Special Issue "Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland
Interests: food microstructure; food science; food chemistry; biopolymers; dairy; plant proteins; hydrogels; emulsions; microencapsulation
Dr. Antonio Martínez-Abad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de los Alimentos (IATA), Food Safety and Preservation Department, Valencia, Spain
Interests: valorisation of biomass residues; nanometals; glycomic sequencing; structural modification of polysacchrarides; antimicrobial and bioactive bio-based materials; materials characterization; food packaging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many attributes of foods are determined not only by their composition but also by the spatial arrangement of the components within the food products. Food microstructure has an impact on the mechanical properties, texture, flavour, melting properties, quality, stability and bioavailability of nutrients. Therefore, understanding the relationship of food microstructure with these various attributes is essential for a rational food product design. An effort to develop new tools to obtain more accurate structural information of foods on different size scales is encouraged, as it will accelerate progress in the field. On the other hand, food matrices are intrinsically dynamic systems, so studying the changes on food microstructure during processing, storage or consumption is crucial to fully understand all aspects of product quality and stability. This Special Issue is dedicated to the study of the links between the microstructure of food products and their quality and stability and how the microstructural information can be used to explain or even predict food behaviour.

Dr. Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque
Dr. Antonio Martínez-Abad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food microstructure
  • Microscopy
  • Imaging
  • Food dynamics
  • Food stability
  • Food quality

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Granule Structure in Seven Ginkgo Kernel Flours
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081721 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Ginkgo biloba L. is an important economic tree species in China, and its kernels have been used as a popular food in Asian countries. Herein, the morphology, basic chemical components, starch granule structures, and physicochemical properties of kernel flours from seven ginkgo cultivars [...] Read more.
Ginkgo biloba L. is an important economic tree species in China, and its kernels have been used as a popular food in Asian countries. Herein, the morphology, basic chemical components, starch granule structures, and physicochemical properties of kernel flours from seven ginkgo cultivars were investigated, and their relationships were analyzed. The kernels were oval or spherical in shape, with variable sizes. The starch granules exhibited both regular and irregular Maltese cross patterns. Amylose was mainly distributed in amorphous growth rings. A spatial variation in the 865/942 cm−1 ratio was observed within individual starch granules. Variations in total starch content, apparent amylose content (AAC), crude protein content (CPC), total amino acid content (TAAC), starch fine structure, and thermal and pasting properties were observed among the seven kernel flours. Pearson correlation coefficients and principle component analyses showed that the thermal properties were affected by kernel CPC, TAAC, AAC, and starch fine structure, while the pasting properties were affected by AAC and starch fine structure. Furthermore, experiments showed that the seed protein structure and α-amylase activity affected the pasting properties of ginkgo kernel flours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Article
Designing Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Cookies through Computer Aided Engineering
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121804 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing can be applied in the food sector to create food products with personalized properties such as shape, texture, and composition. In this article, we introduce a computer aided engineering (CAE) methodology to design 3D printed food products with [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing can be applied in the food sector to create food products with personalized properties such as shape, texture, and composition. In this article, we introduce a computer aided engineering (CAE) methodology to design 3D printed food products with tunable mechanical properties. The focus was on the Young modulus as a proxy of texture. Finite element modelling was used to establish the relationship between the Young modulus of 3D printed cookies with a honeycomb structure and their structure parameters. Wall thickness, cell size, and overall porosity were found to influence the Young modulus of the cookies and were, therefore, identified as tunable design parameters. Next, in experimental tests, it was observed that geometry deformations arose during and after 3D printing, affecting cookie structure and texture. The 3D printed cookie porosity was found to be lower than the designed one, strongly influencing the Young modulus. After identifying the changes in porosity through X-ray micro-computed tomography, a good match was observed between computational and experimental Young’s modulus values. These results showed that changes in the geometry have to be quantified and considered to obtain a reliable prediction of the Young modulus of the 3D printed cookies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Article
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis for Elucidating Crumb and Crust Microstructure of Bran-Enriched South African Fried Dough and Batter
Foods 2020, 9(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050605 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
A double staining protocol for image acquisition using confocal microscopy (CLSM) coupled with image analysis was employed to elucidate the crust and cross-sectional properties of fried dough. Penetrated oil by image analysis (POia), porosity and pore features were quantified from the cross-section micrographs. [...] Read more.
A double staining protocol for image acquisition using confocal microscopy (CLSM) coupled with image analysis was employed to elucidate the crust and cross-sectional properties of fried dough. Penetrated oil by image analysis (POia), porosity and pore features were quantified from the cross-section micrographs. Crust surface roughness was measured using fractal metrics and fat content was determined by solvent extraction using the American Association of Cereal Chemists method. Crumb porosity ranged between 54.94%–81.84% and reduced (p < 0.05) with bran addition. Crumb pore sizes ranged from 0–475 µm with <1 circularity, indicating elliptical shape. POia values were notably higher (p < 0.05) than PO by Soxhlet extraction (POsox), except for wheat bran (WB) fried dough where the values of POia and POsox were closely ranked. The linear effect of initial moisture content and bran concentration showed a significant impact on the image properties. The mean fractal dimension (FD) decreased as initial moisture increased. The addition of WB caused a significant reduction in the FD of fried dough, while the opposite effect was noted for its oat bran counterpart. Due to non-collinearity of image properties (FD, POia and porosity), data were fitted to cubic polynomial regression with R2 values > 0.70. CLSM and image analysis were effective in measuring oil absorption and interpreting crumb properties of fried dough. The protocol used in this study can be applied to other thick deep-fried foods for qualitative observation and quantitative measurement of a specific physical or chemical property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Review

