanoparticles that were used as a proxy for bone mineral, we confirm that mature bone mineral particles have the capacity to self-assemble into organized structures. A large quantity of water is present at the surface of bone mineral due to the presence of a hydrophilic, amorphous surface layer that coats bone mineral nanoparticles. These water molecules must not only be strongly bound to the surface of bone mineral in the form of a rigid hydration shell, but they must also be trapped within the amorphous surface layer. Cohesive forces between these water molecules present at the mineral–mineral interface not only hold the mature bone mineral particles together, but also promote their oriented stacking. This intrinsic ability of mature bone mineral particles to organize themselves without recourse to the organic matrix forms the foundation for the development of the next generation of orthopedic biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle A Calorimetric and Thermodynamic Investigation of the Synthetic Analogue of Mandarinoite, Fe2(SeO3)3·5H2O
Geosciences 2018, 8(11), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8110391
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
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Abstract
Thermophysical and thermochemical calorimetric investigations were carried out on the synthetic analogue of mandarinoite. The low-temperature heat capacity of Fe2(SeO3)3·5H2O(cr) was measured using adiabatic calorimetry between 5.3 and 324.8 [...] Read more.
Thermophysical and thermochemical calorimetric investigations were carried out on the synthetic analogue of mandarinoite. The low-temperature heat capacity of Fe 2 ( SeO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O ( cr ) was measured using adiabatic calorimetry between 5.3 and 324.8 K, and the third-law entropy was determined. Using these C p , m o ( T ) data, the third law entropy at T = 298.15 K, S m o , is calculated as 520.1 ± 1.1 J∙K−1∙mol−1. Smoothed C p , m o ( T ) values between T 0 K and 320 K are presented, along with values for S m o and the functions [ H m o ( T ) H m o ( 0 ) ] and [ Φ m o ( T ) Φ m o ( 0 ) ] . The enthalpy of formation of Fe 2 ( SeO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O ( cr ) was determined by solution calorimetry with HF solution as the solvent, giving Δ f H m o ( 298   K ,   Fe 2 ( SeO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O ,   cr ) = −3124.6 ± 5.3 kJ/mol. The standard Gibbs energy of formation for Fe 2 ( SeO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O ( cr ) at T = 298 K can be calculated on the basis on Δ f H m o ( 298   K ) and Δ f S m o ( 298   K ) : Δ f G m o ( 298   K ,   Fe 2 ( SeO 3 ) 3 · 5 H 2 O ,   cr ) = −2600.8 ± 5.4 kJ/mol. The value of ΔfGm for Fe2(SeO3)3·5H2O(cr) was used to calculate the Eh–pH diagram of the Fe–Se–H2O system. This diagram has been constructed for the average contents of these elements in acidic waters of the oxidation zones of sulfide deposits. The behaviors of selenium and iron in the surface environment have been quantitatively explained by variations of the redox potential and the acidity-basicity of the mineral-forming medium. These parameters precisely determine the migration ability of selenium compounds and its precipitation in the form of solid phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of Barium, Cobalt, Strontium, and Zinc from Solution by Natural and Synthetic Allophane Adsorbents
Geosciences 2018, 8(9), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8090309
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The capacity and mechanism of the adsorption of aqueous barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), strontium (Sr), and zinc (Zn) by Ecuadorian (NatAllo) and synthetic (SynAllo-1 and SynAllo-2) allophanes were studied as a function of contact time, pH, and metal ion concentration using kinetic and [...] Read more.
The capacity and mechanism of the adsorption of aqueous barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), strontium (Sr), and zinc (Zn) by Ecuadorian (NatAllo) and synthetic (SynAllo-1 and SynAllo-2) allophanes were studied as a function of contact time, pH, and metal ion concentration using kinetic and equilibrium experiments. The mineralogy, nano-structure, and chemical composition of the allophanes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and specific surface area analyses. The evolution of adsorption fitted to a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, where equilibrium between aqueous metal ions and allophane was reached within <10 min. The metal ion removal efficiencies varied from 0.7 to 99.7% at pH 4.0 to 8.5. At equilibrium, the adsorption behavior is better described by the Langmuir model than by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model, yielding sorption capacities of 10.6, 17.2, and 38.6 mg/g for Ba 2 + , 12.4, 19.3, and 29.0 mg/g for HCoO 2 ; 7.2, 15.9, and 34.4 mg/g for Sr 2 + ; and 20.9, 26.9, and 36.9 mg/g for Zn 2 + , by NatAllo, SynAllo-2, and SynAllo-1, respectively. The uptake mechanism is based on a physical adsorption process rather than chemical ion exchange. Allophane holds great potential to effectively remove aqueous metal ions over a wide pH range and could be used instead of other commercially available sorbent materials such as zeolites, montmorillonite, carbonates, and phosphates for special wastewater treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Ti-Nb Mineralization of Late Carbonatites and Role of Fluids in Its Formation: Petyayan-Vara Rare-Earth Carbonatites (Vuoriyarvi Massif, Russia)
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080281
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
This article is devoted to the geology of titanium-rich varieties of the Petyayan-Vara rare-earth dolomitic carbonatites in Vuoriyarvi, Northwest Russia. Analogues of these varieties are present in many carbonatite complexes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of high field [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the geology of titanium-rich varieties of the Petyayan-Vara rare-earth dolomitic carbonatites in Vuoriyarvi, Northwest Russia. Analogues of these varieties are present in many carbonatite complexes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of high field strength elements during the late stages of carbonatite formation. We conducted a multilateral study of titanium- and niobium-bearing minerals, including a petrographic study, Raman spectroscopy, microprobe determination of chemical composition, and electron backscatter diffraction. Three TiO2-polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) and three pyrochlore group members (hydroxycalcio-, fluorcalcio-, and kenoplumbopyrochlore) were found to coexist in the studied rocks. The formation of these minerals occurred in several stages. First, Nb-poor Ti-oxides were formed in the fluid-permeable zones. The overprinting of this assemblage by residual fluids led to the generation of Nb-rich brookite (the main niobium concentrator in the Petyayan-Vara) and minerals of the pyrochlore group. This process also caused niobium enrichment with of early generations of Ti oxides. Our results indicate abrupt changes in the physicochemical parameters at the late hydro (carbo) thermal stage of the carbonatite formation and high migration capacity of Ti and Nb under these conditions. The metasomatism was accompanied by the separation of these elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Quantifying Hydrothermal Alteration: A Review of Methods
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070245
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
Hydrothermal alteration is proximal to many base and precious metal deposits, and its products can provide insights into the characteristics of hydrothermal systems. To be useful to exploration geologists and researchers, however, alteration needs to be typified and quantified. Alteration type informs on [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal alteration is proximal to many base and precious metal deposits, and its products can provide insights into the characteristics of hydrothermal systems. To be useful to exploration geologists and researchers, however, alteration needs to be typified and quantified. Alteration type informs on mineralising style (e.g., have we found a porphyry or a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit?), while quantification of its intensity helps position a sample within the system (e.g., how close are we to the main economic deposit?). Numerous methods—all having their specific advantages and disadvantages—are dedicated to the characterisation of alteration. As alteration is a process that induces chemical and mineralogical changes in rocks, it can be studied using petrological (e.g., mineral recognition in thin sections, mineral chemistry), mineralogical (e.g., alteration indices that use normative minerals), and chemical (e.g., mass balance calculations) approaches. This short review provides an overview of the methods useful to researchers and that are also applicable in an exploration context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Kinetics of Melt-Fluid-Rock Interactions)
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