Special Issue "Genetically Modified Food"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2019) | Viewed by 22882

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Thomas Bøhn
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Marine Research (Havforskningsinstituttet), Norway
Interests: ecological interactions, evolution, ecotoxicology, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), modeling, risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), plants in particular, have been on the market for more than 20 years but still raise consumer concerns and scientific discourse over food safety and health issues. Herbicide-tolerant GM soy and insecticidal maize dominate agricultural production in some countries and feed a large amount of biomass into global food chains. Many other plants and organisms are in the pipeline, created with CRISPR and other new methods. However, what do we know about the quality of GMOs as food or feed products? As herbicide-tolerance traits increase herbicide residues in food and feed products, can such residues influence the nutritional composition of the plants or affect overall food quality? Are regulatory systems suited to assess potential health effects of combined exposure to insect toxins and herbicide residues? Are there other relevant food safety or health issues that may have been overlooked regarding how GMOs interact with their environment or context? These questions are more salient when research material is inaccessible due to intellectual property rights and when industry introduces even more powerful and rapid ways to create GMOs.

Dr. Thomas Bøhn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Bt-toxins
  • combined exposure
  • CRISPR
  • food quality
  • GMO
  • herbicide residues
  • intellectual property rights
  • nutritional composition

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method Specific for Detection and Quantification of the First Commercialized Genome-Edited Plant
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091245 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 10615 | Correction
Abstract
Discussion regarding the regulatory status of genome-edited crops has focused on precision of editing and on doubts regarding the feasibility of analytical monitoring compliant with existing GMO regulations. Effective detection methods are important, both for regulatory enforcement and traceability in case of biosafety, [...] Read more.
Discussion regarding the regulatory status of genome-edited crops has focused on precision of editing and on doubts regarding the feasibility of analytical monitoring compliant with existing GMO regulations. Effective detection methods are important, both for regulatory enforcement and traceability in case of biosafety, environmental or socio-economic impacts. Here, we approach the analysis question for the first time in the laboratory and report the successful development of a quantitative PCR detection method for the first commercialized genome-edited crop, a canola with a single base pair edit conferring herbicide tolerance. The method is highly sensitive and specific (quantification limit, 0.05%), compatible with the standards of practice, equipment and expertise typical in GMO laboratories, and readily integrable into their analytical workflows, including use of the matrix approach. The method, validated by an independent laboratory, meets all legal requirements for GMO analytical methods in jurisdictions such as the EU, is consistent with ISO17025 accreditation standards and has been placed in the public domain. Having developed a qPCR method for the most challenging class of genome edits, single-nucleotide variants, this research suggests that qPCR-based method development may be applicable to virtually any genome-edited organism. This advance resolves doubts regarding the feasibility of extending the regulatory approach currently employed for recombinant DNA-based GMOs to genome-edited organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetically Modified Food)
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Review

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Review
Genetically Modified Micro-Organisms for Industrial Food Enzyme Production: An Overview
Foods 2020, 9(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030326 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4356
Abstract
The use of food enzymes (FE) by the industrial food industry is continuously increasing. These FE are mainly obtained by microbial fermentation, for which both wild-type (WT) and genetically modified (GM) strains are used. The FE production yield can be increased by optimizing [...] Read more.
The use of food enzymes (FE) by the industrial food industry is continuously increasing. These FE are mainly obtained by microbial fermentation, for which both wild-type (WT) and genetically modified (GM) strains are used. The FE production yield can be increased by optimizing the fermentation process, either by using genetically modified micro-organism (GMM) strains or by producing recombinant enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the different methods used to produce FE preparations and how the use of GMM can increase the production yield. Additionally, information regarding the construction of these GMM strains is provided. Thereafter, an overview of the different European regulations concerning the authorization of FE preparations on the European market and the use of GMM strains is given. Potential issues related to the authorization and control of FE preparations sold on the European market are then identified and illustrated by a case study. This process highlighted the importance for control of FE preparations and the consequent need for appropriate detection methods targeting the presence of GMM, which is used in fermentation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetically Modified Food)
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Other

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Perspective
Genome-Edited Plants: Opportunities and Challenges for an Anticipatory Detection and Identification Framework
Foods 2021, 10(2), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020430 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
It is difficult to trace and identify genome-edited food and feed products if relevant information is not made available to competent authorities. This results in major challenges, as genetically modified organism (GMO) regulatory frameworks for food and feed that apply to countries such [...] Read more.
It is difficult to trace and identify genome-edited food and feed products if relevant information is not made available to competent authorities. This results in major challenges, as genetically modified organism (GMO) regulatory frameworks for food and feed that apply to countries such as the member states of the European Union (EU) require enforcement based on detection. An international anticipatory detection and identification framework for voluntary collaboration and collation of disclosed information on genome-edited plants could be a valuable tool to address these challenges caused by data gaps. Scrutinizing different information sources and establishing a level of information that is sufficient to unambiguously conclude on the application of genome editing in the plant breeding process can support the identification of genome-edited products by complementing the results of analytical detection. International coordination to set up an appropriate state-of-the-art database is recommended to overcome the difficulty caused by the non-harmonized bio-safety regulation requirements of genome-edited food and feed products in various countries. This approach helps to avoid trade disruptions and to facilitate GMO/non-GMO labeling schemes. Implementation of the legal requirements for genome-edited food and feed products in the EU and elsewhere would substantially benefit from such an anticipatory framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetically Modified Food)
Perspective
The Introduction of Thousands of Tonnes of Glyphosate in the food Chain—An Evaluation of Glyphosate Tolerant Soybeans
Foods 2019, 8(12), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120669 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5838
Abstract
Glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans dominate the world soybean market. These plants have triggered increased use of, as well as increased residues of, glyphosate in soybean products. We present data that show farmers have doubled their glyphosate applications per season (from two to four) and [...] Read more.
Glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans dominate the world soybean market. These plants have triggered increased use of, as well as increased residues of, glyphosate in soybean products. We present data that show farmers have doubled their glyphosate applications per season (from two to four) and that residues of late season spraying of glyphosate (at full bloom of the plant) result in much higher residues in the harvested plants and products. GT soybeans produced on commercial farms in the USA, Brazil and Argentina accumulate in total an estimated 2500–10,000 metric tonnes of glyphosate per year, which enter global food chains. We also review studies that have compared the quality of GT soybeans with conventional and organic soybeans. Feeding studies in Daphnia magna have shown dose-related adverse effects (mortality, reduced fecundity and delayed reproduction) of glyphosate residues in soybeans, even at glyphosate concentrations below allowed residue levels. We argue that GT soybeans need to be tested in fully representative and realistic contexts. However, the current risk assessment system has only required and received data from field trials with beans that were sprayed with much lower doses of glyphosate as compared to contemporary commercial farms. This has left knowledge gaps and a potentially serious underestimation of health risks to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetically Modified Food)
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