Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 20441

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Sino-German Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
Interests: innate immunity; mucosal immunity; risk assessment; immune tolerance; adverse reaction to gluten; hypoallergenic food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology; School of food Science and technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
Interests: gastrointestinal disorders; epitope of allergen; nutritional intervation; cross-reacitvity; epigenetic regulation; allergencity assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Daily food is a basis for human life, but some foods can cause allergy, intolerance, or celiac disease for certain people while being harmless for others. In recent years, although food allergen labeling has been applied in many countries, there is still a high frequency of food-induced discomforts due to accidental exposure. Worsening this situation, there is no approved treatment for these discomforts. In this regard, any studies on food allergy, intolerance, or celiac disease, either from food science, food chemistry, food processing, food toxicology, or other related fields, which aim to make a contribution to food safety, are welcomed for this Special Issue. Moreover, we hope this special issue will focus on gastrointestinal disorders related to food intolerances, allergies, and celiac disease.

Prof. Dr. Hongbing Chen
Prof. Dr. Xin Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food allergy
  • food intolerance
  • celiac disease
  • oral tolerance
  • allergen

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 5888 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Effect of Flavonoids on Basophils Degranulation and Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Damage Induced by ω-5 Gliadin-Derived Peptide
by Shuangshuang Wu, Ranran Zhang, Yaran Liu, Jinyan Gao, Yong Wu, Changchun Tu, Hongbing Chen and Juanli Yuan
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233857 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Flavonoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and may alleviate food allergic reactions and intestinal inflammation induced by ω-5 gliadin, a main allergen of wheat food allergy in children. In this study, a human basophil KU812 cell degranulation model and a Caco-2 monolayer [...] Read more.
Flavonoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and may alleviate food allergic reactions and intestinal inflammation induced by ω-5 gliadin, a main allergen of wheat food allergy in children. In this study, a human basophil KU812 cell degranulation model and a Caco-2 monolayer cell model were constructed in vitro to evaluate the effects of four flavonoids on the allergenicity of ω-5 gliadin peptides and ω-5 gliadin peptide-induced barrier damage in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers. The results show that baicalein, luteolin, isorhamnetin and naringenin can significantly inhibit the degranulation of KU812 cells stimulated by ω-5 gliadin-derived peptide P4 and the release of IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, the four flavonoids significantly inhibited the ω-5 gliadin-derived peptide P4 to induce the release of IL-6, IL-8 in Caco-2 cells, inhibited the release of zonulin, and significantly increase the expression of tight junction proteins Occludin and ZO-1 in the Caco-2 cell monolayer. In conclusion, baicalein, luteolin, isorhamnetin and naringenin inhibit degranulation stimulated by wheat allergen and enhance intestinal barrier functions, which supports the potential pharmaceutical application of the four flavonoids treatment for wheat food allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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14 pages, 3062 KiB  
Article
A Method for Screening Proteases That Can Specifically Hydrolyze the Epitope AA83-105 of αs1-Casein Allergen
by Di Liu, Xiaozhe Lv, Yanjun Cong and Linfeng Li
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213322 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Milk protein hydrolysates are common in infant formula, but some of them retain allergenicity due to incomplete hydrolysis of the epitopes for milk allergens. This study explored a method for screening proteases that could specifically hydrolyze the epitope of αs1-casein allergen. [...] Read more.
Milk protein hydrolysates are common in infant formula, but some of them retain allergenicity due to incomplete hydrolysis of the epitopes for milk allergens. This study explored a method for screening proteases that could specifically hydrolyze the epitope of αs1-casein allergen. Firstly, the αs1-casein epitope AA83-105 was synthesized by the solid-phase synthesis method. Then, after purification and identification, the complete antigen was prepared through coupling with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and was used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in BALB/c mice. Additionally, an indirect competitive-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was established. The mAb raised against αs1-casein protein was used as a control. The results showed that the purity of the synthetic epitope was >90%, and the coupling rate with BSA was 6.31. The mAb subtype is IgG1, with a titer of 1:320,000. The mAb reacted specifically with αs1-casein but did not cross-react with soybean protein. The linear regression equation of the competitive inhibition curve was y = −9.22x + 100.78 (R2 = 0.9891). The detection limit of icELISA method was more sensitive, and the method showed good accuracy and repeatability. The amounts of antigen residues in papain protease hydrolysates were relatively small, and the epitope fragment was detected in papain hydrolysate via mass spectrometry. This study provides ideas and methods for screening proteases that specifically hydrolyze the epitopes of milk allergens and also provides a superior foundation for the development of an advanced hypoallergenic formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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14 pages, 1336 KiB  
Article
Personalised Nutritional Plan and Resistance Exercise Program to Improve Health Parameters in Celiac Women
by Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Daniela Alejandra Loaiza-Martínez, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jacobo Á. Rubio-Arias, Fernando Alacid, Soledad Prats-Moya, María Martínez-Olcina, Rodrigo Yáñez-Sepúlveda and Pablo J. Marcos-Pardo
