Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 19523

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: food carbohydrate; cyclodextrins and their derivatives; functional starch; functional sugars; extrusion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: intelligent food packaging; starch-based biodegradable packaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: biopolymer; structural regulation; extrusion; functional materials; whole cereal
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Starch is an important functional component in many foods and a main source of calories in the human diet, whether it is bread and potatoes on the tables of Europeans and Americans or rice and noodles in the kitchens of Asian people. It can be said that after a long evolutionary process, human beings have chosen starch as an important material to provide body energy without exception.

In order to meet the urgent need for the development of healthy, nutritious, and delicious food, various new processing technologies relating to starch-based food have emerged in recent years, such as additive manufacturing technology and starch-molecular-modification technology. Some of these new technologies are already in industrial application, while others are still at the laboratory level. However, in-depth research and application of these new technologies and supporting new processes and new equipment is of great significance to the starch industry in the future.

Thus, the present Special Issue will publish original research papers or review articles dealing with the latest advances, challenges, and prospects of “Novel Processing Technology of Starch-Based Products in the Food Industry”, including but not limited to the following aspects: 3D-printing and additive-manufacturing technology, enzyme-added extrusion, biological fermentation of starch or enzymatic modification technology, green solvents for starch processing (i.e., ionic liquids, eutectic solvents), starch-based nutrient delivery systems, and starch-based edible or degradable food packaging materials. In addition, research on new equipment and processes derived from new technologies is also welcome. All papers should focus on the novelty of the recent research carried out.

Prof. Dr. Zhengyu Jin
Dr. Long Chen
Dr. Enbo Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • starch
  • novel processing technology 
  • enzyme-added extrusion 
  • 3D-printing technology 
  • starch-based nutrient delivery system 
  • starch-based edible or degradable food packaging materials

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2681 KiB  
Article
The Fluorescence Response of Four Crystalline Starches According to Ultrasound-Assisted Starch-Salicylic Acid Inclusions
by Rui Pei, Hao Lu, Fan Wang, Rongrong Ma and Yaoqi Tian
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071431 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Fluorescence has shown its superior performance in the fields of starch physicochemical properties, starch–based materials, and the interactions of starch with small molecules. However, it has not been well explored in the fluorescence characteristics of starch. Herein, the fluorescence properties of four crystalline [...] Read more.
Fluorescence has shown its superior performance in the fields of starch physicochemical properties, starch–based materials, and the interactions of starch with small molecules. However, it has not been well explored in the fluorescence characteristics of starch. Herein, the fluorescence properties of four crystalline starches (A–type tapioca starch, B–type potato starch, C–type pea starch, and V–type starch, prepared with corn starch and stearic acid) were investigated using salicylic acid (SA) as an indicator. The results of inverted fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that SA could be included by starch. X–ray diffraction analysis further demonstrated that the inclusion of SA did not change the crystalline of the four crystal types of starches, which could provide a prerequisite for comparing the different fluorescence properties of the four crystal types of starches. Fluorescence enhancements of the four inclusions were 264.5 (B–type), 206 (C–type), 51.2 (V–type), and 28 (A–type). These results provide new insights for analyzing the fluorescence response of starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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15 pages, 3638 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism Underlying the Amylose-Zein Complexation Process and the Stability of the Molecular Conformation of Amylose-Zein Complexes in Water Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation
by Chaofan Wang, Na Ji, Lei Dai, Yang Qin, Rui Shi, Liu Xiong and Qingjie Sun
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071418 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
