Special Issue "Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Oleg Morozov
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Radiophotonics and Microwave Technologies, Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev-KAI, 10, Karl Marx st., 420111 Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Interests: microwave photonics; fiber optic sensors; fiber bragg gratings; application of electro-optical modulators; lidars; transfer of optical technologies in microwave range; microwave resonant sensors; microwave high- and low-intensity technologies; double-frequency methods in sensors and telecommunications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical fibers coated with suitable protective layers are well-suited to distributed fiber sensing systems (DFSS) based on Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin back-scattering in small cross-sectional spaces and have found successful use in a wide variety of applications including civil structures, transmission lines, railway, down-hole monitoring, and others. To improve overall system performance, many of these DFSS use multiple fibers. For example, DFSS use both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) fibers for simultaneous measuring of several parameters such as temperature and strain. The measured parameters are affected by wavelength-dependent loss, caused by splices, stress on the optical fiber, fiber degradation in hydrogen environments, and radiation; this loss can also vary over time. As a compromise of SM and MM, the quasi-single mode operation in few mode fibers (FM) allows for larger input pump power before the establishment of detrimental effects induced by fiber nonlinearities due to the well-controlled effective fundamental mode area. Moreover, FM supports only a few spatial modes and the coupling between the fundamental mode and higher order modes can be largely suppressed with careful design. The performance of FM DFSS is mainly determined by the optical parameters of the used FM fibers. 2-mode and 4-mode FM fibers were designed and fabricated for DFSS, but units do not limit the number of modes. One more advanced single optical structure containing more than one core is multicore (MC) fibers with small-diameter sensing elements that provide a high-density waveguide count. Using these fibers solves the problem of conduit and/or installation cable congestion and eliminates fiber-to-fiber positional error, as each waveguide in the MC fiber is permanently fixed in its parallel configuration with respect to other waveguides in the MC fiber structure. These MC fibers are typically coated with acrylate materials that are unsuitable for applications with higher temperatures and harsh environments, such as may be encountered in many industrial sensing applications, but new coatings, for example, ETFE, are also very useful.