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3238; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203238 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent immune reaction to gluten in those with a genetic predisposition. This study was designed to evaluate menopause-associated symptoms, mood, bone quality, and IgA antibody levels in women with CD, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent immune reaction to gluten in those with a genetic predisposition. This study was designed to evaluate menopause-associated symptoms, mood, bone quality, and IgA antibody levels in women with CD, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD), and with or without resistance exercise. The randomised controlled trial was conducted on 28 Spanish women (>40 years old). Participants were divided into the following intervention groups: personalised gluten-free nutrition plan + exercise (GFD + E); personalised gluten-free nutrition plan (GFD); celiac controls (NO-GFD); and non-celiac controls (CONTROL). The participants responded to the Menopause Rating Scale and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires. Bone quality was measured with ultrasound and IgA with a blood test. After 12 weeks of intervention, the GFD + E group showed significant improvement in urogenital symptoms and scored higher on the ‘vigour’ subscale of the POMS. Negative associations were found between the total score on the Menopause Rating Scale and the ‘vigour’ subscale of the POMS questionnaire. Only those women who underwent a personalised GFD nutritional intervention combined with resistance exercise demonstrated significant changes after the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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12 pages, 2820 KiB  
Article
Functional and Allergenic Properties Assessment of Conalbumin (Ovotransferrin) after Oxidation
by Liangtao Lv, Liying Ye, Xiao Lin, Liuying Li, Jiamin Chen, Wenqi Yue and Xuli Wu
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152308 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Conalbumin (CA) is an iron-binding egg protein that has various bioactivities and causes major allergenicity in humans. This study investigated how oxidation affects the multiple functional properties of CA. The lipid peroxidation method was used to prepare treated CA [2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-CA [...] Read more.
Conalbumin (CA) is an iron-binding egg protein that has various bioactivities and causes major allergenicity in humans. This study investigated how oxidation affects the multiple functional properties of CA. The lipid peroxidation method was used to prepare treated CA [2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-CA and acrolein-CA] complexes. CA induced structural changes through oxidation. These changes enhanced the digestibility, rate of endocytosis in dendritic cells, and emulsifying and foaming properties of CA. ELISA and immunoblot analysis showed that the complexes reduced the IgE-binding ability of CA through lipid oxidation. KU812 cell assays showed that modification by AAPH and acrolein caused the release of IL-4 and histamine to decline. In conclusion, oxidation treatment modified the functional and structural properties of CA, reducing allergenicity during processing and preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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13 pages, 3690 KiB  
Article
Wheat Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors Aggravate Intestinal Inflammation Associated with Celiac Disease Mediated by Gliadin in BALB/c Mice
by Tian Yu, Shuai Hu, Fangfang Min, Jingjing Li, Yunpeng Shen, Juanli Yuan, Jinyan Gao, Yong Wu and Hongbing Chen
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111559 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune intestinal disorder caused by the ingestion of gluten in people who carry the susceptible gene. In current celiac disease research, wheat gluten is often the main target of attention, neglecting the role played by non-gluten proteins. This [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune intestinal disorder caused by the ingestion of gluten in people who carry the susceptible gene. In current celiac disease research, wheat gluten is often the main target of attention, neglecting the role played by non-gluten proteins. This study aimed to describe the effects of wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI, non-gluten proteins) and gliadin in BALB/c mice while exploring the further role of relevant adjuvants (cholera toxin, polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid and dextran sulfate sodium) intervention. An ex vivo splenocyte and intestinal tissue were collected for analysis of the inflammatory profile. The consumption of gliadin and ATI caused intestinal inflammation in mice. Moreover, the histopathology staining of four intestinal sections (duodenum, jejunum, terminal ileum, and middle colon) indicated that adjuvants, especially polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid, enhanced the villi damage and crypt hyperplasia in co-stimulation with ATI and gliadin murine model. Immunohistochemical results showed that tissue transglutaminase and IL-15 expression were significantly increased in the jejunal tissue of mice treated with ATI and gliadin. Similarly, the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-13) and Th1/Th2 balance also showed that the inflammation response was significantly increased after co-stimulation with ATI and gliadin. This study provided new evidence for the role of wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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17 pages, 2240 KiB  
Article
Immunomodulatory Role of BLG-Derived Peptides Based on Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and DC-T Cell from Mice Allergic to Cow’s Milk
by Xin Ma, Fan Yang, Xuanyi Meng, Yong Wu, Ping Tong, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen and Xin Li
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101450 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Peptides, but not whole protein, elicit an allergic reaction since food allergens should be consumed by digestion. In this study, we explored the remaining peptides after simulated digestion of cow’s milk in order to search for β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-derived peptides that could play an [...] Read more.