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Review
Hydrogels: Characteristics and Application as Delivery Systems of Phenolic and Aroma Compounds
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061252 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Complex challenges are facing the food industry as it develops novel and innovative products for the consumer marketplace. Food processing and preservation are primarily based on achievement and maintenance of safety in order to protect consumers, as well as extending product shelf life [...] Read more.
Complex challenges are facing the food industry as it develops novel and innovative products for the consumer marketplace. Food processing and preservation are primarily based on achievement and maintenance of safety in order to protect consumers, as well as extending product shelf life under the relevant conditions of storage, transport and distribution. Maximizing retention of bioactives with recognized positive effects on health typically comes under consideration when the previous two priorities have been achieved. This review introduces the potential applications of hydrogels as delivery systems of high-value bioactives like phenolics and aromas. If they are successfully encapsulated within the gel structures, their release can be controlled, which opens a wide range of applications, not only in food, but also in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Hydrogels are three-dimensional network structures which can absorb significant amounts of water. They have the ability to thicken the system and therefore can be used to design products with desired properties. In order to preserve the valuable components, it is necessary to know their physicochemical properties, in addition to the properties of the polymer used for hydrogel preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Review
Development of Next-Generation Nutritionally Fortified Plant-Based Milk Substitutes: Structural Design Principles
Foods 2020, 9(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040421 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3513
Abstract
Consumers are increasingly interested in decreasing their dietary intake of animal-based food products, due to health, sustainability, and ethical concerns. For this reason, the food industry is creating new products from plant-based ingredients that simulate many of the physicochemical and sensory attributes associated [...] Read more.
Consumers are increasingly interested in decreasing their dietary intake of animal-based food products, due to health, sustainability, and ethical concerns. For this reason, the food industry is creating new products from plant-based ingredients that simulate many of the physicochemical and sensory attributes associated with animal-derived foods, including milk, eggs, and meat. An understanding of how the ingredient type, amount, and organization influence the desirable physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional attributes of these plant-based foods is required to achieve this goal. A potential problem with plant-based diets is that they lack key micronutrients, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and ω-3 fatty acids. The aim of this review is to present the science behind the creation of next-generation nutritionally fortified plant-based milk substitutes. These milk-like products may be formed by mechanically breaking down certain plant materials (including nuts, seeds, and legumes) to produce a dispersion of oil bodies and other colloidal matter in water, or by forming oil-in-water emulsions by homogenizing plant-based oils and emulsifiers with water. A brief overview of the formulation and fabrication of plant-based milks is given. The relationship between the optical properties, rheology, and stability of plant-based milks and their composition and structure is then covered. Approaches to fortify these products with micronutrients that may be missing from a plant-based diet are also highlighted. In conclusion, this article highlights how the knowledge of structural design principles can be used to facilitate the creation of higher quality and more sustainable plant-based food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


 

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