Development of Eco-Friendly Concrete-, Mortar- and Fiber-Reinforced Composite Systems for Building Applications: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 8302

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 39B, 87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
Interests: innovative materials for structural applications; strengthening, repair and seismic retrofitting of structures; based-concrete materials in civil engineering
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, 87036 Cosenza, Italy
Interests: linear and non linear behavior of concrete structures; design of steel structures; composite structures; rehabilitation of concrete and masonry structures with composite materials (polymeric and cementitious fiber reinforced materials)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci Cubo 39B, 87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
Interests: concrete structures reinforced with FRP bars or TRM systems and FRP composite sandwich panels, including their behaviour at elevated temperatures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, nature conservation and environmental preservation have emerged as significant global issues. It is well known that the production of concrete has a strong environmental impact due to the consumption of natural resources such as water and aggregates. In addition, a high concentration of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere during cement production, accounting for ~8% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly concrete using waste, or whose manufacturing method is not detrimental to the environment, is of utmost important to meet the green revolution and ecological transition. To accomplish this goal, much of the work to date has concentrated on: (i) the replacement of a relatively high percentage of cement with fly ash waste, (ii) the use of alkali-activated, magnesia and sulfoaluminate cements and (iii) development of nanoconcrete by integrating carbon nanotube (CNTs) or self-sensing CNTs in the concrete mix to achieve higher performance. In addition to the eco-friendly concrete, developing mortars with low-environmental impact is also of utmost importance. Indeed, the use of eco-friendly mortars (even as a standalone material) can be very effective in repairing degraded masonry or reinforced concrete (RC) structures; additionally, these materials present very high thermal resistance and therefore contribute to the energetic efficiency of the constructions where they are installed. Moreover, a reasonable compromise between environmental sustainability and adequate structural performance can be found by combining long synthetic or mineral fibers with eco-friendly matrices (derived from waste or renewable resources). This composite system can be particularly advantageous for strengthening applications, as it reduces the need of structurally strengthening the remaining building members, which ultimately contributes to a reduction in the demand for natural resources and raw materials.

In this Special Issue, we aim to collect experimental and theoretical studies aiming at providing a better understanding about the development of eco-friendly concrete-, mortar- and fiber-reinforced composite systems to promote their use in structural and non-structural applications. Submissions in the form of full-length articles, communications and reviews are invited.