The aim of this study was to employ molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanism involved in amylose–zein complexation and the stability of the molecular conformation of amylose–zein complexes in water at the atomic and molecular levels. The average root mean square deviation [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to employ molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the mechanism involved in amylose–zein complexation and the stability of the molecular conformation of amylose–zein complexes in water at the atomic and molecular levels. The average root mean square deviation and radius of gyration were lower for amylose–zein complexes (1.11 nm and 1 nm, respectively) than for amylose (2.13 nm and 1.2 nm, respectively), suggesting a significantly higher conformational stability for amylose–zein complexes than for amylose in water. The results of radial distribution function, solvent-accessible surface area, and intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds revealed that the amylose–zein interaction inhibited water permeation into the amylose cavity, leading to enhanced conformational stabilities of the V-type helical structure of amylose and the amylose–zein complexes. Furthermore, the amylose in amylose–zein complexes displayed the thermodynamically stable 4C1 conformation. These findings can provide theoretical guidance in terms of the application of protein on starch processing aiming to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of starch (such as swelling capacity, pasting properties, and digestibility) for developing novel low-digestibility starch–protein products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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17 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
The Possibility of Replacing Wet-Milling with Dry-Milling in the Production of Waxy Rice Flour for the Application in Waxy Rice Ball
by Sicong Fang, Maoshen Chen, Feifei Xu, Fei Liu and Fang Zhong
Foods 2023, 12(2), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020280 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Due to the large consumption and discharge of water in wet milling, dry-milling is an alternative to produce waxy rice flour. The physical properties and sensory characteristics for preparing waxy rice balls in dry-milled waxy rice flour were compared in this study. The [...] Read more.
Due to the large consumption and discharge of water in wet milling, dry-milling is an alternative to produce waxy rice flour. The physical properties and sensory characteristics for preparing waxy rice balls in dry-milled waxy rice flour were compared in this study. The results showed that the damaged starch content increased significantly with the particle size of dry-milled flour, which decreased from 160 to 30 μm. The reduction in particle size increased the pasting viscosity of waxy rice flour, which further improved the stretch ability of dough and increased the viscoelasticity of the rice ball. The increase in damaged starch content directly led to a significant increase in the solubility of dry-milled flour, thereby increasing the freeze cracking rate of the rice ball and reducing its transparency, resulting in a decline in quality. In comparison with wet-milled waxy rice balls, dry-milled waxy rice balls made from rice flour in the range of 40 μm to 60 μm particle size had a similar texture and taste to that of wet-milled ones, moderate freeze cracking rate and better storage stability, as well as a stronger aroma of waxy rice that the consumer favored. GC-MS analysis showed that the content of key aroma compounds, such as grassy and fruity, noted nonanal in dry-milled flour, was 15–30% higher than that in the wet-milled depending on the difference of waxy rice variety. In conclusion, dry-milled waxy rice flour with a particle size in the range of 40 μm to 60 μm could be a candidate to replace wet-milled flour in the preparation of a waxy rice ball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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18 pages, 45797 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Rutin–Loaded Zein–Carboxymethyl Starch Nanoparticles
by Cuicui Li, Long Chen, David Julian McClements, Xinwen Peng, Chao Qiu, Jie Long, Hangyan Ji, Jianwei Zhao, Xing Zhou and Zhengyu Jin
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182827 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
In this work, rutin (RT)–loaded zein–carboxymethyl starch (CMS) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the antisolvent precipitation method. The effect of CMS on composite nanoparticles at different concentrations was studied. When the ratio of zein–RT–CMS was 10:1:30, the encapsulation efficiency (EE) was the highest, [...] Read more.
