Special Issue "Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II"

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Maria Teresa Cidade
Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais and Cenimat/I3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: experimental rheology; polymer and polymer-based materials; liquid crystals; biomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. João Miguel Nóbrega
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Polymers and Composites, Polymer Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal;
MIT Portugal Program Lead Faculty of Digital Transformation in Manufacturing
Interests: computational modelling; computational rheology; polymer processing; viscoelastic fluids; rheology; rheometry; OpenFOAM
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rheology, defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches. The study of rheology includes both experimental and computational methods, which are not mutually exclusive. Its practical importance embraces many processes, from daily life, like preparing mayonnaise or spread an ointment or shampooing, to industrial processes like polymer processing and oil extraction, among several others. Practical applications include also formulations and product development.

Following a successful first volume, we are now launching this second volume where it is intended to continue to present the latest advances in the fields of experimental and computational rheology applied to the most diverse classes of materials (foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, polymers and biopolymers, multiphasic systems and composites) and processes.

This Special Issue will comprise, not only original research papers, but also review articles.

Prof. Maria Teresa Cidade
Prof. João Miguel Nóbrega
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fluids is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Experimental rheology
  • Computational rheology
  • Complex fluids
  • Practical applications of rheology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II”
Fluids 2020, 5(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040163 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
Rheology, defined as the science of the deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
On the Data-Driven Modeling of Reactive Extrusion
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020094 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper analyzes the ability of different machine learning techniques, able to operate in the low-data limit, for constructing the model linking material and process parameters with the properties and performances of parts obtained by reactive polymer extrusion. The use of data-driven approaches [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the ability of different machine learning techniques, able to operate in the low-data limit, for constructing the model linking material and process parameters with the properties and performances of parts obtained by reactive polymer extrusion. The use of data-driven approaches is justified by the absence of reliable modeling and simulation approaches able to predict induced properties in those complex processes. The experimental part of this work is based on the in situ synthesis of a thermoset (TS) phase during the mixing step with a thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) phase in a twin-screw extruder. Three reactive epoxy/amine systems have been considered and anhydride maleic grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) has been used as compatibilizer. The final objective is to define the appropriate processing conditions in terms of improving the mechanical properties of these new PP materials by reactive extrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Predictions for Boger Fluids and Circular Contraction Flow under Various Aspect Ratios
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020085 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This work puts forward a modeling study contrasted against experimental, with focus on abrupt circular contraction flow of two highly-elastic constant shear-viscosity Boger fluids, i.e., a polyacrylamide dissolved in corn-syrup PAA/CS (Fluid-1) and a polyisobutylene dissolved in polybutene PIB/PB (Fluid-2), in various contraction-ratio [...] Read more.
This work puts forward a modeling study contrasted against experimental, with focus on abrupt circular contraction flow of two highly-elastic constant shear-viscosity Boger fluids, i.e., a polyacrylamide dissolved in corn-syrup PAA/CS (Fluid-1) and a polyisobutylene dissolved in polybutene PIB/PB (Fluid-2), in various contraction-ratio geometries. Moreover, this work goes hand-in-hand with the counterpart matching of experimental pressure-drops observed in such 4:1 and 8:1 aspect-ratio contraction flows, as described experimentally in the literature. In this study, the experimental findings, for Boger fluids with severe strain-hardening features, reveal significant vortex-evolution characteristics, correlated with enhanced pressure-drop phasing and normal-stress response in the corner region. It is shown how such behavior may be replicated through simulation and the rheological dependencies that are necessary to bring this about. Predictive solutions with an advanced hybrid finite-element/volume (fe/fv) algorithm are able to elucidate the rheological properties (extensional viscosity and normal-stress response) that rule such vortex-enhancement evolution. This is accomplished by employing the novel swanINNFM(q) family of fluids, through the swIM model-variant, with its strong and efficient control on elongational properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Verification and Validation of openInjMoldSim, an Open-Source Solver to Model the Filling Stage of Thermoplastic Injection Molding
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020084 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the present study, the simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) non-isothermal, non-Newtonian fluid flow of polymer melts is investigated. In particular, the filling stage of thermoplastic injection molding is numerically studied with a solver implemented in the open-source computational library O p e [...] Read more.