Thus, this Special Issue aims to attract both theoretical and practical works that deal with optical fibers as a key element of DFSS. Submissions on but not limited to basic technologies of modelling, design, fabrication, and utilization of optical fibers for different, including extremal, applications of DFSS; the effect of optical fibers’ characteristics on the performance of DFSS in general; and problems regarding the interconnections of different fiber types are welcomed for this Special Issue. This Issue also focuses on the fiber construction of the modern DFSS multiplexing of three main back-scattering mechanisms—Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin—in conjunction with fiber Bragg gratings written in SM, MM, FM, and MC fibers. Review articles that describe the current state of the art are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Oleg G. Morozov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Potential topics include but are not limited to the following for optical fibers applications in DFSS:
  • SM fibers
  • MM fibers
  • FM fibers
  • MC fibers
  • Modelling
  • Design
  • Fabrication
  • Utilization
  • Rayleigh back-scattering
  • Raman back-scattering
  • Brillouin back-scattering
  • Complex decisions
  • Fiber Bragg gratings in DFSS
  • Quasi-distributed fiber sensor systems
  • Coatings
  • Opto-mechanics of fibers
  • Fibers for arctic applications
  • Fibers for atom energetics applications
  • Fibers for underwater applications
  • Fibers for space applications
  • Fibers for railway applications
  • Fibers for high-voltage applications
  • Technologies and means for optical fibers monitoring.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Twisted Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber with Equiangular Spiral Six-Ray Geometry
Fibers 2021, 9(5), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9050027 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
This work presents fabricated silica microstructured optical fiber with special equiangular spiral six-ray geometry, an outer diameter of 125 µm (that corresponds to conventional commercially available telecommunication optical fibers of ratified ITU-T recommendations), and induced chirality with twisting of 200 revolutions per minute [...] Read more.
This work presents fabricated silica microstructured optical fiber with special equiangular spiral six-ray geometry, an outer diameter of 125 µm (that corresponds to conventional commercially available telecommunication optical fibers of ratified ITU-T recommendations), and induced chirality with twisting of 200 revolutions per minute (or e.g., under a drawing speed of 3 m per minute, 66 revolutions per 1 m). We discuss the fabrication of twisted microstructured optical fibers. Some results of tests, performed with pilot samples of designed and manufactured stellar chiral silica microstructured optical fiber, including basic transmission parameters, as well as measurements of near-field laser beam profile and spectral and pulse responses, are represented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Er/Yb Co-Doped Fluorophosphosilicate Glass Core Optical Fibers
Fibers 2021, 9(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9030015 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
The technical process of the synthesis of a fluorophosphosilicate (FPS) glass core was thoroughly investigated for the first time utilizing a modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) all-gas-phase fabrication method. It was discovered that the limiting doping level of the silica glass simultaneously co-doped [...] Read more.
The technical process of the synthesis of a fluorophosphosilicate (FPS) glass core was thoroughly investigated for the first time utilizing a modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) all-gas-phase fabrication method. It was discovered that the limiting doping level of the silica glass simultaneously co-doped with phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) was found to be confined by the formation of POF3 gas. The dopants content was achieved as high as 4.7 at% of P and 1.1 at% of F in a glass core, respectively. A developed “in-house” manufacturing method makes it possible to fabricate a large mode area (LMA) purely single-mode Er–Yb co-doped optical fibers with a core diameter of 20 μm and with a lasing efficiency comparable to commercially available LMA Er–Yb optical fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Article
Numerical Method for Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations in Few-Mode Fiber
Fibers 2021, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9010001 - 02 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
This paper discusses novel approaches to the numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations system for few-mode wave propagation. The wave propagation assumes the propagation of up to nine modes of light in an optical fiber. In this case, the light propagation [...] Read more.
This paper discusses novel approaches to the numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations system for few-mode wave propagation. The wave propagation assumes the propagation of up to nine modes of light in an optical fiber. In this case, the light propagation is described by the non-linear coupled Schrödinger equation system, where propagation of each mode is described by own Schrödinger equation with other modes’ interactions. In this case, the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation system (CNSES) solving becomes increasingly complex, because each mode affects the propagation of other modes. The suggested solution is based on the direct numerical integration approach, which is based on a finite-difference integration scheme. The well-known explicit finite-difference integration scheme approach fails due to the non-stability of the computing scheme. Owing to this, here we use the combined explicit/implicit finite-difference integration scheme, which is based on the implicit Crank–Nicolson finite-difference scheme. It ensures the stability of the computing scheme. Moreover, this approach allows separating the whole equation system on the independent equation system for each wave mode at each integration step. Additionally, the algorithm of numerical solution refining at each step and the integration method with automatic integration step selection are used. The suggested approach has a higher performance (resolution)—up to three times or more in comparison with the split-step Fourier method—since there is no need to produce direct and inverse Fourier transforms at each integration step. The key advantage of the developed approach is the calculation of any number of modes propagated in the fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Article
A Novel Method of Spectra Processing for Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
Fibers 2020, 8(9), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8090060 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
A new method of Brillouin spectra post-processing, which could be applied in modern distributed optical sensors: Brillouin optical time domain analyzers/reflectometers (BOTDA/BOTDR), has been demonstrated. It operates by means of the correlation analysis performed with special technique («backward-correlation»). It does not need any [...] Read more.
A new method of Brillouin spectra post-processing, which could be applied in modern distributed optical sensors: Brillouin optical time domain analyzers/reflectometers (BOTDA/BOTDR), has been demonstrated. It operates by means of the correlation analysis performed with special technique («backward-correlation»). It does not need any additional data for time or space averaging and operates with the single spectrum only. We have simulated the method accuracy dependence on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and other parameters. It is shown that the new method produces better results at low SNRs than conventional technique, based on finding of Brillouin spectrum maximum, do. These results are in a good agreement with the experiment. Finally, we have estimated the performance of the new method for its application in polarization-BOTDA set-up for a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber modal birefringence distributed study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Article
Original Solution of Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations for Simulation of Ultrashort Optical Pulse Propagation in a Birefringent Fiber
Fibers 2020, 8(6), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8060034 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
This paper discusses approaches to the numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations system, different from the generally accepted approach based on the method of splitting according to physical processes. A combined explicit/implicit finite-difference integration scheme based on the implicit Crank–Nicolson finite-difference [...] Read more.
This paper discusses approaches to the numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations system, different from the generally accepted approach based on the method of splitting according to physical processes. A combined explicit/implicit finite-difference integration scheme based on the implicit Crank–Nicolson finite-difference scheme is proposed and substantiated. It allows the integration of a nonlinear system of equations with a choice of nonlinear terms from the previous integration step. The main advantages of the proposed method are: its absolute stability through the use of an implicit finite-difference integration scheme and an integrated mechanism for refining the numerical solution at each step; integration with automatic step selection; performance gains (or resolutions) up to three or more orders of magnitude due to the fact that there is no need to produce direct and inverse Fourier transforms at each integration step, as is required in the method of splitting according to physical processes. An additional advantage of the proposed method is the ability to calculate the interaction with an arbitrary number of propagation modes in the fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Article
New Silica Laser-Optimized Multimode Optical Fibers with Extremely Enlarged 100-μm Core Diameter for Gigabit Onboard and Industrial Networks
Fibers 2020, 8(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8030018 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
We present new type of silica graded index laser-optimized multimode optical fibers (LOMF) with extremely enlarged core diameter up to 100 μm and “typical” “telecommunication” cladding diameter 125 μm. This optical fiber was designed for harsh environment Gigabit onboard cable systems and industrial [...] Read more.
We present new type of silica graded index laser-optimized multimode optical fibers (LOMF) with extremely enlarged core diameter up to 100 μm and “typical” “telecommunication” cladding diameter 125 μm. This optical fiber was designed for harsh environment Gigabit onboard cable systems and industrial networks. It differs by special optimized graded refractive index profile, providing low differential mode delay (DMD) for selected guided modes. We present some results of tests, performed for manufactured pilot 520 m length of described LOMF 100/125, concerned with its geometry properties as well as key transmission parameters—attenuation and DMD map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fibers as a Key Element of Distributed Sensor Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Results of experimental research of bandwidth parameters of new-type silica laser-optimized optical fibers with 100 um core diameter
Authors: Anton V. Bourdine
Affiliation: OJSC «S. I. Vavilov State Optical Institute»