In this work, rutin (RT)–loaded zein–carboxymethyl starch (CMS) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the antisolvent precipitation method. The effect of CMS on composite nanoparticles at different concentrations was studied. When the ratio of zein–RT–CMS was 10:1:30, the encapsulation efficiency (EE) was the highest, reaching 73.5%. At this ratio, the size of the composite nanoparticles was 196.47 nm, and the PDI was 0.13, showing excellent dispersibility. The results of fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and CD showed that electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interaction were the main driving forces for the formation of nanoparticles. It can be seen from the FE–SEM images that the zein–RT–CMS nanoparticles were spherical. With the increase in the CMS concentration, the particles gradually embedded in the cross–linked network of CMS (10:1:50). After RT was loaded on zein–CMS nanoparticles, the thermal stability and pH stability of RT were improved. The results showed that zein–CMS was an excellent encapsulation material for bioactive substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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11 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Impact of Native Form Oat β-Glucan on the Physical and Starch Digestive Properties of Whole Oat Bread
by Han Hu, Huihui Lin, Lei Xiao, Minqi Guo, Xi Yan, Xueqian Su, Lianliang Liu and Shangyuan Sang
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172622 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
To investigate the effect of oat bran on bread quality and the mechanism of reducing the glycemic index (GI) of bread, wheat bran (10%, w/w, flour basis), oat bran (10%), and β-glucan (0.858%) were individually added to determine the expansion of dough, the [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of oat bran on bread quality and the mechanism of reducing the glycemic index (GI) of bread, wheat bran (10%, w/w, flour basis), oat bran (10%), and β-glucan (0.858%) were individually added to determine the expansion of dough, the specific volume, texture, color, GI, starch digestion characteristics, and α-amylase inhibition rate of bread. The results showed that the incorporation of wheat bran and oat bran both reduced the final expanded volume of the dough, decreased the specific volume of the bread, and increased the bread hardness and crumb redness and greenness values as compared to the control wheat group. The above physical properties of bran-containing bread obviously deteriorated while the bread with β-glucan did not change significantly (p < 0.05). The GI in vitro of bread was in the following order: control (94.40) > wheat bran (69.24) > β-glucan (65.76) > oat bran (64.93). Correspondingly, the oat bran group had the highest content of slowly digestible starch (SDS), the β-glucan group had the highest content of resistant starch (RS), and the control group had the highest content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS). For the wheat bran, oat bran, and β-glucan group, their inhibition rates of α-amylase were 9.25%, 28.93%, and 23.7%, respectively. The β-glucan reduced the bread GI and α-amylase activity by intertwining with starch to form a more stable gel network structure, which reduced the contact area between amylase and starch. Therefore, β-glucan in oat bran might be a key component for reducing the GI of whole oat bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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13 pages, 8192 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bifidobacteria Fermentation on Physico-Chemical, Thermal and Structural Properties of Wheat Starch
by Jing Hong, Wanxue Guo, Peixia Chen, Chong Liu, Juan Wei, Xueling Zheng and Saeed Hamid Saeed Omer
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172585 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria have been considered to be a very important species during sourdough fermentation. In order to explore the effects of bifidobacteria fermentation on thermal, physico-chemical and structural properties of wheat starch during dough fermentation, starch granules were separated from the fermented [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria have been considered to be a very important species during sourdough fermentation. In order to explore the effects of bifidobacteria fermentation on thermal, physico-chemical and structural properties of wheat starch during dough fermentation, starch granules were separated from the fermented dough at different fermentation times, including 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 9 h and 12 h. The results showed that the morphology of starch granules was destroyed gradually as the fermentation time increased, which appeared as erosion and rupture. With the increase in fermentation time, the solubility showed a significant increase, which changed from 8.51% (0 h) to 9.80% (12 h), and the swelling power was also increased from 9.31% (0 h) to 10.54% (12 h). As for the gelatinization property, the enthalpy was increased from 6.77 J/g (0 h) to 7.56 J/g (12 h), indicating a more stable thermal property of fermented starch, especially for the longer fermentation. The setback value was decreased with short fermentation time, indicating that the starch with a longer fermentation time was difficult to retrograde. The hardness of the gel texture was decreased significantly from 50.11 g to 38.66 g after fermentation for 12 h. The results show that bifidobacteria fermentation is an effective biological modification method of wheat starch for further applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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12 pages, 1609 KiB  
Article
Effect of Homogenization Modified Rice Protein on the Pasting Properties of Rice Starch
by Jianyong Wu, Shunqian Xu, Xiaoyan Yan, Xuan Zhang, Xingfeng Xu, Qian Li, Jiangping Ye and Chengmei Liu
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111601 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
Modification of plant-based protein for promoting wide applications is of interest to the food industry. Rice protein from rice residues was modified by homogenization, and its effect on pasting properties (including gelatinization and rheology) of rice starch was investigated. The results showed that [...] Read more.
