Special Issue "Cementitious Composites Reinforced with Recycled and Natural Fibers: Experimental Results and Numerical Modelling 2019"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Joaquim António Oliveira de Barros
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, ISISE, Institute of Science and Innovation for Bio-Sustainability (IB-S), University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: structural analysis and design; fiber-reinforced composites; sustainable materials
Prof. Dr. Enzo Martinelli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Pallo II, 132 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
Interests: structural analysis and design; fiber-reinforced composites; sustainable materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of “green” constituents is emerging as a challenge for enhancing sustainability in concrete production. In this context, the use of recycled fibers is one of the most promising prospects.

This Special Issue aims to collect contributions on the most recent advances on the physical and mechanical characterisation of Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCC) with either Recycled Fibers (RFs) or Natural Fibers (NFs). Specifically, it includes (without being limited to) studies on FRCC produced with either Recycled Steel Fibers (RSFs) obtained from waste tires or NFs obtained from plant, such as sisal, hemp, flax, etc. However, research on types of fibers other than the two aforemenioned types are also of interest as they may shed light on more innovative and less explored possibilities in FRCCs towards a more sustainable built environment.

Further, although experimental results are certainly relevant in gaining empirical evidence about the technical feasibility of using RFs and NFs in cementitious composites and their performance with respect to purposely produced “industrial” fibers, theoretical contributions intended at capturing the specific features of fibers and their interactions with cement-matrices are also welcome.

We hope this Special Issue will provide readers with a selection of papers outlining the current state of knowledge on the use of RFs and NFs in cementitous composites. Specifically, the following aspects may be addressed:

  1. Technology of production and material properties;
  2. Applications for structural and functional purposes;
  3. Design and numerical approaches. 

Prof. Dr. Joaquim Antonio Oliveira de Barros
Prof. Dr. Enzo Martinelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fiber-reinforced cementitious composites
  • Recycled fibers
  • Natural fibers
  • Bond
  • Post-cracking response
  • Experimental tests
  • Theoretical models

