Special Issue "Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Brian Agnew
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE17RU, UK
Interests: turbomachinery; thermal systems; CHP; finite time thermodynamics; entropy generation; exergy analysis of complex systems; combined cycles
Dr. Ivan CK Tam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of Operations & Associate Professor in Marine Engineering Design & Technology Newcastle University, Newcastle Research & Innovation Institute, 80 Jurong East Street 21, #05-04, Singapore
Tel. +65 6908 6009
Interests: engine combustion process; exhaust emission control; energy management; renewable energy; cryogenic technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exceptional interest in the previous issues of Advances in Applied Thermodynamics has led to the production of a third volume of this Special Issue of Entropy.

This newest issue is focused on recent developments in thermodynamics, especially in the general fields of bio-energy, energy efficiency and sustainability. Of primary interest are papers that study the conditions appropriate to time or rate constrained processes and the conditions for optimal configurations of heat and mass exchange processes in biomass conversion processes. This may include optimization of combined cycles. The thermodynamic characterization of biomass materials is an area of interest as it is delaying the utilization of mixed biomass waste for gasification or combustion. In addition, the second law analysis of energy harvesting, chemical energy storage, utilization of liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy and fuel cells are of interest.

The journal will, however, welcome submissions covering a wide range of disciplines that are based upon the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Prof. Dr. Brian Agnew
Dr. Ivan C. K. Tam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • CHP
  • combined cycles
  • biofuels
  • gasification
  • fuel cells
  • energy harvesting
  • energy storage

