Antimicrobial Hydrogels

A special issue of Gels (ISSN 2310-2861). This special issue belongs to the section "Gel Chemistry and Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 22855

Special Issue Editors

MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: hydrogels; biomaterials; bioprinting; microfluidics; wound dressing; tissue engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Light Industry and Textile, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161000, China
Interests: hydrogel; cellulose; 3D bioprinting; wound dressing; tissue engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on “Antimicrobial Hydrogels” is dedicated to recent developments from theoretical and fundamental aspects to the synthesis, characterization, and applications of antimicrobial hydrogels. Within this context, a broad range of subjects, including the materials, structure, manufacture technology, theory and applications, will be discussed.

Hydrogel is a kind of polymer with a three-dimensional network structure, which can keep its original structure without being dissolved after swelling. Hydrogels can be formed by the copolymerization of different hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers. Due to their good biocompatibility, hydrogels are widely used as excellent biomedical materials, such as drug carriers, tissue scaffolds, and wound dressings which can maintain a moist environment and are useful for sustained drug delivery for wound repair and act as a barrier against exogenous bacteria. Hydrogels are used in combination with different types of antibiotics for wound dressings to accelerate wound healing. As such, there is wide interest in antibacterial hydrogels because of their dual functions of both hydrogel and antibacterial performance.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Gels, Antimicrobial Hydrogels, serves to provide a platform for researchers to report results and findings in recent advances in antimicrobial hydrogels and antimicrobial hydrogel-based composites.

