Biorefineries

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation Process Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 51772

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Leibniz-Institut für Agrartechnik und Bioökonomie e.V. (ATB), Potsdam, Germany
Interests: fermentation; phenolic compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The eventual depletion of fossil resources and the environmetal issues caused by their excessive utilisation, have led to the search of alternatives for the sustainable production of fuels, energy and chemicals. Modern biorefineries are promising to solve all these issues via valorisation of renewable resources through their complete fractionation and bioconversion to value-added products. The exploitation of alternative feedstocks (lignocellulosic biomass, industrial waste streams, municipal solid wastes etc) would maximise profit and render the proposed biorefinery both economic and envrironmentally viable. These integrated biorefineries should follow a “zero-waste” approach, via the convertion of their “waste streams” into co-products. The biotechnological production of fuels and chemicals when combined with co-extraction/recovery of value-added co-products (e.g. proteins, antioxidants, pectins) would constitute the entire process viable and sustainable. Actually, biomass comprises the emerging energy “giant” as the scientific community intensively searches for its efficient utilization.

This special issue will cover all biorefinery approaches, emphasizing on the efficient utilisation of waste biomass, covering also economic and sustainability aspects. Research and review papers demonstrating innovative green methodologies for biomass valorisation and multiple product production, conversion methodologies, techno-economic evaluation and life cycle assessment will fall within the scope of this special issue.

Dr. Maria Alexandri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • lignocellulosic biomass
  • biofuels
  • value-added products
  • bioconversion
  • green chemistry
  • platform chemicals
  • sustainability
  • bioeconomy
  • pretreatment

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4458 KiB  
Article
Towards Sustainable Bioinoculants: A Fermentation Strategy for High Cell Density Cultivation of Paraburkholderia sp. SOS3, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated in Queensland, Australia
by Ian Petersen, Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Esteban Marcellin, Lars Keld Nielsen and Axayacatl Gonzalez
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020058 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3451
Abstract
Paraburkholderia sp. SOS3 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) that displays pleiotropic effects and has the potential to be applied at a large scale across several agronomically important crops. The use of SOS3 is a suitable option to reduce the use of chemical [...] Read more.
Paraburkholderia sp. SOS3 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) that displays pleiotropic effects and has the potential to be applied at a large scale across several agronomically important crops. The use of SOS3 is a suitable option to reduce the use of chemical fertilisers. While the benefits of SOS3 have been demonstrated in vitro, its potential applications at large scale are limited due to low biomass yield in current batch culture systems. Here, we developed a strategy for high-cell density cultivation of SOS3 in instrumented bioreactors, moving from low-biomass yield in a complex medium to high-biomass yield in a semi-defined medium. We achieved a 40-fold increase in biomass production, achieving cell densities of up to 11 g/L (OD600 = 40). This result was achieved when SOS3 was cultivated using a fed-batch strategy. Biomass productivity, initially 0.02 g/L/h in batch cultures, was improved 12-fold, reaching 0.24 g/L/h during fed-batch cultures. The biomass yield was also improved 10-fold from 0.07 to 0.71 gbiomass/gsolids. Analysis of the fermentation profile of SOS3 indicated minimal production of by-products and accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) during the exponential growth phase associated with nitrogen limitation in the medium. By implementing proteomics analysis in fed-batch cultures, we identified the expression of four metabolic pathways associated with growth-promoting effects, which may be used as a qualitative parameter to guarantee the efficacy of SOS3 when used as a bioinoculant. Ultimately, we confirmed that the high-cell density cultures maintained their plant growth-promoting capacity when tested in sorghum and maize under glasshouse conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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22 pages, 5497 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Co-Cultivation Process of Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains for the Fermentative Production of Riboflavin
by Fernando Pérez-García, Arthur Burgardt, Dina R. Kallman, Volker F. Wendisch and Nadav Bar
Fermentation 2021, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7010011 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4122
Abstract
Residual streams from lignocellulosic processes contain sugar mixtures of glucose, xylose, and mannose. Here, the industrial workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum was explored as a research platform for the rational utilization of a multiple sugar substrate. The endogenous manA gene was overexpressed to enhance mannose [...] Read more.