Modification of plant-based protein for promoting wide applications is of interest to the food industry. Rice protein from rice residues was modified by homogenization, and its effect on pasting properties (including gelatinization and rheology) of rice starch was investigated. The results showed that homogenization could significantly decrease the particle size of rice protein and increase their water holding capacity without changing their band distribution in SDS-PAGE. With the addition of protein/homogenized proteins into rice starch decreased peak viscosity of paste. The homogenized proteins decreased breakdown and setback value when compared with that of original protein, indicating homogenized protein might have potential applications for increasing the stability and inhibiting short-term retrogradation of starch paste. The addition of protein/homogenized proteins resulted in a reduction in the viscoelasticity behavior of starch paste. These results indicate that homogenization would create a solution to alter the physicochemical properties of plant proteins, and the homogenized proteins may be a potential candidate for development of protein-rich starchy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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14 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Bioconversion of High-Calorie Potato Starch to Low-Calorie β-Glucan via 3D Printing Using Pleurotus eryngii Mycelia
by Hongbo Li, Suya Xie, Shangqiao Cao, Liangbin Hu, Dan Xu, Jiayi Zhang, Haizhen Mo and Zhenbin Liu
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101443 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Edible fungi play an important role in material and energy cycling. This study explored the role of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the transformation of potato high-calorie starch to low-calorie β-glucan. First, the 3D printing performance of the potato medium was optimized. After inoculating [...] Read more.
Edible fungi play an important role in material and energy cycling. This study explored the role of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the transformation of potato high-calorie starch to low-calorie β-glucan. First, the 3D printing performance of the potato medium was optimized. After inoculating the fermentation broth of Pleurotus eryngii in 3D printing, we studied the microstructure and material composition of the product. Along with the increase in 3D printing filling ratio, the starch content of the culture product decreased from 84.18% to 60.35%, while the starch content in the solid medium prepared using the mold was 67.74%. The change in β-glucan content in cultured products was opposite to that of starch, and the content of the culture product increased from 12.57% to 24.31%, while the β-glucan content in the solid medium prepared using the mold was 22.17%. The amino acid composition and content of the 3D printing culture system and solid culture products prepared using the mold were similar. The 3D printing culture system promoted the bioconversion efficiency of mycelia. It also showed high application potential of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia for the preparation of low-calorie food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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Review

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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Review
Advances in Starch Nanoparticle for Emulsion Stabilization
by Jianwei Zhou, Meimei Guo, Yu Qin, Wenjun Wang, Ruiling Lv, Enbo Xu, Tian Ding, Donghong Liu and Zhengzong Wu
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122425 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) are generally defined as starch grains smaller than 600–1000 nm produced from a series of physical, chemical, or biologically modified starches. Many studies have reported the preparation and modification of SNPs, which are mostly based on the traditional “top-down” strategy. [...] Read more.
Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) are generally defined as starch grains smaller than 600–1000 nm produced from a series of physical, chemical, or biologically modified starches. Many studies have reported the preparation and modification of SNPs, which are mostly based on the traditional “top-down” strategy. The preparation process generally has problems with process complexity, long reaction periods, low yield, high energy consumption, poor repeatability, etc. A “bottom-up” strategy, such as an anti-solvent method, is proven to be suitable for the preparation of SNPs, and they are synthesized with small particle size, good repeatability, a low requirement on equipment, simple operation, and great development potential. The surface of raw starch contains a large amount of hydroxyl and has a high degree of hydrophilicity, while SNP is a potential emulsifier for food and non-food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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