In the present study, the simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) non-isothermal, non-Newtonian fluid flow of polymer melts is investigated. In particular, the filling stage of thermoplastic injection molding is numerically studied with a solver implemented in the open-source computational library O p e n F O A M ® . The numerical method is based on a compressible two-phase flow model, developed following a cell-centered unstructured finite volume discretization scheme, combined with a volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique for the interface capturing. Additionally, the Cross-WLF (Williams–Landel–Ferry) model is used to characterize the rheological behavior of the polymer melts, and the modified Tait equation is used as the equation of state. To verify the numerical implementation, the code predictions are first compared with analytical solutions, for a Newtonian fluid flowing through a cylindrical channel. Subsequently, the melt filling process of a non-Newtonian fluid (Cross-WLF) in a rectangular cavity with a cylindrical insert and in a tensile test specimen are studied. The predicted melt flow front interface and fields (pressure, velocity, and temperature) contours are found to be in good agreement with the reference solutions, obtained with the proprietary software M o l d e x 3 D ® . Additionally, the computational effort, measured by the elapsed wall-time of the simulations, is analyzed for both the open-source and proprietary software, and both are found to be similar for the same level of accuracy, when the parallelization capabilities of O p e n F O A M ® are employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Antibiotic Activity Screened by the Rheology of S. aureus Cultures
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020076 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Multidrug resistant bacteria are one of the most serious public health threats nowadays. How bacteria, as a population, react to the presence of antibiotics is of major importance to the outcome of the chosen treatment. In this study we addressed the impact of [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistant bacteria are one of the most serious public health threats nowadays. How bacteria, as a population, react to the presence of antibiotics is of major importance to the outcome of the chosen treatment. In this study we addressed the impact of oxacillin, a β-lactam, the most clinically relevant class of antibiotics, in the viscosity profile of the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain COL. In the first approach, the antibiotic was added, at concentrations under the minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC), to the culture of S. aureus and steady-state shear flow curves were obtained for discrete time points during the bacterial growth, with and without the presence of the antibiotic, showing distinct viscosity progress over time. The different behaviors obtained led us to test the impact of the sub-inhibitory concentration and a concentration that inhibited growth. In the second approach, the viscosity growth curves were measured at a constant shear rate of 10 s−1, over time. The obtained rheological behaviors revealed distinctive characteristics associated to the presence of each concentration of the tested antibiotic. These results bring new insights to the bacteria response to a well-known bacteriolytic antibiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Gravitational Effects in the Collision of Elasto-Viscoplastic Drops on a Vertical Plane
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020061 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The collision of drops in a solid substrate is an interesting problem with several practical applications. When the drop is made of a complex fluid the problem presents numerical challenges due to the interaction of the mechanical properties and the free surface approach. [...] Read more.
The collision of drops in a solid substrate is an interesting problem with several practical applications. When the drop is made of a complex fluid the problem presents numerical challenges due to the interaction of the mechanical properties and the free surface approach. In the present work, we solve the numerical problem of elasto-viscoplastic drops colliding in vertical plane. The free surface evolution is handled by a Marker-And-Cell method combined with a Front-Tracking interface representation. Special emphasis is given to the gravitational effects by means of exploring the Froude number. We were able to find a rich variety of outputs that can be classified as sticking, sliding, bouncing, detaching, and slithering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Polypropylene Fibers and Measurement Methods on the Yield Stress of Grouts for the Consolidation of Heritage Masonry Walls
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020053 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The injection of grouts is a consolidation technique suitable for overcoming the structural deterioration of old stone masonry walls. Grouting operations involve introducing a suspension (grout) into a masonry core with the aim of improving the load capacity of the wall, as well [...] Read more.
The injection of grouts is a consolidation technique suitable for overcoming the structural deterioration of old stone masonry walls. Grouting operations involve introducing a suspension (grout) into a masonry core with the aim of improving the load capacity of the wall, as well as reducing its brittle mechanisms. The yield stress of injection grouts will affect the injection pressure and their flow inside the masonry. However, the determination of some rheological properties such as yield stress in hydraulic grout is challenging, due to the combined effects of hydration reactions and interactions between the particles present in the suspension. In this study, the determination of the yield stress of natural hydraulic lime-based grouts with polypropylene fibers was carried out. The changes in yield stress with time, fibers content and hydration were evaluated by two measurement methods using a rotational rheometer. Additionally, the static and dynamic yield stress as well as the critical shear–strain rate were determined, which provided useful information on the grout design in order to achieve successful grouting operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Rheology Methods as a Tool to Study the Impact of Whey Powder on the Dough and Breadmaking Performance of Wheat Flour
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020050 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering the nutritional value, whey is an excellent ingredient for the development of food products, in line with the concept of a circular economy for the reuse of industry by-products. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of the [...] Read more.