Residual streams from lignocellulosic processes contain sugar mixtures of glucose, xylose, and mannose. Here, the industrial workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum was explored as a research platform for the rational utilization of a multiple sugar substrate. The endogenous manA gene was overexpressed to enhance mannose utilization. The overexpression of the xylA gene from Xanthomonas campestris in combination with the endogenous xylB gene enabled xylose consumption by C. glutamicum. Furthermore, riboflavin production was triggered by overexpressing the sigH gene from C. glutamicum. The resulting strains were studied during batch fermentations in flasks and 2 L lab-scale bioreactors separately using glucose, mannose, xylose, and a mixture of these three sugars as a carbon source. The production of riboflavin and consumption of sugars were improved during fed-batch fermentation thanks to a dynamic inoculation strategy of manA overexpressing strain and xylAB overexpressing strain. The final riboflavin titer, yield, and volumetric productivity from the sugar mixture were 27 mg L−1, 0.52 mg g−1, and 0.25 mg L−1 h−1, respectively. It reached a 56% higher volumetric productivity with 45% less by-product formation compared with an equivalent process inoculated with a single strain overexpressing the genes xylAB and manA combined. The results indicate the advantages of dynamic multi strains processes for the conversion of sugar mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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10 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Value-Added Resources from the Anaerobic Digestion of Swine-Raising Manure for Circular Economy in Taiwan
by Yu-Ru Lee and Wen-Tien Tsai
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030081 - 7 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Due to the benefits of mitigating greenhouse gas emission and upgrading farmland fertilization, the valorization of liquor and biogas digestate from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure has attracted much attention in recent years. This article is based on the updated data/information from [...] Read more.
Due to the benefits of mitigating greenhouse gas emission and upgrading farmland fertilization, the valorization of liquor and biogas digestate from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure has attracted much attention in recent years. This article is based on the updated data/information from the official websites for summarizing the status of the swine-raising industry and innovative manure management, relevant sustainable development indicators, and inter-ministry promotion regulations in Taiwan. The survey findings revealed that the carbon dioxide emission reduction in 2019 was equivalent to about 36,000 metric tons based on a total of 2.35 million metric tons liquor and biogas digestate applied and 2 million swine heads for the biogas-to-power. Obviously, the regulatory measures by the Council of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Administration, and the Ministry of Economic Affairs have provided economic and financial supports towards the reduction of 67.39 × 103 metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030. Using the principles of biorefinery and zero-waste, the integration of anaerobic digestion, by-products (liquor and digestate), and biogas-to-power for treating swine manure is a win-win-win option for environmental, energy, and economic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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12 pages, 3420 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Performance Analysis of Integrated Gasification–Syngas Fermentation Plant for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production
by Sahar Safarian, Runar Unnthorsson and Christiaan Richter
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030068 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7069
Abstract
This study presents a new simulation model developed with ASPEN Plus of waste biomass gasification integrated with syngas fermentation and product recovery units for bioethanol production from garden waste as a lignocellulosic biomass. The simulation model includes three modules: gasification, fermentation, and ethanol [...] Read more.
This study presents a new simulation model developed with ASPEN Plus of waste biomass gasification integrated with syngas fermentation and product recovery units for bioethanol production from garden waste as a lignocellulosic biomass. The simulation model includes three modules: gasification, fermentation, and ethanol recovery. A parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of gasification temperature (500–1500 °C) and equivalence ratio (0.2–0.6) on the gasification performance and bioethanol production yield. The results reveal that, for efficient gasification and high ethanol production, the operating temperature range should be 700–1000 °C, as well as an equivalence ratio between 0.2 and 0.4. At optimal operating conditions, the bioethanol production yield is 0.114 kg/h per 1 kg/h input garden waste with 50% moisture content. It is worth mentioning that this parameter increases to 0.217 kgbioethanol/kggarden waste under dry-based conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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14 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Increased Selectivity for Butanol in Clostridium Pasteurianum Fermentations via Butyric Acid Addition or Dual Feedstock Strategy
by Garret Munch, Justus Mittler and Lars Rehmann
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030067 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Volatility of the petroleum market has renewed research into butanol as an alternate fuel. In order to increase the selectivity for butanol during glycerol fermentation with Clostridium pasteurianum, butyric acid can be added to the medium. In this manuscript, different methods of [...] Read more.