Dr. Feng Cheng
Dr. Hongbin Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • hydrogel
  • antibacterial
  • synthesis and characterization
  • wound dressing
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2393 KiB  
Article
Immobilization of Bacteriophages in Ex Tempore Hydrogel for the Treatment of Burn Wound Infection
by Vladimir V. Beschastnov, Marfa N. Egorikhina, Alexander A. Tulupov, Igor E. Pogodin, Natalia Yu. Orlinskaya, Veronica. V. Antoshina, Irina Yu. Shirokova and Maksim G. Ryabkov
Gels 2023, 9(8), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9080625 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a major problem for anti-bacterial therapy. This problem may be solved by using bacteriophages—viruses that can attack and destroy bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant ones. In this article, the authors compared the efficacy of topical bacteriophage therapy and [...] Read more.
The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a major problem for anti-bacterial therapy. This problem may be solved by using bacteriophages—viruses that can attack and destroy bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant ones. In this article, the authors compared the efficacy of topical bacteriophage therapy and systemic antibiotic therapy in the treatment of wound infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens in patients with limited (less than 5% of the body surface) full-thickness burns. Patients in the study group (n = 30) were treated with PVA-based hydrogel dressings saturated ex tempore with a bacteriophage suspension characterized by its lytic activity against the bacteria colonizing the wound. Patients in the control group (n = 30) were treated using etiotropic systemic antibiotic therapy, and the wounds were covered with gauze bandages soaked in an aqueous solution of povidone-iodine. An assessment of the decrease in the level of bacterial contamination of the recipient wounds in both groups was conducted after 7 days, and after that, free skin grafting was performed. On day 14 after free skin grafting, patients in both groups underwent incisional biopsy. The study group demonstrated an increase in the indices of proliferative activity (Ki-67), and angiogenesis (CD-31, VEGF) in the area of engraftment of the split-thickness skin grafts. The results indicate that PVA-based hydrogel wound dressings can be used as bacteriophage carriers for local antimicrobial therapy ahead of free skin grafting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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23 pages, 5664 KiB  
Article
Semi-Solid Dosage Forms Containing Pranoprofen-Loaded NLC as Topical Therapy for Local Inflammation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation
by Negar Ahmadi, María Rincón, Marcelle Silva-Abreu, Lilian Sosa, Jessica Pesantez-Narvaez, Ana Cristina Calpena, María J. Rodríguez-Lagunas and Mireia Mallandrich
Gels 2023, 9(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9060448 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Pranoprofen (PRA)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been dispersed into blank gels composed of 1% of Carbomer 940 (PRA-NLC-Car) and 3% of Sepigel® 305 (PRA-NLC-Sep) as a novel strategy to refine the biopharmaceutical profile of PRA, for dermal administration in the treatment [...] Read more.
Pranoprofen (PRA)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been dispersed into blank gels composed of 1% of Carbomer 940 (PRA-NLC-Car) and 3% of Sepigel® 305 (PRA-NLC-Sep) as a novel strategy to refine the biopharmaceutical profile of PRA, for dermal administration in the treatment of skin inflammation that may be caused by possible skin abrasion. This stratagem intends to improve the joining of PRA with the skin, improving its retention and anti-inflammatory effect. Gels were evaluated for various parameters such as pH, morphology, rheology, and swelling. In vitro drug release research and ex vivo permeation through the skin were carried out on Franz diffusion cells. Additionally, in vivo assays were carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect, and tolerance studies were performed in humans by evaluating the biomechanical properties. Results showed a rheological profile common of semi-solid pharmaceutical forms for dermal application, with sustained release up to 24 h. In vivo studies using PRA-NLC-Car and PRA-NLC-Sep in Mus musculus mice and hairless rats histologically demonstrated their efficacy in an inflammatory animal model study. No signs of skin irritation or modifications of the skin’s biophysical properties were identified and the gels were well tolerated. The results obtained from this investigation concluded that the developed semi-solid formulations represent a fitting drug delivery carrier for PRA’s transdermal delivery, enhancing its dermal retention and suggesting that they can be utilized as an interesting and effective topical treatment for local skin inflammation caused by a possible abrasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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17 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Modification of Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) with Antibacterial Quaternary Groups and Its Potential for Periodontal Applications
by Nelson Vargas-Alfredo, Marta Munar-Bestard, Joana Maria Ramis and Marta Monjo
Gels 2022, 8(10), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8100630 - 5 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4188
Abstract
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for different biomedical applications due to their tunable physical characteristics and appropriate biological properties. In addition, GelMA could be modified with the addition of functional groups providing inherent antibacterial capabilities. Here, GelMA-based hydrogels were developed [...] Read more.
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for different biomedical applications due to their tunable physical characteristics and appropriate biological properties. In addition, GelMA could be modified with the addition of functional groups providing inherent antibacterial capabilities. Here, GelMA-based hydrogels were developed through the combination of a GelMA unmodified and modified polymer with quaternary ammonium groups (GelMAQ). The GelMAQ was synthesized from GelMA with a low degree of substitution of methacrylamide groups (DSMA) and grafted with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the free amine groups of the lysine moieties present in the original gelatin. GelMAs with high DSMA and GelMAQ were combined 50/50% or 25/75% (w/w), respectively, and compared to controls GelMA and GelMA with added chlorhexidine (CHX) at 0.2%. The different hydrogels were characterized using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and swelling behavior and tested in (1) Porphyromonas gingivalis to evaluate their antibacterial properties and (2) human gingival fibroblast to evaluate their cell biocompatibility and regenerative properties. GelMA/GelMAQ 25/75% showed good antibacterial properties but also excellent biocompatibility and regenerative properties toward human fibroblasts in the wound healing assay. Taken together, these results suggest that the modification of GelMA with quaternary groups could facilitate periodontal tissue regeneration, with good biocompatibility and added antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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21 pages, 6542 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Evaluation of Moxifloxacin Loaded Bilosomes In-Situ Gel: Optimization to Antibacterial Evaluation
by Ameeduzzafar Zafar, Omar Awad Alsaidan, Syed Sarim Imam, Mohd Yasir, Khalid Saad Alharbi and Mohammad Khalid
Gels 2022, 8(7), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8070418 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
In this study, moxifloxacin (MX)-loaded bilosome (BS) in situ gel was prepared to improve ocular residence time. MX-BSs were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. They were optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with bile salt (A, sodium deoxycholate), an edge activator (B, [...] Read more.
In this study, moxifloxacin (MX)-loaded bilosome (BS) in situ gel was prepared to improve ocular residence time. MX-BSs were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. They were optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with bile salt (A, sodium deoxycholate), an edge activator (B, Cremophor EL), and a surfactant (C, Span 60) as process variables. Their effects were assessed based on hydrodynamic diameter (Y1), entrapment efficacy (Y2), and polydispersity index (Y3). The optimized formulation (MX-BSop) depicted a low hydrodynamic diameter (192 ± 4 nm) and high entrapment efficiency (76 ± 1%). Further, MX-BSop was successfully transformed into an in situ gel using chitosan and sodium alginate as carriers. The optimized MX-BSop in situ gel (MX-BSop-Ig4) was further evaluated for gelling capacity, clarity, pH, viscosity, in vitro release, bio-adhesiveness, ex vivo permeation, toxicity, and antimicrobial properties. MX-BSop-Ig4 exhibited an optimum viscosity of 65.4 ± 5.3 cps in sol and 287.5 ± 10.5 cps in gel states. The sustained release profile (82 ± 4% in 24 h) was achieved with a Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic release model (R2 = 0.9466). Significant bio-adhesion (967.9 dyne/cm2) was achieved in tear film. It also exhibited 1.2-fold and 2.8-fold higher permeation than MX-Ig and a pure MX solution, respectively. It did not show any toxicity to the tested tissue, confirmed by corneal hydration (77.3%), cornea histopathology (no internal changes), and a HET-CAM test (zero score). MX-BSop-Ig4 exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) higher antimicrobial effect than pure MX against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The findings suggest that bilosome in situ gel is a good alternative to increase corneal residence time, as well as to improve therapeutic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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Review