Peptides, but not whole protein, elicit an allergic reaction since food allergens should be consumed by digestion. In this study, we explored the remaining peptides after simulated digestion of cow’s milk in order to search for β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-derived peptides that could play an immunomodulatory role. As a major allergen in milk, BLG-derived peptides, 109 in total, were identified both from simulated infant and adult digestion in vitro. These peptides were mainly located in four regions, and they were synthesized as five peptides, namely, BLG1–14, BLG24–35, BLG40–60, BLG82–101, and BLG123–139. Then, the effect of peptides on the Caco-2 cell’s transport absorption, the co-stimulatory molecules of DC, and the T-cell phenotype was explored. The results suggested all peptides showed better transport absorption capacity with the apparent permeability coefficient higher than 2 × 10−6 cm·s−1. The ability of BLG40–60 for promoting lamina propria-derived DC cell (LPDC) maturation was observed by the increase in MHC II. Moreover, BLG1–14 and BLG40–60 directed activation of T lymphocytes towards a Th1 phenotype. This is the first report of the immunomodulatory potential of peptides in the sensitization of allergic reaction, and one peptide, BLG40–60, was regarded as an immunomodulatory peptide, one that should be further explored in an animal model in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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Review

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8 pages, 382 KiB  
Review
Oral Tolerance Induction—Opportunities and Mechanisms
by Ru-Xin Foong and Alexandra F. Santos
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3386; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213386 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2534
Abstract
Oral tolerance is the active absence of response to food allergens, which involves complex mechanisms in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Food allergy results from the disruption of such tolerance or the absence of its establishment in the first place. It follows allergic sensitization [...] Read more.
Oral tolerance is the active absence of response to food allergens, which involves complex mechanisms in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Food allergy results from the disruption of such tolerance or the absence of its establishment in the first place. It follows allergic sensitization with the production of allergen-specific IgE and results from the degranulation of basophils and mast cells on subsequent exposure to the allergen. Oral tolerance induction has been explored in the contexts of prevention and treatment of food allergy. Early introduction of allergenic foods (i.e., egg and peanut) in the diet of infants, before allergic sensitization occurs (i.e., via inflamed skin affected with eczema) has shown to be beneficial. Guidelines have changed to recommend the introduction of these allergenic foods by 6 months of age. For food allergic individuals, oral tolerance induction has been attempted using allergen-specific immunotherapy, which involves the administration of an allergen, modified or not, through various possible routes, including oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and subcutaneous, with or without concomitant administration of antibody-based biologics. Further research into the immune mechanisms of food allergy and oral tolerance can lead to the identification of novel targets to suppress the food allergic response and reverse the current food allergy epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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18 pages, 803 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on the Correlation between the Intestinal Microbiota and Food Allergy
by Hui Yang, Yezhi Qu, Yaran Gao, Shuyuan Sun, Rina Wu and Junrui Wu
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182913 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3043
Abstract
The increasing incidence of food allergy is becoming a substantial public health concern. Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota play a part in the development of food allergy. Additionally, the application of probiotics to correct gut microbiota [...] Read more.
The increasing incidence of food allergy is becoming a substantial public health concern. Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota play a part in the development of food allergy. Additionally, the application of probiotics to correct gut microbiota imbalances and regulate food allergy has become a research hotspot. However, the mechanism by which the gut microbiota regulates food allergy and the efficacy of probiotics are still in the preliminary exploration stage, and there are no clear and specific conclusions. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding the immune mechanism underlying food allergy, the correlation between the intestinal microbiota and food allergy, a detailed description of causation, and mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota regulates food allergy. Subsequently, we highlight how probiotics modulate the gut microbiome–immune axis to alleviate food allergy. This study will contribute to the dovetailing of bacterial therapeutics with immune system in allergic individuals to prevent food allergy and ameliorate food allergy symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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15 pages, 608 KiB  
Review
Maillard Reaction Induced Changes in Allergenicity of Food
by Jingkun Gou, Rui Liang, Houjin Huang and Xiaojuan Ma
Foods 2022, 11(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040530 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Food allergy is increasing in prevalence, posing aheavier social and financial burden. At present, there is still no widely accepted treatment for it. Methods to reduce or eliminate the allergenicity of trigger foods are urgently needed. Technological processing contributes to producing some hypoallergenic [...] Read more.
Food allergy is increasing in prevalence, posing aheavier social and financial burden. At present, there is still no widely accepted treatment for it. Methods to reduce or eliminate the allergenicity of trigger foods are urgently needed. Technological processing contributes to producing some hypoallergenic foods. Among the processing methods, the Maillard reaction (MR) is popular because neither special chemical materials nor sophisticated equipment is needed. MR may affect the allergenicity of proteins by disrupting the conformational epitope, disclosing the hidden epitope, masking the linear epitope, and/or forming a new epitope. Changes in the allergenicity of foods after processing are affected by various factors, such as the characteristics of the allergen, the processing parameters, and the processing matrix, and they are therefore variable and difficult to predict. This paper reviews the effects of MR on the allergenicity of each allergen group from common allergenic foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerances, Allergies, and Celiac Disease)
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