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Wear and Physical Properties of Pawpaw–Glass Fiber Hybrid Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Structural Application
Fibers 2020, 8(7), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8070044 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
In this study, wear resistance and some selected physical properties of pawpaw–glass fiber hybrid reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Two different layers of pawpaw stem—linear and network structures—were extracted and chemically modified. Hybrid reinforced composites were developed comparatively from the two fiber structures [...] Read more.
In this study, wear resistance and some selected physical properties of pawpaw–glass fiber hybrid reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Two different layers of pawpaw stem—linear and network structures—were extracted and chemically modified. Hybrid reinforced composites were developed comparatively from the two fiber structures and glass fiber using hand lay-up in an open mold production process. The wear resistance was studied via the use of a Taber Abrasion Tester while selected physical properties were also investigated. The influence of the fiber structure on the properties examined revealed that network structured pawpaw fiber was the best as reinforcement compared to the linearly structured fiber. The addition of these vegetable fibers to epoxy resin brought about improved thermal conductivity and increased the curing rate while the wear resistance of the corresponding developed composites were enhanced by 3 wt% and 15 wt% of fibers from linear and network pawpaw fibers. It was noticed that linearly structured pawpaw fiber had its best result at 3 wt% while network structured pawpaw fiber had its best result at 15 wt%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination and Review of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Raw and Treated Coconut Fibers for Their Recycling in Construction Materials
Fibers 2020, 8(6), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8060037 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
In order to reduce the dependency on conventional materials and negative environmental impacts, one of the main responsibilities of the construction field is to find new eco-friendly resources to replace the traditional materials partially. Natural fibers were known as potential candidates for the [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the dependency on conventional materials and negative environmental impacts, one of the main responsibilities of the construction field is to find new eco-friendly resources to replace the traditional materials partially. Natural fibers were known as potential candidates for the reinforcement of structures in civil engineering by virtue of their advantages. Among the different kinds of vegetable fibers, coconut fiber has been exploited in a limited way over the past few years. This paper aims at evaluating the different properties of local coconut fibers (Vietnam). Several laboratory tests provide geometrical, physical, mechanical properties and durability properties that are compared with literature results obtained from similar natural fibers. The local coconut fibers tested demonstrated properties suitable for reinforced mortars. With adequate control of their preparation, they could be reused in the manufacture of mortars in the construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Compressive Behaviour of Coconut Fibre (Cocos nucifera) Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010005 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fire outbreaks in buildings have been a major concern in the world today. The integrity of concrete is usually questioned due to the fact that after these fire outbreaks the strength of the concrete is reduced considerably. Various methods have been adopted to [...] Read more.
Fire outbreaks in buildings have been a major concern in the world today. The integrity of concrete is usually questioned due to the fact that after these fire outbreaks the strength of the concrete is reduced considerably. Various methods have been adopted to improve the fire resistance property of concrete. This study focused on the use of coconut fibre to achieve this feat. In this study, varying percentages of treated and untreated coconut fibres were incorporated into concrete and the compressive strength was tested for both before heating and after heating. The percentages of replacement were 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% fibre content by weight of cement. Concrete cubes that had 0% fibre served as control specimens. After subjecting these concrete cubes to 250 °C and 150 °C for a period of 2 h, the compressive strength increased when compared to the control. The compressive strength increased up to 0.5% replacement by 3.88%. Beyond 0.5% fibre, the compressive strength reduced. Concrete having coconut fibre that had been treated with water also exhibited the highest compressive strength of 28.71 N/mm². It is concluded that coconut fibres are a great material in improving the strength of concrete, even after it was exposed to a certain degree of elevated temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Durability of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Chloride Environment
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120111 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
For structural elements exposed to chloride environments, an important aspect of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (RSFRC) durability is the corrosion resistance. In the present work, an experimental program was carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of chloride attack on the post-cracking [...] Read more.
For structural elements exposed to chloride environments, an important aspect of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (RSFRC) durability is the corrosion resistance. In the present work, an experimental program was carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of chloride attack on the post-cracking behavior of RSFRC by performing splitting tensile tests and round panel tests. Two RSFRC mixtures defined based on the packing density optimization were produced with a fiber content of 0.8% and 1% per volume of concrete. The influence of different periods of chloride immersion was investigated, as well as the influence of fiber dispersion at crack surfaces of the specimens. Additionally, a simplified prediction of the long-term chloride penetration depth into uncracked RSFRC under immersion aggressive chloride exposure conditions was estimated. The RSFRC revealed high susceptibility to surface corrosion under the chloride exposure conditions adopted. However, the post-cracking resistance of RSFRC was not significant affected. The addition of RSF had a negligible effect in the diffusion of chloride ions into concrete, and the critical chloride content was higher than that found in conventional reinforced concrete structures. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Study on the Adhesion of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortars (TRM) to Clay Brick Masonry: The Influence of Textile Density
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120103 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) composite systems are gaining consensus within the scientific and technical communities as a viable and advantageous alternative to the most conventional Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Due to the good compatibility both in terms of stiffness and vapor permeability between [...] Read more.
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) composite systems are gaining consensus within the scientific and technical communities as a viable and advantageous alternative to the most conventional Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Due to the good compatibility both in terms of stiffness and vapor permeability between the inorganic matrix and the substrate, the TRMs appear to be particularly well suited for strengthening masonry members and enhancing their capacity to withstand tensile and shear stresses, such as those induced by seismic shakings. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical response of a TRM system featuring an internal reinforcement made of basalt fiber textile. Therefore, the paper reports the results of an experimental campaign carried out by single-lap shear bond tests on masonry substrate reinforced by TRM strips. Three different kinds of TRM have been taken into account, each one characterized by a variable number of fabric plies. The results show that, in all cases, TRMs fail prematurely due to debonding between fabric and matrix. However, the aforementioned premature failure is the main concern emerging from these test results, and further work is requested in reformulating the matrix composition towards enhancing their tensile strength and, hence, restraining the occurrence of fabric-to-matrix debonding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Life Cycle Assessment of Mortars with Incorporation of Industrial Wastes
Fibers 2019, 7(7), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7070059 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The production of waste is increasing yearly and, without a viable recycle or reutilization solution, waste is sent to landfills, where it can take thousand to years to degrade. Simultaneously, for the production of new materials, some industries continue to ignore the potential [...] Read more.
The production of waste is increasing yearly and, without a viable recycle or reutilization solution, waste is sent to landfills, where it can take thousand to years to degrade. Simultaneously, for the production of new materials, some industries continue to ignore the potential of wastes and keep on using natural resources for production. The incorporation of waste materials in mortars is a possible solution to avoid landfilling, through their recycling or reutilization. However, no evaluation of their “sustainability” in terms of environmental performance is available in the literature. In this sense, in this research a life cycle assessment was performed on mortars, namely renders, with incorporation of industrials wastes replacing sand and/or cement. For that purpose, eight environmental impact categories (abiotic depletion potential, global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, use of non-renewable primary energy resources, and use of renewable primary energy resources) within a “cradle to gate” boundary were analyzed for 19 mortars with incorporation of several industrial wastes: sanitary ware, glass fiber reinforced polymer, forest biomass ashes, and textile fibers. Sixteen out of the 19 mortars under analysis presented, in all environmental impact categories, an equal or better environment performance than a common mortar (used as a reference). The benefits in some environmental impacts were over 20%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of an Impregnation Treatment on the Morphology and Mechanical Behaviour of Flax Yarns Embedded in Hydraulic Lime Mortar
Fibers 2019, 7(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7040030 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The increasing attention toward environmental aspects has led, also in the sector of construction materials, to the need for developing more eco-friendly solutions. Among several options, the employment of low energy raw materials appears as an efficient solution intended to enhance the sustainability [...] Read more.
The increasing attention toward environmental aspects has led, also in the sector of construction materials, to the need for developing more eco-friendly solutions. Among several options, the employment of low energy raw materials appears as an efficient solution intended to enhance the sustainability of building structures. One of the applications moving in this direction is the use of plant fibers as a reinforcement in cement-based composites, hence named as natural textile reinforced mortar (NTRM) composites. Although representing a promising technique, there are still several open issues concerning the variability of plant fibers properties, the durability, and the mechanical compatibility with the mortar. This study aims at investigating the influence of an impregnation process on the thread’s morphology and on the mechanical response. Therefore, the geometry of dry and impregnated flax threads is identified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images analysis, and their mechanical response in tension is assessed. In addition, the fibers-to-mortar bond behavior is investigated by means of pull-out tests. The proposed results show that the impregnation procedure employed, although not improving the fibers-to matrix bond, leads to a standardisation of the threads morphology and reduces the thread’s deformability in tension, and paves the way for further investigations on a larger scale. Full article
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