Title: Fusing up of micro-lens over microstructured optical fiber end
Authors: Vladimir A. Burdin
Affiliation: Povolzhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics

Title: Chiral microstructured optical fibers with hexagonal geometry
Authors: Konstantin V. Dukelskii
Affiliation: OJSC «S. I. Vavilov State Optical Institute»

Title: NUMERICAL METHOD FOR COUPLED NONLINEAR SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS IN FEW MODE FIBER
Authors: Airat Zh. Sakhabutdinov
Affiliation: Kazan National Research Technical University

Title: A Novel Method Of Spectra Processing For Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
Authors: 1*F.L. Barkov, 1Yu. A. Konstantinov, 1,2A.I. Krivosheyev
Affiliation: 1 Perm Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia. 2 Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russia.
Abstract: A new method of Brillouin spectra post-processing, which could be applied in modern distributed optical sensors: Brillouin optical time domain analyzers/reflectometers, has been demonstrated. It operates by means of the correlation analysis performed with special technique («backward-correlation»). It does not need any additional data for time or space averaging and operates with the single spectra only. We have simulated the method accuracy dependence on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and other parameters. It is shown that new method produces better results at low SNRs than conventional technique, based on finding of Brillouin spectrum maximum, does. These results are in a good agreement with the experiment. Finally, we have estimated the performance of the new method for its application in Polarization-BOTDA set-up for a PM-fiber modal birefringence distributed study.

Title: Method of Acoustic Emission for Non-Destructive Testing of Optical Fiber Strength
Authors: Vladimir A. Andreev1, Vladimir A. Burdin1, Anton V. Bourdine1,2, Michael V. Dashkov1
Affiliation: 1 Department of Communication Lines, Povozhskiy State University of Telecommunications and Informatics, 23, Lev Tolstoy street, Samara 443010, Russia; [email protected] (V.A.A.); [email protected] (V.A.B.); [email protected] (M.V.D.) 2 JSC “Scientific Production Association State Optical Institute Named after Vavilov S.I.”, 36/1, Babushkin street, Saint Petersburg 192171, Russia; [email protected] (A.V.B.) * Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +7-927-260-1799 (V.A.B.)
Abstract: The method for non-destructive testing of the optical fiber strength based on measurements of acoustic emission signals using tested optical fiber as an acoustic sensor was proposed in this paper. The basic provisions of the method implementation, description of the experimental setup and experimental results demonstrating the potential of the proposed method are represented. The results obtained in this work suggest that the proposed method can be promising for controlling the strength of optical fiber in a cable, including installed cable line. Keywords: acoustic emission; optical fiber; strength; microcrack; non-destructive testing; surface defect

Title: Fabrication and optical properties of optical fibers based aluminoborosilicate glasses doped with chromium
Authors: Alexey N. Abramov, Mikhail V. Yashkov, Oleg B. Smirnov, Alexey N. Guryanov, Alexey S. Raevskii, Alexander D. Plechovich, Alexander M. Kut
Affiliation: Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University
Abstract: Aluminoborosilicate fibers doped with chromium for the subsequent formation of a glass-ceramic core to create fiber lasers operating at a wavelength of up to 900 nm were obtained by the MCVD method. The dependences of the refractive index of aluminoborosilicate glass and the crystallization temperature of the mullite phase in the glass of the fiber core on the concentration of boron oxide are studied.

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