Volatility of the petroleum market has renewed research into butanol as an alternate fuel. In order to increase the selectivity for butanol during glycerol fermentation with Clostridium pasteurianum, butyric acid can be added to the medium. In this manuscript, different methods of extracellular butyric acid addition are explored, as well as self-generation of butyric acid fermented from sugars in a co-substrate strategy. Molasses was used as an inexpensive sugar substrate, and the optimal molasses to glycerol ratio was found to allow the butyric acid to be taken back up into the cells and increase the productivity of butanol from all carbon sources. When butyric acid is added directly into the media, there was no significant difference between chemically pure butyric acid, or butyric acid rich supernatant from a separate fermentation. When low concentrations of butyric acid (1 or 2 g/L) are added to the initial media, an inhibitory effect is observed, with no influence on the butanol selectivity. However, when added later to the fermentation, over 1 g/L butyric acid is taken into the cells and increased the relative carbon yield from 0.449 to 0.519 mols carbon in product/mols carbon in substrate. An optimized dual substrate fermentation strategy in a pH-controlled reactor resulted in the relative carbon yield rising from 0.439 when grown on solely glycerol, to 0.480 mols C product/mols C substrate with the dual substrate strategy. An additional benefit is the utilization of a novel source of sugars to produce butanol from C. pasteurianum. The addition of butyric acid, regardless of how it is generated, under the proper conditions can allow for increased selectivity for butanol from all substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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15 pages, 1353 KiB  
Article
Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Sludge for Pharmaceutical Removal and Heavy Metal Release to Improve Biodegradability and Biogas Production
by Abolfazl Lotfi Aski, Alimohammad Borghei, Ali Zenouzi, Nariman Ashrafi and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh
Fermentation 2020, 6(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010034 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3508
Abstract
Steam explosion pretreatment was developed and evaluated to remove pharmaceuticals and heavy metals from wastewater sludge and to improve its biodegradability and methane yield. Effects of pressure (5–15 bar) and duration (1–15 min) during the pretreatment were examined, and the pretreatment efficiency was [...] Read more.
Steam explosion pretreatment was developed and evaluated to remove pharmaceuticals and heavy metals from wastewater sludge and to improve its biodegradability and methane yield. Effects of pressure (5–15 bar) and duration (1–15 min) during the pretreatment were examined, and the pretreatment efficiency was evaluated based on the solubilization degree, the capillary suction time (CST) test and anaerobic digestion. The removal efficiency of ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and amoxicillin was 65%, 69%, and 66% and 70%, 66%, and 70% in primary sludge (PS) and waste-activated sludge (WAS), respectively. The highest percent release efficiency of heavy metals, i.e., lead, cadmium, and silver, for PS and WAS was 78%, 70%, and 79% and 79%, 80%, and 75%, respectively. The highest methane yield was obtained after pretreatment at 10 bar for 15 min and at 15 bar for 10 min, with respective yields of 380 and 358 mL CH4/g volatile solids (VS) for the PS and 315 and 334 mL CH4/g VS for the WAS. The results of methane production indicated that the decreased concentrations of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals resulted in increased biodegradability of PS and WAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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Review

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31 pages, 5140 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Understanding of Electro-Fermentation
by Drishti Dinesh Bhagchandanii, Rishi Pramod Babu, Jayesh M. Sonawane, Namita Khanna, Soumya Pandit, Dipak A. Jadhav, Santimoy Khilari and Ram Prasad
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030092 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 12225
Abstract
Electro-fermentation (EF) is an upcoming technology that can control the metabolism of exoelectrogenic bacteria (i.e., bacteria that transfer electrons using an extracellular mechanism). The fermenter consists of electrodes that act as sink and source for the production and movement of electrons and protons, [...] Read more.
