Next Article in Journal
Modelling the Effect of Salt Concentration on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Costa Rican Fresh Cheeses
Next Article in Special Issue
Microstructural Analysis of Whey/Soy Protein Isolate Mixed Gels Using Confocal Raman Microscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Dietary Brown Seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) Additive on Meat Quality and Nutrient Composition of Fattening Pigs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hydrogels: Characteristics and Application as Delivery Systems of Phenolic and Aroma Compounds
Article

Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Granule Structure in Seven Ginkgo Kernel Flours

1
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
2
College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laura G. Gómez-Mascaraque and Antonio Martínez-Abad
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081721
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
Ginkgo biloba L. is an important economic tree species in China, and its kernels have been used as a popular food in Asian countries. Herein, the morphology, basic chemical components, starch granule structures, and physicochemical properties of kernel flours from seven ginkgo cultivars were investigated, and their relationships were analyzed. The kernels were oval or spherical in shape, with variable sizes. The starch granules exhibited both regular and irregular Maltese cross patterns. Amylose was mainly distributed in amorphous growth rings. A spatial variation in the 865/942 cm−1 ratio was observed within individual starch granules. Variations in total starch content, apparent amylose content (AAC), crude protein content (CPC), total amino acid content (TAAC), starch fine structure, and thermal and pasting properties were observed among the seven kernel flours. Pearson correlation coefficients and principle component analyses showed that the thermal properties were affected by kernel CPC, TAAC, AAC, and starch fine structure, while the pasting properties were affected by AAC and starch fine structure. Furthermore, experiments showed that the seed protein structure and α-amylase activity affected the pasting properties of ginkgo kernel flours. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba L.; kernel flours; starch; protein; physicochemical properties Ginkgo biloba L.; kernel flours; starch; protein; physicochemical properties
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, Y.; Hao, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, Y.; Luo, J.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Q.; Wang, L.; Zhang, C. Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Granule Structure in Seven Ginkgo Kernel Flours. Foods 2021, 10, 1721. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081721

AMA Style

Lu Y, Hao W, Zhang X, Zhao Y, Xu Y, Luo J, Liu Q, Liu Q, Wang L, Zhang C. Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Granule Structure in Seven Ginkgo Kernel Flours. Foods. 2021; 10(8):1721. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081721

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lu, Yan, Weizhuo Hao, Xiaomin Zhang, Yue Zhao, Yang Xu, Jixun Luo, Qing Liu, Qiaoquan Liu, Li Wang, and Changquan Zhang. 2021. "Comparative Study of Physicochemical Properties and Starch Granule Structure in Seven Ginkgo Kernel Flours" Foods 10, no. 8: 1721. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081721

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop