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Article

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis for Elucidating Crumb and Crust Microstructure of Bran-Enriched South African Fried Dough and Batter

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
2
Department of Biotechnology & Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050605
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 9 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microstructure and Its Relationship with Quality and Stability)
A double staining protocol for image acquisition using confocal microscopy (CLSM) coupled with image analysis was employed to elucidate the crust and cross-sectional properties of fried dough. Penetrated oil by image analysis (POia), porosity and pore features were quantified from the cross-section micrographs. Crust surface roughness was measured using fractal metrics and fat content was determined by solvent extraction using the American Association of Cereal Chemists method. Crumb porosity ranged between 54.94%–81.84% and reduced (p < 0.05) with bran addition. Crumb pore sizes ranged from 0–475 µm with <1 circularity, indicating elliptical shape. POia values were notably higher (p < 0.05) than PO by Soxhlet extraction (POsox), except for wheat bran (WB) fried dough where the values of POia and POsox were closely ranked. The linear effect of initial moisture content and bran concentration showed a significant impact on the image properties. The mean fractal dimension (FD) decreased as initial moisture increased. The addition of WB caused a significant reduction in the FD of fried dough, while the opposite effect was noted for its oat bran counterpart. Due to non-collinearity of image properties (FD, POia and porosity), data were fitted to cubic polynomial regression with R2 values > 0.70. CLSM and image analysis were effective in measuring oil absorption and interpreting crumb properties of fried dough. The protocol used in this study can be applied to other thick deep-fried foods for qualitative observation and quantitative measurement of a specific physical or chemical property. View Full-Text
Keywords: magwinya; food microstructure; image analysis; fried dough; confocal microscopy magwinya; food microstructure; image analysis; fried dough; confocal microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Onipe, O.O.; Beswa, D.; Jideani, A.I.O. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis for Elucidating Crumb and Crust Microstructure of Bran-Enriched South African Fried Dough and Batter. Foods 2020, 9, 605. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050605

AMA Style

Onipe OO, Beswa D, Jideani AIO. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis for Elucidating Crumb and Crust Microstructure of Bran-Enriched South African Fried Dough and Batter. Foods. 2020; 9(5):605. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050605

Chicago/Turabian Style

Onipe, Oluwatoyin O., Daniso Beswa, and Afam I.O. Jideani 2020. "Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis for Elucidating Crumb and Crust Microstructure of Bran-Enriched South African Fried Dough and Batter" Foods 9, no. 5: 605. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050605

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