Electro-fermentation (EF) is an upcoming technology that can control the metabolism of exoelectrogenic bacteria (i.e., bacteria that transfer electrons using an extracellular mechanism). The fermenter consists of electrodes that act as sink and source for the production and movement of electrons and protons, thus generating electricity and producing valuable products. The conventional process of fermentation has several drawbacks that restrict their application and economic viability. Additionally, metabolic reactions taking place in traditional fermenters are often redox imbalanced. Almost all metabolic pathways and microbial strains have been studied, and EF can electrochemically control this. The process of EF can be used to optimize metabolic processes taking place in the fermenter by controlling the redox and pH imbalances and by stimulating carbon chain elongation or breakdown to improve the overall biomass yield and support the production of a specific product. This review briefly discusses microbe-electrode interactions, electro-fermenter designs, mixed-culture EF, and pure culture EF in industrial applications, electro methanogenesis, and the various products that could be hence generated using this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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18 pages, 1234 KiB  
Review
Valorising Agro-industrial Wastes within the Circular Bioeconomy Concept: the Case of Defatted Rice Bran with Emphasis on Bioconversion Strategies
by Maria Alexandri, José Pablo López-Gómez, Agata Olszewska-Widdrat and Joachim Venus
Fermentation 2020, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6020042 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 10084
Abstract
The numerous environmental problems caused by the extensive use of fossil resources have led to the formation of the circular bioeconomy concept. Renewable resources will constitute the cornerstone of this new, sustainable model, with biomass presenting a huge potential for the production of [...] Read more.
The numerous environmental problems caused by the extensive use of fossil resources have led to the formation of the circular bioeconomy concept. Renewable resources will constitute the cornerstone of this new, sustainable model, with biomass presenting a huge potential for the production of fuels and chemicals. In this context, waste and by-product streams from the food industry will be treated not as “wastes” but as resources. Rice production generates various by-product streams which currently are highly unexploited, leading to environmental problems especially in the countries that are the main producers. The main by-product streams include the straw, the husks, and the rice bran. Among these streams, rice bran finds applications in the food industry and cosmetics, mainly due to its high oil content. The high demand for rice bran oil generates huge amounts of defatted rice bran (DRB), the main by-product of the oil extraction process. The sustainable utilisation of this by-product has been a topic of research, either as a food additive or via its bioconversion into value-added products and chemicals. This review describes all the processes involved in the efficient bioconversion of DRB into biotechnological products. The detailed description of the production process, yields and productivities, as well as strains used for the production of bioethanol, lactic acid and biobutanol, among others, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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11 pages, 652 KiB  
Review
Production of the Polysaccharide Curdlan by Agrobacterium species on Processing Coproducts and Plant Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates
by Thomas P. West
Fermentation 2020, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010016 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4134
Abstract
This review examines the production of the biopolymer curdlan, synthesized by Agrobacterium species (sp.), on processing coproducts and plant lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Curdlan is a β-(1→3)-D-glucan that has various food, non-food and biomedical applications. A number of carbon sources support bacterial curdlan production upon [...] Read more.
This review examines the production of the biopolymer curdlan, synthesized by Agrobacterium species (sp.), on processing coproducts and plant lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Curdlan is a β-(1→3)-D-glucan that has various food, non-food and biomedical applications. A number of carbon sources support bacterial curdlan production upon depletion of nitrogen in the culture medium. The influence of culture medium pH is critical to the synthesis of curdlan. The biosynthesis of the β-(1→3)-D-glucan is likely controlled by a regulatory protein that controls the genes involved in the bacterial production of curdlan. Curdlan overproducer mutant strains have been isolated from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 and ATCC 31750 by chemical mutagenesis and different selection procedures. Several processing coproducts of crops have been utilized to support the production of curdlan. Of the processing coproducts investigated, cassava starch waste hydrolysate as a carbon source or wheat bran as a nitrogen source supported the highest curdlan production by ATCC 31749 grown at 30 °C. To a lesser extent, plant biomass hydrolysates have been explored as possible substrates for curdlan production by ATCC 31749. Prairie cordgrass hydrolysates have been shown to support curdlan production by ATCC 31749 although a curdlan overproducer mutant strain, derived from ATCC 31749, was shown to support nearly double the level of ATCC 31749 curdlan production under the same growth conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefineries)
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