Dr. Francesco Bencardino
Dr. Luciano Ombres
Dr. Pietro Mazzuca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 9296 KiB  
Article
Effect of Adding Phragmites-Australis Fiber on the Mechanical Properties and Volume Stability of Mortar
by Jamal Khatib, Rawan Ramadan, Hassan Ghanem and Adel Elkordi
Fibers 2024, 12(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020014 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
In this research, the investigation focuses on the influence of Phragmites-Australis (PA) fibers on the mechanical properties and volume stability of mortar. A total of four mixtures were employed with varying amounts of locally sourced PA fibers ranging from 0.5% to 2% (by [...] Read more.
In this research, the investigation focuses on the influence of Phragmites-Australis (PA) fibers on the mechanical properties and volume stability of mortar. A total of four mixtures were employed with varying amounts of locally sourced PA fibers ranging from 0.5% to 2% (by volume). Testing includes flexural strength, compressive strength, chemical shrinkage, drying shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and expansion. The findings show that the use of PA fibers caused a reduction in compressive and flexural strength. However, beyond 3 days of curing, an increase in flexural strength ranging from 7 to 21% was observed at 1% PA fiber compared to the control sample. Furthermore, the addition of PA fibers up to 2% effectively mitigates the dimensional stability of mortar samples. A gradual decrease in chemical, autogenous, and drying shrinkage as well as expansion occurs in mortar samples when % of PA fibers increases. At 180 days, this reduction was 37, 19, 15 and 20% in chemical shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, drying shrinkage, and expansion, respectively, for a mix containing 2% PA fiber. Additionally, a hyperbolic model is proposed to predict the variation of length change with time. Also, a strong relationship is observed between chemical shrinkage and other length change parameters. Consequently, the environmentally friendly utilization of PA fibers demonstrates its potential to significantly enhance mortar durability in construction applications. Full article
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15 pages, 5499 KiB  
Article
Cement-Based Mortars with Waste Paper Sludge-Derived Cellulose Fibers for Building Applications
by Francesco Bencardino, Pietro Mazzuca, Ricardo do Carmo, Hugo Costa and Roberta Curto
Fibers 2024, 12(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib12020013 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
This study assesses the mechanical properties of mortars incorporating waste paper sludge-derived cellulose fibers. Compression and flexural tests were carried out on specimens prepared with cellulose fibers at different proportions, ranging from 0% to 2% of the total weight of the solid mortar [...] Read more.
This study assesses the mechanical properties of mortars incorporating waste paper sludge-derived cellulose fibers. Compression and flexural tests were carried out on specimens prepared with cellulose fibers at different proportions, ranging from 0% to 2% of the total weight of the solid mortar constituents (cement, sand, and lime). In addition, a comparative analysis was carried out to evaluate the influence of the preparation method on the mechanical properties of the mortars. To this end, two series of mortars were studied: one prepared following a rigorous control of the preparation parameters and the other made without systematic parameter control to simulate typical on-site conditions. Finally, the applicability of both traditional and eco-friendly mortars in the construction of small-scale masonry walls was assessed through compression tests. Overall, the mechanical properties of mortars with cellulose fibers were comparable to those with 0% waste material, regardless of the production process. Regarding the compressive behavior of masonry walls, experimental tests showed significant similarities between specimens made with traditional and eco-friendly mortar. In conclusion, incorporating cellulose fibers into cement-based mortar shows considerable potential for building applications, enhancing the environmental benefits without compromising the mechanical behavior. Full article
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15 pages, 7226 KiB  
Article
Application of Organosilicon Modifier Based on Tetraethoxysilane for the Production of Heat-Resistant Chrysotile Fibers and Reinforced Cement Composites
by Roman Nikolaevich Yastrebinsky, Vyacheslav Ivanovich Pavlenko, Anna Viktorovna Yastrebinskaya, Andrey Ivanovich Gorodov and Anastasia Vladislavovna Akimenko
Fibers 2023, 11(10), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11100080 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This research is aimed at obtaining boron-containing nanotubular chrysotile fibers with increased neutron absorption capacity. The possibility of using an organosilicon modifier based on tetraethoxysilane to increase the hydrothermal stability of chrysotile, as well as the strength of nanoreinforced composites based on a [...] Read more.
This research is aimed at obtaining boron-containing nanotubular chrysotile fibers with increased neutron absorption capacity. The possibility of using an organosilicon modifier based on tetraethoxysilane to increase the hydrothermal stability of chrysotile, as well as the strength of nanoreinforced composites based on a cement binder is considered. The mechanisms for the synthesis of heat-resistant nanotubular fibers of the composition Mg6(OH)8SiB4O10, which have a chrysotile structure, have been established. To increase the hydrothermal stability of chrysotile, crystalline hydrate phases were localized inside nanotubes using amorphous silica formed as a result of hydrolysis of silicon alkoxide under hydrothermal conditions in an alkaline environment. The modification of chrysotile via amorphous silica increases its hydrothermal stability by 97 °C. It is shown that the introduction of an organosilicon modifier based on tetraethoxysilane into the composition of Portland cement composite material leads to an increase in the structural strength and density of the composite due to the activation of silicate formation processes in the cement matrix, especially under hydrothermal conditions. The experiments showed that the strength of silicon alkoxide-modified samples of composite material increased by 34%. Full article
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16 pages, 6211 KiB  
Article
Performance of Rice Straw Fibers on Hardened Concrete Properties under Effect of Impact Load and Gamma Radiation
by Mohamed M. Mahdy, Sameh Y. Mahfouz, Ahmed F. Tawfic and Mohamed A. E. M. Ali
Fibers 2023, 11(5), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11050042 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3403
Abstract
Concrete is an essential artificial building material in modern society. However, because concrete structures have brittle characteristics, they have a limited service life when subjected to dynamic loads. Nuclear emissions and explosions threaten human lives and structures’ safety due to harmful radiation and [...] Read more.
Concrete is an essential artificial building material in modern society. However, because concrete structures have brittle characteristics, they have a limited service life when subjected to dynamic loads. Nuclear emissions and explosions threaten human lives and structures’ safety due to harmful radiation and dynamic effects. Since agriculture has revealed a large amount of by-products that require disposal, the use of such by-products in many sectors is a challenge for contemporary studies. One of the most important areas for the disposal of such waste is construction, and concrete in particular. The utilization of the agricultural by-product rice straw fiber was chosen in this study to replace the usage of artificial fibers in concrete production and present an eco-friendly prospective contender with enhanced static/dynamic performance and gamma shielding characteristics. Different concrete mixtures were proposed in this study to evaluate the aforementioned characteristics. The designed concrete mixtures were conventional concrete with variations in the volume fraction of rice straw fibers (RSF) of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. The desired static properties were compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength. Additionally, the drop weight impact test was used in this study to investigate the impact resistance of RSF-reinforced concrete. Finally, the radiation-shielding characteristic of the produced concrete was tested using the linear attenuation test. The results show that adding agricultural by-products of RSF in concrete production slightly enhanced the compressive strength by up to 7.0%, while it significantly improved the tensile and flexural properties by up to 17.1% and 25.8%, respectively. Additionally, a superior impact resistance of concrete was achieved by up to 48.6% owing to RSF addition. Furthermore, it enhanced the gamma shielding capability of concrete by up to 7.9%. The achievements in this study pave the way for utilizing RSF-reinforced concrete in various non-traditional applications. Full article
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