Considering the nutritional value, whey is an excellent ingredient for the development of food products, in line with the concept of a circular economy for the reuse of industry by-products. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of the whey addition on the rheology of wheat flour dough and breadmaking performance, using both empirical and fundamental methods. Different levels of commercial whey powder (0%, 12%, 16% and 20% w/w) were tested in a bread formulation previously optimized. Dough mixing tests were performed using Micro-doughLab and Consistograph equipment, to determine the water absorptions of different formulations and evaluate empirical rheology parameters related to mixing tolerances. Biaxial extension was applied by the Alveograph to simulate fermentation during the baking process. Fermented doughs were characterized in a Texturometer using penetration and extensibility tests, and by small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, a fundamental rheology method, in a Rheometer applying frequency sweeps. Loaf volume and firmness were used to study the breadmaking quality. Despite a negative impact on the empirical rheology parameters of the dough and poorer baking results, the use of this by-product should be considered for nutritional and sustainability reasons. In addition, significant correlations (r2 > 0.60) between the dough rheology parameters obtained from the empirical measurements were established. Changes in the gluten structure were not accurately detected by the SAOS measurements and Texture Profile Analysis of the doughs, and a correlation between fundamental and empirical measurements was not found. Consistograph or Micro-doughLab devices can be used to estimate bread firmness. Extensional tests in the Texturometer, using SMS/Kieffer Dough and Gluten Extensibility Rig, may predict loaf volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Use of the Coaxial Cylinders Equivalence for the Measurement of Viscosity in Complex Non-Viscometric, Rotational Geometries
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020043 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The rheology of macroscopic particle suspensions is relevant in many industrial applications, such as cement-based suspensions, synthetic and natural drilling fluids. Rheological measurements for these complex, heterogeneous systems are complicated by a double effect of particle size. On the one hand, the smallest [...] Read more.
The rheology of macroscopic particle suspensions is relevant in many industrial applications, such as cement-based suspensions, synthetic and natural drilling fluids. Rheological measurements for these complex, heterogeneous systems are complicated by a double effect of particle size. On the one hand, the smallest characteristic length of the measuring geometry must be larger than the particle size. On the other hand, large particles are prone to sediment, thus calling for the use of rotational tools that are able to keep the suspension as homogeneous as possible. As a consequence, standard viscometric rotational rheometry cannot be used and complex flow geometries are to be implemented. In this way, however, the flow becomes non-viscometric, thus requiring the development of approximate methods to translate the torque vs. rotation speed raw data, which constitute the rheometer output, into viscosity vs. shear rate curves. In this work the Couette analogy methodology is used to establish the above equivalence in the case of two complex, commercial geometries, namely, a double helical ribbon tool and a square-shaped stirrer, which are recommended for the study of relatively large size suspensions. The methodology is based on the concept of the reduction of the complex geometry to an equivalent coaxial cylinder geometry, thus determining a quantitative correspondence between the non-standard situation and the well-known Couette-like conditions. The Couette analogy has been used first to determine the calibration constants of the non-standard geometry by using a Newtonian oil of known viscosity. The constants have been subsequently used to determine the viscosity curves of two non-Newtonian, shear thinning fluids, namely a homogeneous polymer solution and two heterogeneous concentrated suspensions. The results show that the procedure yields a good agreement between the viscosity curves obtained by the reduction method and those measured by a standard viscometric Couette geometry. The calibration constants obtained in this work from the coaxial cylinder analogy are also compared with those provided by the manufacturer, indicating that the calibration can improve the accuracy of the rheometer output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study on Human Milk Rheology: Behavior Changes from External Factors
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020042 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The influence of external factors, including temperature, storage, aging, time, and shear rate, on the general rheological behavior of raw human milk is investigated. Rotational and oscillatory experiments were performed. Human milk showed non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, thixotropic behavior with both yield and flow stresses. [...] Read more.
The influence of external factors, including temperature, storage, aging, time, and shear rate, on the general rheological behavior of raw human milk is investigated. Rotational and oscillatory experiments were performed. Human milk showed non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, thixotropic behavior with both yield and flow stresses. Storage and aging increased milk density and decreased viscosity. In general, increases in temperature lowered density and viscosity with periods of inconsistent behavior noted between 6–16 C and over 40 C. Non-homogeneous breakdown between the yield and flow stresses was found which, when coupled with thixotropy, helps identify the source of nutrient losses during tube feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Oxidation Degree of Graphene Oxide on the Shear Rheology of Poly(ethylene glycol) Suspensions
Fluids 2020, 5(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5020041 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This work studies the influence of the concentration and oxidation degree on the rheological behavior of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets dispersed on polyethylene glycol (PEG). The rheological characterization was fulfilled in shear flow through rotational rheometry measurements, in steady, transient and oscillatory regimes. [...] Read more.
This work studies the influence of the concentration and oxidation degree on the rheological behavior of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets dispersed on polyethylene glycol (PEG). The rheological characterization was fulfilled in shear flow through rotational rheometry measurements, in steady, transient and oscillatory regimes. Graphene oxide was prepared by chemical exfoliation of graphite using the modified Hummers method. The morphological and structural characteristics originating from the synthesis were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that higher oxidation times increase the functional groups, which leads to a higher dispersion and exfoliation of GO sheets in the PEG. Moreover, the addition of GO in a PEG solution results in significant growth of the suspension viscosity, and a change of the fluid behavior from Newtonian to pseudoplastic. This effect is related to the concentration and oxidation level of the obtained GO particles. The results obtained aim to contribute towards the understanding of the interactions between the GO and the polymeric liquid matrix, and their influence on the suspension rheological behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology, Volume II)
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