Special Issue "Starch: From a Complex Biopolymer to a Knowledge Driven Application in Food Systems"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mario Jekle

Technical University of Munich, Institute of Brewing and Beverage Technology, Research Group Cereal Technology and Process Engineering, Weihenstephaner Steig 20, 85354 Freising, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food science and technology; structure–function relationships of biopolymers; product and process design of cereal based systems; innovative re-structuring processes for starch–protein blends; biopolymer engineering
Guest Editor
Dr. Christoph Verheyen

Technical University of Munich, Institute of Brewing and Beverage Technology, Research Group Cereal Technology and Process Engineering, Weihenstephaner Steig 20, 85354 Freising, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food science and technology; plant-milk; product and process design of cereal based systems; structuring of cereal-based systems by yeast metabolites; enzyme technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Starch has to be considered as one of the top players in food systems, since, as a naturally-occurring storage copolymer, starch and its derivatives are the major components in staple food systems. Furthermore, the large interest in this carbohydrate polymer, as well for this Special Issue, serves as an explanation for the enormous number of scientific studies dealing with this biopolymer. The complexity of the chemical composition as well as the structural arrangement of the starch granules in different length scales leads to a highly interesting scientific field. Moreover, starch functionalities in food systems are closely linked to further major matrix components such as water or minor components as ions. In addition, the control of process sequences, in particular, the heat treatment and resulting gelatinization process and recrystallization during cooling and storage of starch based matrices determines the final product qualities. All these factors, however, are not only influencing the final food product characteristics, but also the setup of analytical systems, as well as the interpretation of its results in a multidimensional approach. Furthermore, through physical, chemical, and enzymatic modification techniques, specific functionalities for the application of starch in food systems are possible. This Special Issue aims to acquire in-depth knowledge about all these fields and serves to discuss challenges in mechanistic understanding and innovations of starch, enabling a knowledge driven application in food systems.

Dr. Mario Jekle
Dr. Christoph Verheyen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Starch functionality
  • Gelatinization
  • Starch modification
  • Starch granule architecture
  • Retrogradation
  • Annealing
  • Amylose, amylose-lipid complex and amylopectin
  • Carbohydrate polymers
  • Solid foams
  • Texture design

Published Papers (4 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-4
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Suppression of Pancreatin-Induced Digestion of Starch in Starch Granules by Starch/Fatty Acid and Starch/Flavonoid Complexes in Retrograding Rice Flour
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adzuki beans are used to prepare foods with glutinous and non-glutinous rice in Japan, and adzuki bean pigments are able to color rice starch a purplish red. This study deals with the adzuki bean extract-dependent suppression of starch digestion of non-glutinous rice flour
[...] Read more.
Adzuki beans are used to prepare foods with glutinous and non-glutinous rice in Japan, and adzuki bean pigments are able to color rice starch a purplish red. This study deals with the adzuki bean extract-dependent suppression of starch digestion of non-glutinous rice flour (joshinko in Japanese), which was gelatinized in boiling water and then cooled to 37 °C. Accompanying the treatment of joshinko with pancreatin, amylose and amylopectin were released from the joshinko particles, and the released amylose and amylopectin were further digested. The adzuki extract suppressed the release and digestion by binding to amylose and amylopectin, which were present in the particles and at the surfaces of the particles. Fatty acids and flavonoids in the adzuki extract contributed to the suppression. In addition, the starch digestion in the joshinko particles appeared to be suppressed if the amylose/fatty acid complexes and amylose/flavonoid and amylopectin/flavonoid complexes, which are poor substrates of α-amylase, surrounded the particles. It is discussed that the suppression was due to the prevention of α-amylase access to the particles. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Butyrylation of Maize and Potato Starches and Characterization of the Products by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and In Vitro Fermentation
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated
[...] Read more.
Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated products from different starch sources and to characterize their chemical structure and fermentation capability by using solid-state 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and an in vitro fermentation model, respectively. Low-amylose and high-amylose potato starch (LAPS and HAPS) and low-amylose and high-amylose maize starch (LAMS and HAMS) were subjected to organocatalytic butyrylation. This resulted in products with an increasing degree of substitution (DS) measured by heterogenous saponification and back titration with the HCl (chemical method) depending on reaction time. NMR analysis, however, showed that the major part of the acylation was induced by tartarate (75–89%) and only a minor part (11–25%) by butyrate. Generally, the chemical method overestimated the DS by 38% to 91% compared with the DS determination by NMR. Increasing the DS appeared to lower the in vitro fermentation capability of starches independent of the starch source and, therefore, do not seem to present a feasible method to deliver more butyrate to the colon than lower DS products. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle High-Pressure Treatment of Non-Hydrated Flour Affects Structural Characteristics and Hydration
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap,
[...] Read more.
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0–600 MPa, 10 min) and pressurization time depending (0–20 min, 450 MPa) alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68.3 ± 2.0% to 59.7 ± 1.5% (linearly, R2 = 0.83) and 59.6 ± 0.7% (sigmoidal), respectively. Thereby, detectable total amount of starch decreased from 77.7 ± 0.8% linearly to 67.6 ± 1.7%, and sigmoidal, to 69.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. Increase in pressure caused a linear decrease in gelatinization enthalpy of 33.2 ± 5.6%, and linear increase in hydration properties by 11.0 ± 0.6%. The study revealed structural and technological relevant alterations of starch-based food matrices with low moisture content by HPT, which must be taken into consideration during processing and preservation of food. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fermentability of Novel Type-4 Resistant Starches in In Vitro System
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resistant starches are non-digestible starches that are fermented in the colon by microbiota. These carbohydrates are prebiotic and can be beneficial to consumer health. Many types of resistant starch exist with varying physical properties that may result in differences in fermentability. The objective
[...] Read more.
Resistant starches are non-digestible starches that are fermented in the colon by microbiota. These carbohydrates are prebiotic and can be beneficial to consumer health. Many types of resistant starch exist with varying physical properties that may result in differences in fermentability. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of four novel resistant starches using an in vitro fermentation system and measuring changes in total gas production, pH, and formation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids). Fecal donations were collected from seven healthy volunteers. Four novel resistant starches, modified potato starch (MPS), modified tapioca starch (MTS), and modified maize starches (MMS-1 and MMS-2), were analyzed and compared to polydextrose and short chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as controls. After twenty-four hours of fermentation, MPS and MTS responded similarly in gas production (74 mL; 70.6 mL respectively), pH (5.93; 5.93 respectively), and SCFA production (Acetate: 115; 124, Propionate: 21; 26, Butyrate: 29; 31 μmol/mL respectively). While MMS-1 had similar gas production and individual SCFA production, the pH was significantly higher (6.06). The fermentation of MMS-2 produced the least amount of gas (22 mL), with a higher pH (6.34), and lower acetate production (78.4 μmol/mL). All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top