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24 pages, 4238 KiB  
Review
Synthesis of Hydrogels and Their Progress in Environmental Remediation and Antimicrobial Application
by Mengshan Song, Jingfeng Wang, Jiabei He, Dongxiao Kan, Kaiyun Chen and Jialu Lu
Gels 2023, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9010016 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3493
Abstract
As a kind of efficient adsorptive material, hydrogel has a wide application prospect within different fields, owing to its unique 3D network structures composed of polymers. In this paper, different synthetic strategies, crosslinking methods and their corresponding limitations and outstanding contributions of applications [...] Read more.
As a kind of efficient adsorptive material, hydrogel has a wide application prospect within different fields, owing to its unique 3D network structures composed of polymers. In this paper, different synthetic strategies, crosslinking methods and their corresponding limitations and outstanding contributions of applications in the fields of removing environmental pollutants are reviewed to further provide a prospective view of their applications in water resources sustainability. Furthermore, the applications within the biomedical field, especially in wound dressing, are also reviewed in this paper, mainly due to their unique water retention ability, antibacterial ability, and good biocompatibility. Finally, the development direction of hydrogels in the fields of environmental remediation and biomedicine were summarized and prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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18 pages, 3977 KiB  
Review
Insights into the Role of Natural Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogel Wound Dressings in Biomedical Applications
by Ying Sun, Duanxin Li, Yang Yu and Yongjie Zheng
Gels 2022, 8(10), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8100646 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Acute skin damage caused by burns or cuts occurs frequently in people’s daily lives. Such wounds are difficult to heal normally and have persistent inflammation. Wound dressings not only improve the speed of wound healing, but also protect and cover the wound well. [...] Read more.
Acute skin damage caused by burns or cuts occurs frequently in people’s daily lives. Such wounds are difficult to heal normally and have persistent inflammation. Wound dressings not only improve the speed of wound healing, but also protect and cover the wound well. Hydrogels have the characteristics of good flexibility, high water content, and good biocompatibility, and are widely used in biomedicine and other fields. Common hydrogels are mainly natural hydrogels and synthetic hydrogels. Hydrogels cross-linked using different raw materials and different methods have different performance characteristics. Natural hydrogels prepared using polysaccharides are simple to obtain and have good biocompatibility, but are inferior to synthetic hydrogels in terms of mechanical properties and stability, and a single polysaccharide hydrogel cannot meet the component requirements for wound healing. Therefore, functional composite hydrogels with high mechanical properties, high biocompatibility, and high antibacterial properties are the current research hotspots. In this review, several common polysaccharides for hydrogel synthesis and the synthesis methods of polysaccharide hydrogels are introduced, and functional composite hydrogel dressings from recent years are classified. It is hoped that this can provide useful references for relevant research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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27 pages, 3926 KiB  
Review
Progress in Antibacterial Hydrogel Dressing
by Jie Liu, Wenqi Jiang, Qianyue Xu and Yongjie Zheng
Gels 2022, 8(8), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8080503 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6471
Abstract
Antibacterial hydrogel has excellent antibacterial property and good biocompatibility, water absorption and water retention, swelling, high oxygen permeability, etc.; therefore, it widely applied in biomedicine, intelligent textiles, cosmetics, and other fields, especially for medical dressing. As a wound dressing, the antibacterial hydrogel has [...] Read more.
Antibacterial hydrogel has excellent antibacterial property and good biocompatibility, water absorption and water retention, swelling, high oxygen permeability, etc.; therefore, it widely applied in biomedicine, intelligent textiles, cosmetics, and other fields, especially for medical dressing. As a wound dressing, the antibacterial hydrogel has the characteristics of absorbing wound liquid, controlling drug release, being non-toxic, being without side effects, and not causing secondary injury to the wound. Its preparation method is simple, and can crosslink via covalent or non-covalent bond, such as γ-radiation croFsslinking, free radical polymerization, graft copolymerization, etc. The raw materials are easy to obtain; usually these include chondroitin sulfate, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, etc., with different raw materials being used for different antibacterial modes. According to the hydrogel matrix and antibacterial mode, the preparation method, performance, antibacterial mechanism, and classification of antibacterial hydrogels are summarized in this paper, and the future development direction of the antibacterial hydrogel as wound dressing is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Hydrogels)
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