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Turbine Passage Design Methodology to Minimize Entropy Production—A Two-Step Optimization Strategy
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060604 - 18 Jun 2019
Abstract
Rapid aerodynamic design and optimization is essential for the development of future turbomachinery. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a methodology from 1D mean-line-design to a full 3D aerodynamic optimization of the turbine stage using a parameterization strategy that requires few [...] Read more.
Rapid aerodynamic design and optimization is essential for the development of future turbomachinery. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a methodology from 1D mean-line-design to a full 3D aerodynamic optimization of the turbine stage using a parameterization strategy that requires few parameters. The methodology is tested by designing a highly loaded and efficient turbine for the Purdue Experimental Turbine Aerothermal Laboratory. This manuscript describes the entire design process including the 2D/3D parameterization strategy in detail. The objective of the design is to maximize the entropy definition of efficiency while simultaneously maximizing the stage loading. Optimal design trends are highlighted for both the stator and rotor for several turbine characteristics in terms of pitch-to-chord ratio as well as the blades metal and stagger angles. Additionally, a correction term is proposed for the Horlock efficiency equation to maximize the accuracy based on the measured blade kinetic losses. Finally, the design and performance of optimal profiles along the Pareto front are summarized, featuring the highest aerodynamic performance and stage loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on a Quaternary Working Pair of CaCl2-LiNO3-KNO3/H2O for an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060546 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
When compared with LiBr/H2O, an absorption refrigeration cycle using CaCl2/H2O as the working pair needs a lower driving heat source temperature, that is, CaCl2/H2O has a better refrigeration characteristic. However, the crystallization temperature [...] Read more.
When compared with LiBr/H2O, an absorption refrigeration cycle using CaCl2/H2O as the working pair needs a lower driving heat source temperature, that is, CaCl2/H2O has a better refrigeration characteristic. However, the crystallization temperature of CaCl2/H2O solution is too high and its absorption ability is not high enough to achieve an evaporation temperature of 5 °C or lower. CaCl2-LiNO3-KNO3(15.5:5:1)/H2O was proposed and its crystallization temperature, saturated vapor pressure, density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, specific entropy, and specific enthalpy were measured to retain the refrigeration characteristic of CaCl2/H2O and solve its problems. Under the same conditions, the generation temperature for an absorption refrigeration cycle with CaCl2-LiNO3-KNO3(15.5:5:1)/H2O was 7.0 °C lower than that with LiBr/H2O. Moreover, the cycle’s COP and exergy efficiency with CaCl2-LiNO3-KNO3(15.5:5:1)/H2O were approximately 0.04 and 0.06 higher than those with LiBr/H2O, respectively. The corrosion rates of carbon steel and copper for the proposed working pair were 14.31 μm∙y−1 and 2.04 μm∙y−1 at 80 °C and pH 9.7, respectively, which were low enough for engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a Fluid–Structure Interaction Model for Analysis of the Thermodynamic Process and Performance of Boil-Off Gas Compressors
Entropy 2019, 21(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21040341 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
Boil-off gas (BOG) compressors are among the most critical devices in transportation and receiving systems for liquid natural gas (LNG) because they are used to pump out excess BOG from LNG storage tanks to ensure safety. Because of the ultralow suction temperature, the [...] Read more.
Boil-off gas (BOG) compressors are among the most critical devices in transportation and receiving systems for liquid natural gas (LNG) because they are used to pump out excess BOG from LNG storage tanks to ensure safety. Because of the ultralow suction temperature, the influence of heat transfer between the cold gas and the compressor parts on the in-cylinder thermodynamic process cannot be ignored. This paper reports the effects of suction temperature on the thermodynamic process and performance of a BOG compressor with consideration of gas pulsation. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with dynamic and sliding meshes was established, in which user-defined functions (UDFs) were used to calculate the real-time valve lift to realize coupling between the thermodynamic process and the gas pulsation, and a performance test rig was constructed to verify the proposed numerical model. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental ones. The results show that as the suction temperature decreased from 30 °C to −150 °C, the first-stage volumetric efficiency decreased to 0.69, and the preheating increased to 45.8 °C. These results should provide academic guidance and an experimental basis for the design and optimization of BOG compressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Pressure Gain Characteristics and Cycle Performance in Gas Turbines Based on Interstage Bleeding Rotating Detonation Combustion
Entropy 2019, 21(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21030265 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To further improve the cycle performance of gas turbines, a gas turbine cycle model based on interstage bleeding rotating detonation combustion was established using methane as fuel. Combined with a series of two-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation combustor (RDC) and calculations [...] Read more.
To further improve the cycle performance of gas turbines, a gas turbine cycle model based on interstage bleeding rotating detonation combustion was established using methane as fuel. Combined with a series of two-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation combustor (RDC) and calculations of cycle parameters, the pressure gain characteristics and cycle performance were investigated at different compressor pressure ratios in the study. The results showed that pressure gain characteristic of interstage bleeding RDC contributed to an obvious performance improvement in the rotating detonation gas turbine cycle compared with the conventional gas turbine cycle. The decrease of compressor pressure ratio had a positive influence on the performance improvement in the rotating detonation gas turbine cycle. With the decrease of compressor pressure ratio, the pressurization ratio of the RDC increased and finally made the power generation and cycle efficiency enhancement rates display uptrends. Under the calculated conditions, the pressurization ratios of RDC were all higher than 1.77, the decreases of turbine inlet total temperature were all more than 19 K, the power generation enhancements were all beyond 400 kW and the cycle efficiency enhancement rates were all greater than 6.72%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Based Syngas
Entropy 2019, 21(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21010085 - 18 Jan 2019
Abstract
External chemical reactors for steam reforming and water gas shift reactions are needed for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system using syngas fuel. For the preheating of syngas and stable steam reforming reaction at 600 °C, residual hydrogen from a fuel [...] Read more.
External chemical reactors for steam reforming and water gas shift reactions are needed for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system using syngas fuel. For the preheating of syngas and stable steam reforming reaction at 600 °C, residual hydrogen from a fuel cell and a certain amount of additional syngas are burned. The combustion temperature is calculated and the molar ratio of the syngas into burner and steam reformer is determined. Based on thermodynamics and electrochemistry, the electric power density and energy conversion efficiency of a PEM fuel cell based syngas are expressed. The effects of the temperature, the hydrogen utilization factor at the anode, and the molar ratio of the syngas into burner and steam reformer on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are discussed. To achieve the maximum power density or efficiency, the key parameters are determined. This manuscript presents the detailed operating process of a PEM fuel cell, the allocation of the syngas for combustion and electric generation, and the feasibility of a PEM fuel cell using syngas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics III)
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